World Journal of Agricultural Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-0643 ISSN (Online): 2333-0678 Website: Editor-in-chief: Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(3), 113-118
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-3-4
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Feeding Longan Dimocarpus longan Residue before Estrus Synchronization on Reproductive Performance in Ewes

Tossapol Moonmanee1, 2, , Saowaluck Yammuen-art1, Mintra Seel-audom1 and Yongyouth Srivichai1, 2

1Department of Animal and Aquatic Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

2Goat and Sheep Unit, Department of Animal and Aquatic Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

Pub. Date: July 03, 2015

Cite this paper:
Tossapol Moonmanee, Saowaluck Yammuen-art, Mintra Seel-audom and Yongyouth Srivichai. Effect of Feeding Longan Dimocarpus longan Residue before Estrus Synchronization on Reproductive Performance in Ewes. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(3):113-118. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-3-4


To evaluate the effect of feeding longan residue (longan fruit; grade C) before estrus synchronization on reproductive performance in sheep, sixteen ewes observed in estrus were selected and randomly assigned to 2 groups: control group (n=8) received the maintenance diet whiles the longan-supplemented group (n=8) received the maintenance diet plus 300 g DM/head/day of longan fruit for 17 days. Blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2), and follicular population were recorded. After the nutritional treatments, all ewes were synchronized for estrus with controlled intravaginal drug release (CIDR) devices and 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin. Ewes exhibiting estrus were subjected to assisted natural mating by rams. Ewes fed longan-supplemented diet had greater feed intake than ewes fed the control diet. Glucose concentrations were higher in longan-supplemented than those in control ewes on days 7, 14, and 17. Insulin concentrations were only higher in longan-supplemented group than those in control group on day 17. The longan-supplemented ewes had higher E2 concentrations than non-supplemented ewes on days 14 and 17. On days 14 and 17, numbers of total follicles had significantly greater in longan-supplemented ewes compared with control ewes. Estrous response and conception rate were not different between control and treatment ewes. It was concluded that the 17 days of dietary supplementation stimulate ovary (total follicles) ready to respond to the synchronization of estrus. However, dietary supplementation with longan fruit in ewes prior to the start of the estrus synchronization did not enhance reproductive performance.

longan fruit estrus synchronization reproductive performance Ewes

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Zhou, Z., Zhou, B. Ren, L. and Meng, Q., “Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics,” PLoS ONE, 9(1). 85406-85412. Jan.2014.
[2]  Sanon, H.O., Kanwe, A.B., Millogo, A. and Ledin, I., “Chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake of mango residues by sheep,” Tropical Animal Health and Production, 45(2). 665-669. Feb.2013.
[3]  Romero-Huelva, M., Ramos-Morales, E. and Molina-Alcaide, E., “Nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial abundances, and milk yield and composition in dairy goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber waste fruits,” Journal of Dairy Science, 95(10). 6015-6026. Agu.2012.
[4]  Sruamsiri, S., The use of residues from longan production as cattle feed, The Thailand Research Fund (TRF), Bangkok, 2012, 1-77.
[5]  Shdaifat, M.M., Al-Barakah, F.S., Kanan, A.Q. and Obeidat, B.S., “The effect of feeding agricultural by-products on performance of lactating Awassi ewes,” Small Ruminant Research, 113(1). 11-14. Jun.2013.
[6]  Hasachoo, N. and Kalaya, P., Competitiveness of local agriculture: the case of longan fruit trade between China and the north of Thailand, The Research Institute on Contemporary Southeast Asia (IRASEC) Publisher, Bangkok, 2013, 1-19.
[7]  Choo, W.K., Longan production in Asia. Meetings and Publications Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, 2000, 1-51.
[8]  Jaisin, C., Pathaveerat, S. and Terdwongworakul, A., “Determining the size and location of longans in bunches by image processing technique,” Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology, 7(3). 444-455. Nov.2013.
[9]  Paull, R.E. and Duarte, O., Litchi and Longan, CAB International, Wallingford, 2011, 221-251.
[10]  Subhadrabandhu, S., Lychee and longan cultivation in Thailand, Rumthai Publication, Bangkok, 1990, 1-40.
[11]  Ohkura, S., Ichimaru, T. Itoh, F., Matsuyama, S. and Okamura, H., “Further evidence for the role of glucose as a metabolic regulator of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator activity in goats,” Endocrinology, 145(7). 3239-3246. Mar.2004.
[12]  Webb, R., Garnsworthy, P.C., Gong, J.-G. and Armstrong, D.G., “Control of follicular growth: Local interactions and nutritional influences,” Journal of Animal Science, 82(1). 63-74. Nov.2004.
[13]  Rondian, D., Freitas, V.J.F., Spinaci, M. and Galeati, G., “Effect of nutrition on plasma progesterone levels, metabolic parameters and small follicles development in unstimulated goats reared under constant photoperiod regimen,” Reproduction in Domestic Animal, 40(6). 548-552. Dec.2005.
[14]  Senory, W., Abdel-Raheem, S.M., Abd-Allah, M. Fahmy, S. Hassan, E.H. and Derar, R.I., “Effect of transient high-energy diets just after ovulation on ovarian performance and metabolic status in cyclic ewes,” Small Ruminant Research, 109(2-3). 152-155. Jan.2013.
[15]  Viñoles, C., Forsberg, M., Martin, G.B., Cajarville, C., Repetto, J. and Meikle, A., “Short-term nutrition supplementation of ewes in low body condition affects follicle development due to an increase in glucose and metabolic hormones,” Reproduction, 129(3). 299-309. Mar.2005.
[16]  Downing, J.A., Joss, J., Connell, P. and Scaramuzzi, R.J., “Ovulation rate and the concentrations of gonadotrophic and metabolic hormones in ewes fed lupin grain,” Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 103(1). 137-145. Jan.1995.
[17]  Somchit, A., Campbell, B.K., Khalid, M., Kendall, N.R. and Scaramuzzi, R.J., “The effect of short-term nutritional supplementation of ewes with lupin grain (Lupinus luteus), during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle on the number of ovarian follicles and the concentrations of hormones and glucose in plasma and follicular fluid,” Theriogenology, 68(7). 1037-1046. Sep.2007.
[18]  Moonmanee, T., Navanukraw, C., Thammasiri, J., Aiumlami, S. and Kamollirt, C., “Evaluation of ovarian follicular health with the markers of endothelial and granulosa cells,” Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences, 11(1). 461-467. Aug.2012a.
[19]  Moonmanee, T, Navanukraw, C., Aiumlamai, S., Jarukamjorn, K., Thammasiri, J. and Redmer, D.A., “Quantitative vascularity of antral follicle in Bos indicus using Factor VIII immunolocalization,” Livestock Science, 150(1-3). 128-134. Dec.2012b.
[20]  Grasser, L.A., Fadel, J.G., Garnett, I. and Depeters, E., “Quantity and economic importance of 9 selected byproducts used in California dairy rations,” Journal of Dairy Science, 78(4). 962-971. Apr.1995.
[21]  Ozyurtlu, N., Kucukaslan, I. and Cetin, Y., “Characterization of oestrous induction response, oestrous duration, fecundity and fertility in Awassi ewes during the non-breeding season utilizing both CIDR and intravaginal sponge treatments,” Reproduction in Domestic Animal, 45(3). 464-467. Jun.2010.
[22]  AOAC., Official Method of Analysis. 16th ed Association of Official Analysis Chemists, Gaithergurg, Maryland, 1998.
[23]  Mahgoub, O., Kadim, I.T., Johnson, E.H., Srikandakumar, A., Al-Saqri, N.M. Al-Abri, A.S. and Ritchie, A., “The use of a concentrate containing Meskit (Prosopis juliflora) pods and date palm by-products to replace commercial concentrate in diets of Omani sheep,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, 120(1). 33-41. Jun.2005.
[24]  Hashem, N.M. and EI-Zarkouny, S.Z., “Effect of short-term supplementation with rumen-protected fat during the late luteal phase on reproduction and metabolism of ewes,” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 98(1). 65-71. Feb.2014.
[25]  Hashem, N.M. and Sallam, S.M.A., “Sexual and ovarian activity of crossbred ewe fed different types of roughage during seasonal anestrus,” Small Ruminant Research, 107(2-3). 136-140. Oct.2012.
[26]  El-Shahat, K.H. and Abo-Elmaaty, A.M., “The effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids and/or l-carnitine on ovarian activity of Rahmani ewes,” Animal Reproduction Science, 117(1–2). 78-82. May.2010.
[27]  Aekplakorn, W., Abbott-Klafter, J., Premgamone, A., Dhanamun, B., Caikittiporn, C., Chongsuvivatwong, V., Suwanprapisa, T., Chaipornsupaisan, W., Tiptaradol, S. and Lim, S.S., “Prevalence and management of diabetes and associated risk factors by regions of Thailand,” Diabetes Care, 30(8). 2007-2012. Apr.2007.
[28]  Brown, J., Walker, S. and Steinman, K., Endocrine manual for reproductive assessment of domestic and non-domestic species, Smithsonian’s National Zoological Park, Conservation and Research Center, Virginia, 2005, 1-69.
[29]  Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. and Dickey, D., Principles and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach, McGraw-Hill Press, New York, 1997, 1-256.
[30]  Navanukraw, C., Reynolds, L.P., Kirsch, J.D., Grazul-Bilska, A.T., Redmer, D.A. and Fricke, P.M., “A modified presynchronization protocol improves fertility to timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows,” Journal of Dairy Science, 87(5). 1551-1557. May.2004.
[31]  Lima, F.S., Risco, C.A., Thatcher, M.J., Benzaquen, M.E., Archbald, L.F., Santos, J.E.P. and Thatcher, W.W., “Comparison of reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows bred by natural service or timed artificial insemination,” Journal of Dairy Science, 92(11). 5456-5466. Nov.2009.
[32]  Ying, S., Wang, Z., Wang, C., Nie, H., He, D., Jia, R., Wu, Y., Wan, Y., Zhou, Z., Yan, Y., Zhang, Y. and Wang, F., “Effect of different levels of short-term feed intake on folliculogenesis and follicular fluid and plasma concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, and hormones in Hu sheep during the luteal phase,” Reproduction, 142(5). 699-710. Nov.2011.
[33]  Viñoles, C., Paganoni, B., Glover, K.M.M., Milton, J.T.B., Blache, D., Blackberry, M.A. and Martin, G.B., “The use of a ‘first-wave’ model to study the effect of nutrition on ovarian follicular dynamics and ovulation rate in the sheep,” Reproduction, 140(6). 865-874. Dec.2010.
[34]  Sutton-McDowall, M.L., Gilchrist, R.B. and Thompson, J.G., “The pivotal role of glucose metabolism in determining oocyte developmental competence,” Reproduction, 139(4). 685-695. Apr.2010.
[35]  Naqvi, S.M.K., Sejian, V. and Karim, S.A., “Effect of feed flushing during summer season on growth, reproductive performance and blood metabolites in Malpura ewes under semiarid topical environment,” Tropical Animal Health and Production, 45(1). 143-148. Jun.2013.
[36]  Scaramuzzi, R.J., Campbell, B.K., Downing, J.A., Kendall, N.R., Khalid, M., Munoz-Gutiérrez, M. and Somchit, A., “A review of the effects of supplementary nutrition in the ewe on the concentrations of reproductive and metabolic hormones and the mechanisms that regulate folliculogenesis and ovulation rate,” Reproduction, Nutrition, and Development, 46(1). 339-354. Dec.2006.
[37]  Dolezel, R., K. Karlberg, E. Ropstad, and K. Landsverk, “Ultrasound observation of ovarian structures in cows during intravaginal progesterone device application and in the following sexual cycle,” Acta Veterinaria Brno, 62(3). 179-185. May.1993.