World Journal of Agricultural Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-0643 ISSN (Online): 2333-0678 Website: Editor-in-chief: Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015, 3(1), 34-42
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-8
Open AccessReview Article

Disease Management Practice on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia

Ephrem Guchi1,

1Samara University, School of Natural and Computational Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, Samara, Ethiopia

Pub. Date: February 26, 2015

Cite this paper:
Ephrem Guchi. Disease Management Practice on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Ethiopia. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015; 3(1):34-42. doi: 10.12691/wjar-3-1-8


Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the fourth major crop of the world after rice, wheat and maize. In Ethiopia, the yield per unit area of potato is very low compared to those of other countries. There are many factors that reduce the yield of the crop among which the diseases like late blight (Phytophthora infestans) and bacterial wilt (Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum) which play an important role. Management of these diseases is therefore very essential. In Ethiopia, however, much research has not been done for the management of bacterial wilt disease except identification of bacteria and screening of biological control agents and use of resistant varieties. Late blight of potato can be managed using the following management (control) strategies: use of biological control agents, use of resistant varieties, intercropping, use of certified disease-free seed, use of selective fungicides and cultural practices such as destruction of cull piles by freezing or deep burying, destruction of volunteer potato plants in nearby fields throughout the season, destruction (desiccate, disc or flail and desiccate) of infected plants to avoid spread, reduction of periods of leaf wetness and high humidity within the crop canopy by appropriately timing irrigation, application of a recommended fungicide spray program (the program should start prior to the arrival of the pathogen) and desiccation of vines prior to harvest.

bacterial wilt disease control Late Blight management potato

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Alacho, F.O., Ngombi, B.F., Persell, P.M., Mohamed, M.Y. & Hakiza, J.J. 2000. The contribution of the community seed potato production and storage scheme to food security in Kabale district: A case of Africare/Uganda. Afr. Potato Asso. Conference Proceedings, 5, 105-108.
[2]  Bagnasco, P., Fuente, D.L., Gualtieri, G., Noya, F. & Arias, A. 1998. Fluorescent pseudomonas spp. as biocontrol agent against forage legume root pathogenic fungi. Soil Biol. Biochem, 30, 1317-1372.
[3]  Bakonyi, J., Heremans, B. & Jamart, G. 2002. Characterization of Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from potato in Flanders, Belgium. J. Phytopathol, 150, 512-516.
[4]  Bekele, K. & Hailu, B. 2001. Efficacy and economics of fungicide spray in the control of late blight of potato in Ethiopia. Afr. Crop Sci. J, 9, 245-250.
[5]  Bekele, K. & Gebremedhin, W. 2000. Effect of planting date on late blight severity and tuber yields of different potato varieties. Pest Mana. J. Ethio, 4, 51-63.
[6]  Bekele, K. & Yaynu, H. 1996. Tuber yield loss assessment of potato cultivars with different levels of resistance to late blight. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Annual conference of Crop Protection Society of Ethiopia. 18-19 May, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia. Eshetu Bekele, Abdurahman Abdulahi and Aynekulu Yemane (Eds.), pp. 149-152. CPSE, Addis Ababa.
[7]  Bekele, K. 1996. Incidence and distribution of major potato diseases in 1993 and 1994 off seasons in central Ethiopia (Abstract). In: The 4th Annual Conference of Crop Protection Society of Ethiopia, May 1996, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[8]  Berga, L., Bekele, k. & Kakhuhenzire, R. 2000. Integrated control of bacterial wilt of potato in eastern Africa: The Experience of African highlands initiatives. Int. Potato Center, CIP.
[9]  Berga, L., Kanzikwera, R., Kakuhenzire, R., Hakiza, J.J. & Manzi, G. 2001a. The effect of crop rotation on bacterial wilt incidence and potato tuber yield. Afr. Crop Sci. J, 9, 257-266.
[10]  Berga, L., Siriri, D. & Ebanyat, P. 2001b. Effect of soil amendments on bacterial wilt incidence and yield of potatoes in southwestern Uganda. Afr. Crop Sci. J, 9, 267-278.
[11]  Bias, H.P. 2004. How plant communicate using the underground information super highway. Trends in Plant sci, 92, 26-32.
[12]  Campbell, C.L. & Madden, L.V. 1990. Monitoring epidemics: Environment. In: Introduction to Plant Disease Epidemiology. London: Wiley. pp. 43-73.
[13]  Choueiri, E., El-Zammar, S., Jreijiri, F., Mnayer, D., Massaad, R., Saad, A.T., Hanna, L. & Varveri, C. 2004. Phytosanitary status of potato in the Bekaa valley in Lebanon. EPPO/OEPP Bulletin, 34, 117-121.
[14]  CIP (International potato center).1984. Potatoes for the developing Countries, Lima, Peru. 150 p.
[15]  CIP (International Potato Centre). 1989. Fungal diseases of the potato. Report of the planning conference on fungal diseases of the potato. CIP, Lima, September 21-25, 1987. 216 pp.
[16]  Cizcova, H., Vacek, M.R., Voldrich, S. & Kratka, J. 2002. Caraway essential oil potential inhibitor of potato sprouting. Rostillinna Vytoba, 46, 501-507.
[17]  Crowell, E.F., McGrath, J.M. & Douches, D.S. 2008. Accumulation of vitamin E in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. Trans. Res, 17, 205-217.
[18]  CSA (Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia). 2009. Agricultural sample survey: Report on area and production of crops, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, p 126.
[19]  Elphinstone, J.G. 2001. Monitoring of the potato brown rot bacterium (Ralstonia solanacearum) in the UK: a case study. The 2nd European Potato Processing Conference, Lausanne, Switzerland.
[20]  Elphinstone, J.G. 2005. The current bacterial wilt situation: a global overview. In Allen C., Piror P. and Hayward A. C. (Eds). Bacterial wilt disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum complex. APS press, Minnesota USA, pp 9-28.
[21]  Elsas, D.V., Kastelein, J.P., van Bekkum, P., van der Wolf, J.M., de Vries, P.M. & van Overbeek, L.S. 2000. Survival of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, the causative agent of potato brown rot, in field and microcosm soils in temperate climates. Phytopathol, 90, 1358-1366.
[22]  Erselius, L.J., Vega-Sanchez, M.E. & Rodriques, A.M. 1999. Host specificity of Phytphthora infestans on tomato and potato in Uganda and Kenya. In: International Potato Centre (CIP) Program Report, 1997-1998. pp. 49-55.
[23]  Erwin, D.C. & Ribeiro, O.K. 1996. Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary (1876). pp. 346-353. In Phytophthora Disease World Wide. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul. Minnesota.
[24]  Ethiopia Late Blight Profile. 2004. (Update January 2004).
[25]  Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO). 2002. EARO Annual Report 2000: EARO, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia.
[26]  [FAO. 2008. Potato World: Africa-International Year of the Potato 2008. (Date of accession: 1/1/2009).
[27]  Fernandez-Northcote, E.N., Navia, O. & Gandarillas, A. 2000. Basis of strategies for chemical control of potato late blight developed by PROINPA in Bolivia. Fitopatologia, 35, 137-149.
[28]  Fry, W.E. & Goodwin, S.B. 1997. Reemergence of potato and tomato late blight in the United States. Plant Dis, 81, 1349-1357.
[29]  Garrett, K. A. & Mundit, C.C. 2000. Host diversity can reduce potato late blight severity for local and general patterns of primary inoculum. Phytopathol, 90, 307-1312.
[30]  Garrett, K.A., Nelson, C.C. & Mundt, G. 2001. The effect of host diversity and other management components on epidemic of 924 Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 40 (4) potato late blight in the humid high land tropics. Phytopathol, 91, 993-1000.
[31]  GebreMedhin, W. 2001. Country Profile of Potato Production and Utilization: Ethiopia. Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, Holeta Agricultural Research Center, National Potato Program.
[32]  Gebremedhin, W., Endale, G. & Lemaga, B. 2008. Potato variety development. In Root and tuber crops: The untapped resources, ed. W. Gebremedhin, G. Endale, and B. Lemaga, 15-32. Addis Abeba: Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research.
[33]  Hay, R.K.M. 2001. Scientific Review 1997-2000. Scottish Agricultural Science Agency, Edinburgh, Scotland.
[34]  Hayward, A.C. 1994. Pseudomonas solanacearum pathogens and host specificity in plant disease: Histopathological, biochemical, genetic and molecular bases. In: Prokaryotes (Eds.: Singh, U.S., Singh, R.P., Kohmoto, K.). Tarrytown, N.Y., Elseveier Science, Inc., 1995, 139-151.
[35]  Henok, K., Fasil, A., Yaynu, H. 2007. Evaluation of Ethiopian isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens as biocontrol agent against potato bacterial wilt by Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum. MSc Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
[36]  Horton, D. 1987. Potatoes: Production, Marketing and Programs for Developing Countries. West view Press. Boulder.
[37]  James, C.W. 1981. Estimated losses of crops from plant pathogens. In: Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture. Pimentel, D. and Henfling, J.W. (Eds.), pp. 80-94.
[38]  Kassa, B. & Hiskias, Y. 1996. Tuber yield loss assessments of potato cultivars with different levels of resistance to late blight, pp.149-152. In E. Bekele, A. Abdulahi and A. Yemane (eds.).Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference, Crop Protection Society of Ethiopia. 18-19 May, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, CPSE, Addis Ababa.
[39]  Kinyua, Z.M. & Smith, J.J. 2001. On-farm successes and challenges of producing bacterial wilt-free tubers in seed plots in Kenya. Afr. Crop Sci. J, 9, 279-285.
[40]  Latijnhouwers, M., Ligterink, W. & Vleeshouwers, V.G. 2004. A Gα subunit controls zoospore mobility and virulence in the potato late blight pathogen. Phytophthora infestans. Mol. Microbiol, 51, 925-936.
[41]  Lemessa, F. 2006. Biochemical, Pathological and Genetic Characterization of Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) from Ethiopia and Biocontrol of R. solanacerum with Bacterial antagonists. PhD Dissertation. Name of institution, pages…
[42]  Lunga'ho, C. 1998. Current status of integrated management of late blight in Kenya. In: Proceedings of Regional training Workshop on Integrated Management of Potato late blight and bacterial wilt. November 23-27, 1998. Kabale, Uganda.
[43]  Mukalazi, J., Adipala, E. & Sengooba, T. 2000. Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in Uganda. Crop Protection (in press). Natrass, R.M.and Ryan, M. 1951 New hosts of Phytophthora infestans in Kenya. Nature, 168, 85-86.
[44]  Okigbo, B.N. 1979. Evaluation of plant interactions and productivity in complex mixtures as a basis for improved cropping systems design. In Proceedings of the International Intercropping Workshop. Hyderabad. India. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT).
[45]  Pankhrust, R. 1964. Notes for a history Ethiopian agriculture. Ethio. Observer, 7, 210-240.
[46]  Poussier, S., Thoquet, P. & Trigalet-Demery, D. 2003. Host plant-dependent phenotypic reversion of Ralstonia solanacearum from non-pathogenic to pathogenic forms via alterations in the phcA gene. Mol. Microbiol, 49 (4), 991-1003.
[47]  PRAPACE. 1996. Evaluation of potato germplasm for field resistance to late blight in Eastern and Central Africa. Recommendations and Summaries from Regional Workshop Presentations at Mukono, Uganda, September 1-2, 1995. PRAPACE and CIP, 21 pp.
[48]  Prior, P., Grimault, P.V. & Schmit, J. 1994. Resistance to bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum) in tomato: the present status and prospects. In: Bacterial wilt. The disease and its causative agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum (Eds.: Hayward, A.C., Hartman, G.L.). CABI, 1994, 209-222. Proceedings No. 45, Canberra, Australia, 1993, 338-340.
[49]  Ragunathan, V. & Divakar, B.J. 1996. Integrated pest management strategies. In: Molecular biology of the biological control of pests and disease of plants, ed. by M. Gunasekaran and D. J. Weber, pp. 191-194. CRC Press, Florida.
[50]  Scott, G., Rosegrant, M. & Tingler, C. 2000. Roots and tubers for the 21st century Washington DC, International Food Policy Research Institute and International Potato Center.
[51]  Sengooba, T. & Hakiza, J.J. 1999. The current status of late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans in Africa, with emphasis on eastern and southern Africa. Pages 25-28. In: Proceedings of Global Initiative on Late Blight Conference. March 16-19, 1999, Quito, Equador.
[52]  Sinha, S.K. 1986. Bacterial wilt in India. In: Bacterial wilt disease in Asia and the south pacific (Ed.: Persely, G.J.). Canberra, Australia, ACIAR proceeding No. 13.
[53]  Skelsey, P., Rossing, G.J. & Kessel, J. 2005. Influence of host diversity on the development of epidemics. An evaluation and elaboration of mixture theory. Phytopathol, 95 (4), 328.
[54]  Sorensen, J. 1997. The rhizosphere as a habitat for soil microorganisms. In: Modern microbiology (Eds.: Elsas, J.D.V., Trevors, J.T., Wellington, E.M.H.). New York, 1997, 21-45.
[55]  Stansbury, C., McKirdy, S. & Mackie, A. 2001. Bacterial wilt: Ralstonia solanacearum-race 3 exotic threat to Western Australia. Hortguard Initiative AGWEST, The Government of Western Australia, Fact sheet No. 7.
[56]  Stewart, D. 1967. Index of plant diseases in Ethiopia. experiment station Bulletin 30. Debrezeit, Ethiopia. pp. 79-81.
[57]  Stewart, R.B. 1956. Some plant disease occurring in Keffa Province, Ethiopia. Ethiopia, College of Agriculture, Alemaya.
[58]  Tarekegne, A. & Bekele, K. 1997. Natural resources management at Galessa Kota Gisher and Garie Arera peasant associations, Dendi Wereda, Western Shewa, Ethiopia. Crop Subsystem. In: K. Mekonnen, H. Beyene and A. Tadesse (eds.). Participatory Research Appraisal (PRA) Report. Holetta, Ethiopia.
[59]  Tusiime, G., Patel, B.K., Lemaga, B. & Olanya, M. 2001. Bacterial wilt management: A dilema for sub Saharan Africa. Afr. Crop Sci. Conference Proceedings, 5, 433-438.
[60]  Walker, T. & Collion, M.H. 1998. Priority setting at CIP for the 1998-2000 Medium Term Plan International Potato Center, Lima, Peru. CIP Press.
[61]  Wilson, C.R., Pemberton, B.M. & Ransom, L.M. 2001. The effect of irrigation strategies during tuber initiation on marketable yield and development of common scab disease of potato in Russet Burbank in Tasmania. Potato Res, 44, 3-243.
[62]  Yaynu, H. 1989. Characteristics of isolates of Pseudomonas solanacearum in Ethiopia. Ethio. J. Agri. Sci, 11, 7-13.
[63]  Yaynu, H. & Korobko, A.P. 1986. Incidence of bacterial wilt in some potato growing areas of Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Ethiopian Phytopathological Committee (EPC), 13-14 March 1990, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[64]  Yilma, S. 1991. The potential of true potato seed in potato production in Ethiopia. Actae Horti, 270, 389-394.
[65]  Zadoks, J.C. & Schein, R.D. 1979. Epidemiology and plant disease management. Oxford Universitiy Press, New York. 427 pp.