World Journal of Agricultural Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-0643 ISSN (Online): 2333-0678 Website: Editor-in-chief: Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(3), 101-108
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Effect of Delayed Cassava Planting on Yields and Economic Returns of a Cassava-Groundnut Intercrop in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Thandar Nyi1, 2, , Monicah Mucheru-Muna2, Christ Shisanya3, Jean-Paul Lodi Lama4, Patrick K. Mutuo5, Pieter Pypers6 and Bernard Vanlauwe1

1International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nairobi, Kenya

2Department of Environmental Sciences, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

3Department of Geography, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya

4International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kinshasa, DR. Congo

5International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Arusha, Tanzania

6International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Nairobi, Kenya

Pub. Date: May 06, 2014

Cite this paper:
Thandar Nyi, Monicah Mucheru-Muna, Christ Shisanya, Jean-Paul Lodi Lama, Patrick K. Mutuo, Pieter Pypers and Bernard Vanlauwe. Effect of Delayed Cassava Planting on Yields and Economic Returns of a Cassava-Groundnut Intercrop in the Democratic Republic of Congo. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(3):101-108. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-3-3


Cassava intercropping is a common practice in sub-Saharan Africa. In terms of growth pattern, canopy development and nutrient demand, grain legumes are well suited for intercropping with cassava. Due to the inter-specific competition for growth resources, the relative planting time of the component crops has been considered as one of the important management practices for intercropping system productivity. Little information exists on the effect of cassava planting time on yields and economic returns of a cassava-legume intercrop. This study investigated the effect of relative planting times of cassava on yields and economic returns of a cassava-groundnut intercrop. Researcher-managed, field trials were installed in Bas-Congo Province in two consecutive seasons using four different planting times of cassava after the groundnuts. The results indicated that cassava planting time did not affect both grain and biomass yields of groundnut. When cassava was planted 3 weeks after the groundnuts, cassava storage root yields were significantly (P = 0.029) decreased by 48 to 60 % (9.3 to 11.3 t ha-1) over cassava planted at the same time as groundnut. The net revenue of cassava planted 3 weeks after the groundnut was significantly (P = 0.002) decreased by about 70 % over that of cassava planted at the same time or 2 weeks after the groundnuts. Maximum net revenue of $ 1877 ha-1 with a benefit-cost ratio of 2.42 was reported in the treatment of cassava planted at the same time. Benefit-cost ratio was favourable for the pure cassava (3.2 to 3.8) but not favourable for the pure groundnut. Cassava intercropping with groundnut had significantly (P = 0.019) lower profits than the pure cassava. The results suggest that cassava should be planted at the same time or not later than 2 weeks after the groundnuts to maximize yields and economic returns in a cassava-groundnut intercrop.

BCR grain yield intercropping MRR relative planting time storage root yield

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Kang, B.T, Introduction to alley farming, in Tripathi, B.R., and Psychas, P.J, The AFNETA alley farming training manual: Source book for alley farming research. Vol. 2, IITA, 1992.
[2]  Ofori, F., and Stern, W.R, “Cereal-legume intercropping systems,” 1987 in Rydberg, N.T. and Milberg, P., Adv. Agron., 41: 41-90. 2000.
[3]  Ghosh, P.K., Manna, M.C., Bandyopadhyay, K.K., Ajay, Tripathi, A.K., Wanjari, R.H., Hati, K.M., Misra, A.K., Acharya, C.L., and Subba Rao, A., “Interspecific interaction and nutrient use in soybean/sorghum intercropping system,” Agron. J., 98. 1097-1108. July 2006.
[4]  Sobkowicz, P, “Competition between triticale (Tritico scalewitt) and field beans (vicia faba var minorl) in additive intercrops,” Plant Soil Environ., 52. 42-54. Feb. 2006.
[5]  Shen, Q.R., and Chu, G.X, “Bi-directional N transfer in the intercropping system of peanut with rice cultivated in aerobic soil,” Biol. Fertil. Soils, 40, 81-87. Jul. 2004.
[6]  Dahmardeh, M., Ghanbari, A., Syahsar, B.A., and Ramrodi, M, “The role of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) on yield and soil chemical properties,” Afr. J. Agric. Res., 5. 631-636. April 2010.
[7]  Dapaah, H.K., Asafu-Agyei, J.N., Ennin, S.A., and Yamoah, C.Y, “Yield stability of cassava, maize, soybean and cowpea intercrops,” J. Agric. Sci., 140, 73-82. Feb. 2003.
[8]  Mutsaers, H.J.W., Ezumah, H.C., and Osiru, D.S.O, “Cassava-based intercropping: a review,” Field Crops Res., 34(3). 431-457. Sept. 1993.
[9]  Zinsou, V., Wydra, K., Ahohuendo, B., and Hau, B, “Genotype–environment interactions in symptom development and yield of cassava genotypes in reaction to cassava bacterial blight,” European J. Plant Patholog., 111(3). 217-233. March 2005.
[10]  Hernández, A., Ramos, R., and Sánchez, J, “Spacing and timing of intercropping cassava and beans: land equivalency ratio,” Agronomica Mesoamericana, 10(11). 63-66. 1999.
[11]  Hernández, A., Ramos, R., Sánchez, J, and Rodríguez, O., “Evaluation of weed control in a cassava–bean intercropping system,” Agronomica Mesoamericana, 10. 67-71. 1999.
[12]  Amanullah, M.M., Somasundaram, E., Vaiyapuri, K., and Sathyamoorthi, K, “Intercropping in cassava-a review,” Agric. Rev., 28. 179-187. 2007.
[13]  Francis, C.A, “Biological efficiency in multiple cropping systems,” in Brady, N.C. Adv. Agron. 41, 1-42. 1989.
[14]  Li, L., Tang, C., Rengel, Z., and Zhang, F.S, “Chickpea facilitates phosphorus uptake by intercropped wheat from an organic phosphorus source,” J. Plant Soil, 248. 297-303. Jan. 2003.
[15]  Zhang, F., and Li, L, “Using competitive and facilitative interactions in intercropping systems enhances crop productivity and nutrient-use efficiency,” Plant Soil, 248, 305-312. Jan. 2006.
[16]  Li, L., Sun, J., Zhang, F., Guo, T., Bao, X., Smith, F.A., and Smith, S.E, “Root distribution and interactions between intercropped species,” Oecologia, 147(2). 280-290. March 2006.
[17]  Mkamilo, G.S., and Jeremiah, S, “Current status of cassava improvement programme in Tanzania,” in Afri. Crop Sci. Conference Proceedings, 7. 1311-1314. 2005.
[18]  Polthanee, A., Wanapat, S., Wanapat, M., and Wachirapokorn, C, Cassava-Legumes intercropping: A potential food-feed system for dairy farmers, in International Workshop on Current Research and Development on Use of Cassava as Animal Feed, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, July 2001, 23-24.
[19]  Fustec, J., Lesuffleur, F., Mahieu, S., and Cliquet, J.B, “Nitrogen rhizodeposition of legumes. A review,” Agron. Sustain. Develop., 30. 57-66. Jan. 2010.
[20]  Adu-Gyamfi, J.J., Myaka, F.A., Sakala, W.D., Odgaard, R., Vesterager, J.M., and Høgh-Jensen, H, “Biological nitrogen fixation and nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in farmer-managed intercrops of maize-pigeonpea in semi-arid southern and eastern Africa,” Plant and soil, 295. 127-136. Feb. 2007.
[21]  Rahman, M.M., Amano, T., and Shiraiwa, T, “Nitrogen use efficiency and recovery from N fertilizer under rice-based cropping systems,” Australian J. Crop Sci., 3. 336-351. Jul. 2009.
[22]  Giller, K.E, Nitrogen fixation in tropical cropping systems, CABI, 2001.
[23]  Howeler, R. H, Cassava mineral nutrition and fertilization, in Hillocks, R.J., Thresh, J.M., and Bellotti, A, Cassava: Biology, production and utilization, CABI, 2002, 115-147.
[24]  Carsky, R.J., and Toukourou, M.A, “Identification of nutrients limiting cassava yield maintenance on a sedimentary soil in southern Benin, West Africa,” Nutreint Cycling in Agroecosys., 71. 151-162. Jul. 2005.
[25]  Mba, A., and Ezumah, H.C, Cassava/cowpea intercropping. International institute of agriculture (IITA) report for 1984, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1985, 175-176.
[26]  Tsay, J.S., Fukai, S., and Wilson, G.L, “Intercropping with soybean cultivars of varying maturities,” Field Crops Res., 19. 211-225. Jul. 1988.
[27]  Sikirou, R., and Wydra, K, “Persistence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Vignicola in weeds and crop debris and identification of Sphenostylis stenocarpa as a potential new host,” Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 110. 939-947. April 2004.
[28]  Njoku, D.N., and Muoneke, C.O, “Effect of cowpea planting density on growth, yield and productivity of component crops in cowpea/cassava intercropping system,” J. Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension, 7(2). 106-113. May 2008. Mason, S.C., Leihner, D.E., and Vorst, J.J, “Cassava-cowpea and cassava-peanut intercropping. I. Yield and land use efficiency,” Agron. J. 78. 43-46. 1986.
[29]  Mason, S.C., Leihner, D.E., and Vorst, J.J, “Cassava-cowpea and cassava-peanut intercropping. I. Yield and land use efficiency,” Agron. J. 78. 43-46. 1986.
[30]  Polthanee, A., and Kotchasatit, A, “Growth, yield and nutrient content of cassava and mungbean grown under intercropping,” Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2(3). 871-876. 1999.
[31]  Nayar, T.V.R., Kabeerathumma, S., Potty, V.P., and Mohankumar, C.R, Recent progress in cassava agronomy research, in Cassava breeding, Agronomy and farmer participatory research in Asia, in Proceedings of the Fourth Regional Workshop, held in Trivandrum, Kerala, India, 1993, Nov. 2-6.
[32]  Osiru, D.S.O., and Hahn, S.K, Evaluation of cassava genotypes for intercropping systems, Root, Tuber and Plantain Improvement Program, Annual Report for 1987, IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1998, 15-18.
[33]  Prabhakar, M., and Nair, G.M, “Effect of agronomic practices on growth and productivity of cassava-groundnut intercropping system,” J. Root Crops, 189(1). 26-31. 1992, in Howeler, R.H, Cassava breeding, agronomy research and technology transfer in Asia, in Proceedings of the Fourth Regional Workshop, Trivandrum, Kerala, India, 1993, Nov. 2-6.
[34]  Reddy, M.S., Floyd, C.N., and Willey, R.W, Groundnut in intercropping systems, in Proceedings of the International Intercropping Workshop, India, 1979, Jan. 10-13, 133-142.
[35]  Tongglum, A., Pornpromprathan, V., Nual-on, T., and Howeler, R.H, Recent progress in cassava agronomy research in Thailand, in Howeler, R.H, Cassava breeding, agronomy and farmer participatory research in Asia, Proceedings of the fifth Regional Workshop,, held in Danzhou, Hainan, China, 1996, Nov. 3-8.
[36]  Dung, N., Ledin, I., and Mui, N.T, “Intercropping cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla): effect on biomass yield and soil fertility,” Livestock Res. Rural Develop., 17(1). 1-13. 2005.
[37]  Pypers, P., Sanginga, J.M, Kasereka, B., Walangululu, M., and Vanlauwe, B, “Increased. productivity through integrated soil fertility management in cassava-legume intercropping systems in the highlands of Sud-Kivu, DR Congo,” Field Crops Res., 120, 76-85. Sept. 2011.
[38]  Francis, C.A., Prager, M., and Tejada, G, “Effect of relative planting dates in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping patterns,” Field Crops Res., 5. 45-54. 1982.
[39]  Agyekum, E, The effect of plant density and relative time of planting on colocasia/rice intercropping system, Master thesis, The Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Kumasi, Ghana, 2004.
[40]  Addo-Quaye, A.A., Darkwa, A.A., and Ocloo, G.K, “Growth analysis of component crops in a maize-soybean intercropping system as affected by time of planting and spatial arrangement,” ARPN J. Agric. Bio. Sci., 6(6). 34-44. Jun. 2011.
[41]  Addo-Quaye, A.A., Darkwa, A.A., and Ocloo, G.K, “Yield and productivity of component crops in a maize-soybean intercropping system as affected by time of planting and spatial arrangement,” ARPN J. Agric. Bio. Sci., 6(9). 50-57. Sept. 2011.
[42]  Caballero, R., Goicoechea, E.L., and Hernaiz, P.J, “Forage yields and quality of common vetch and oat sown at varying seeding ratios and seeding rates of common vetch,” Field Crops Res., 41. 135-140. May 1995.
[43]  Assefa, G., and Ledin, I, “Effect of variety, soil type and fertilizer on the establishment, growth, forage yield, quality and voluntary intake by cattle of oats and vetches cultivated in pure stands and mixtures,” Animal Feed Sci. and Tech., 92. 95-111. Jul. 2001.
[44]  FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC 2009. Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.1). Italy, FAO, Rome and IIASA, Laxenburg, 2009.
[45]  Pypers, P., Bimponda, W., Lodi-Lama, J.P., Lele, B., Mulumba, R., Kachaka, C., Boecky, P., Merckx, R., and Vanlauwe, B, “Combining mineral fertilizer and green manure for increased, profitable cassava production,” Agron. J., 104: 178-187. 2012.
[46]  CIMMYT, From agronomic data to farmer recommendations: An economics training manual, Completely revised edition. Mexico, D.F, 1988, 79.
[47]  Ikeorgu, J.E.G, Intercropping cassava and three groundnut species in the derived savanna zone of Nigeria, in Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin no. 35, 1988.
[48]  Muleba, N.E., Dabire, C., Suh, J.B., and Drabo, I, Technologies from cowpea production based on genetic and environmental manipulations in the semi-arid tropics, Publication of the Semi-Arid Food Grain Research and Development Agency (SAFGRAD) of the Scientific, Technical and Research Commission of OUA, Burkina Faso, 1997, 56.
[49]  Lebot, V, Tropical root and tuber crops: cassava, sweet potato, yams, aroids, CABI, 2009.
[50]  Howeler, R.H, Cassava agronomy research in Asia - an overview 1993-1996, in Cassava breeding, Agronomy and farmer participatory research in Asia. Proceedings of the Fifth Regional Workshop, Danzhou, Hainan, China. 3-8 Nov. 1996. CIAT, Cali, Columbia, 1998, 335.
[51]  Putthacharoen, S., Howeler, R.H., Jantawat, S., and Vichukit, V, “Nutrient uptake and soil erosion losses in cassava and six other crops in a Psamment in eastern Thailand,” Field Crops Res., 57. 113-12. May 1998.
[52]  Trenbath, B.R, “Biomass productivity of mixtures,” in Brady, N.C, Adv. Agron. 26, 177-210. 1974.
[53]  Ikeorgu, J.E.G., Ezumah, H.C., and Wahua, T.A.T, “Productivity of species in cassava/maize/okra/egusi melon complex mixtures in Nigeria,” Field Crops Res., 21(1). 1-7. Jun. 1989.
[54]  Freman, H.A., Nigam, S.N., Kelley, T.G., Ntare, B.R., Subrahmanyam, P., and Boughton, D, The world groundnut economy: facts, trends and outlook, Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, 1999, 52.
[55]  CIALCA, Consortium for Improved Agriculture-based Livelihoods in Central Africa, Final Report Phase I - CIALCA. January 2006-December 2008. Aug. 2009. Available:
[56]  Hillocks, R. J., Thresh, J. M., and Bellotti, A. (Eds.). Cassava: biology, production and utilization., CABI, 2002.
[57]  Leihner, D, Agronomy and cropping system, in Hillocks, R.J., Thresh, J.M., and Bellotti, A, Cassava: Biology, production and utilization, CABI, Oxon, 2002, 91-113.
[58]  Borin, K., and Frankow-Lindberg, B.E, “Effects of legumes-cassava intercropping on cassava forage and biomass production,” J. Sustain. Agri., 27(2). 139-151. 2005.
[59]  Langat, M.C., Okiror, M.A., Ouma, J.P., and Gesimba, R.M, “The effect of intercropping groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) on yield and cash income,” Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica, 39(2). 87-91. 2006.
[60]  Egbe, M.O., and Idoko, J.A, “Evaluation of pigeonpea Genotypes for intercropping with maize and sorghum in Southern Guinea Savanna: Economic Benefits,” Int. J. Agri. Forest., 2(1). 108-114. 2012.