World Journal of Agricultural Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-0643 ISSN (Online): 2333-0678 Website: Editor-in-chief: Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014, 2(2), 63-69
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-2-2-6
Open AccessArticle

Efficacy of Traditional and Improved Granaries in Protecting Maize from Prostephanus truncatus in Small Holder Farming Storage System in Makonde District, Zimbabwe

Mhiko Tinotenda Admire1, and Shokora Tinashe2

1Genetics, Crop Production and Crop Protection, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

2Food Science and Post Harvest Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe

Pub. Date: March 24, 2014

Cite this paper:
Mhiko Tinotenda Admire and Shokora Tinashe. Efficacy of Traditional and Improved Granaries in Protecting Maize from Prostephanus truncatus in Small Holder Farming Storage System in Makonde District, Zimbabwe. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014; 2(2):63-69. doi: 10.12691/wjar-2-2-6


The study was carried out in Makonde District, located 17°21' S and 30°12' E in Mashonaland West Province to assess the efficiency of improved and traditional granaries in protecting traditional and hybrid maize from Prostephanus truncatus. Ten farmers were randomly selected from 20 wards in the District. Multistage cluster sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used. Amongst the 10 selected farmers, 5 were using traditional granaries and the other 5 were using improved granaries. Four farmers used in the study stored a traditional maize variety (Hickory King) and six farmers stored a hybrid variety (SC 513). Demographic data on the farmers was captured on a questionnaire which was conducted at the beginning of the study. The questionnaire had information on type of storage granary, age of farmers, type of stored maize variety, amount of maize stored, major prevalent pests and grain management practices. Hybrid and traditional maize varieties stored in selected improved and traditional granaries. The maize varieties were first fumigated for a week using phosphine tablets and granaries were first disinfected using Deltamethrin (2.4% w.p) at 1.5g/l water at 20ml/m2. Fumigated traditional and hybrid maize were then stored in disinfected granaries. Maize grains were stored for 6 months. Traditional, intermediate traditional, intermediate improved, improved granaries had 36%, 16%, 30% and 18% utilization amongst farmers respectively. Age of farmers showed a significant influence on the type of granary used to store their grain. Sitophilus zeamais, Prostephanus truncatus, Sitotroga cereallela were most prevalent insect species. The relative abundance of these pests in the granaries was 100%, 70% and 85% respectively. Hybrid maize (SC 513) was re-infested with Prostephanus truncatus after 3 months during storage in traditional granaries. The relative abundance of pests in a granary was influenced by the farmer duration of storage and the treatment. It was concluded that traditional granaries used by farmers were found to be prone to Prostephanus truncatus infestation as compared to improved granaries. There was a significant difference in the variations between granary type, maize variety and levels of Prostephanus truncatus infestation.

Sitophilus zeamais Prostephanus truncatus Sitotroga cereallela Makonde DistrictGranary

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Ayertey, J.N., Meikle, W.G., Borgemeister, C., Camara, M. and Markham, R.H, Studies on predation of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col., Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots.) (Col., Curculionidae) at different densities on maize by Teretriosoma Entomology, 123, 265-271, 1999.
[2]  Boxal, R.A, A critical review of the methodology for assessing farm-level grain losses after harvest: Tropical Development and Research Institute Report, 191, 1986.
[3]  Chakraverty, A, Post Harvest Technology of Cereals, Pulses and Oilseeds, 3rd edition. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 2004.
[4]  FAO, FAO/ World Bank workshop on reducing post-harvest losses in grain supply chains in Africa: Lessons learned and practical guidelines, 2010.
[5]  Giorlando, M, Sampling in a suitcase: Multistage Cluster Sampling Made easy: Teaching Sociology, 20(4), 285- 287, 1992.
[6]  Golob, P, On-farm post-harvest management of food grains: A manual for extension workers with special reference to Africa. FAO: Agricultural and Food Engineering Training and Resource Material, 1991.
[7]  Hodges, R.J, The Biology and Control of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)-A destructive Storage pest with an increasing range: Journal of Stored Products Research 22(1), 1-14, 1986.
[8]  Kamanula, J., Sileshi, G.W., Belmain, S.R., Sola, P., Mvumi, B.M., Nyirenda, G.K.C., Nyirenda, S.P. and Stevenson, P.C, Farmers’ insect pest management practices and pesticidal plant use in the protection of stored maize and beans in Southern Africa: International Journal of Pest Management, 57(1),41-49.
[9]  Kapuya, T., Saruchera, D., Jongwe, A., Mucheri, T., Mujeyi, K., Tramb, N.T. and Meyer, F, The Grain Industry Value Chain in Zimbabwe. Prepared for the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, 2011.
[10]  McFarlane, J.A, Pest Management Strategies for Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) as a pest of stored maize grain: Present Status and Prospects: Tropical Pest Management, 34(2), 121-132, 2008.
[11]  Mhiko, T.A., An Investigation to Determine Effects and Causes of Storage Conditions on the Quality of Silo-Stored Wheat in Zimbabwe: Springer Link Journal, Natural Products and Bioprospecting, 2, 21-28, 2012.
[12]  Mutangadura, G. and Norton, G.W, Agricultural research priority setting under multiple objectives: an example from Zimbabwe: Agricultural Economics, 20, 277-286, 1999.
[13]  Nyambo, B.T, Post-harvest maize and sorghum grain losses in traditional and improved stores in South Nyanza District, Kenya: International Journal of Pest Management, 39(2), 181-187, 2008.
[14]  Plant Protection Research Institute, 2011. Handbook of Current Analysis and Data. Vol 1.
[15]  Richter, J., Biliwa, A., Helbig, J. and Helbig, S.H, First Release of Teretriosoma nigrescens Lewis (Col. Histeridae), the predator of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col. Bostrichidae) and follow-up investigations in southern Togo: Journal of applied Entomology, 122, 383-387,1998.
[16]  Richter, J., Biliwa, A. and –Helbig, H.S, Losses and pest infestation in different maize storage systems with particular emphasis on Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Col., Bostrichidae) in Togo: Umweltschutz, 70, 112-116, 1997.
[17]  Stathers, T.E., Riwa, W., Mvumi, B., Mosha, R., Kitandu, L., Mngara, K., Kaoneka, B. and Morris, M, Do diatomecious earths have potential as grain protectants for small-holder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa? The case of Tanzania: Crop Protection, 27(1), 44-70, 2008.
[18]  Tadele, T., Kampiu, F., Groote, H., Hellin, J., Mugo, S., Kimenju, S., Beyene, Y., Bodhupalli, P.M., Shiferaw, B. and Banziger, M, The metal silo: An effective grain storage technology for reducing post-harvest insect and pathogen losses in maize while improving smallholder farmers’ food security in developing countries: Crop Protection, 30, ( 2) 240-245, 2011.
[19]  Tongco, M.D.C, Puposive Sampling as a Tool, for Information Selection: Ethnobotany Research and Applications, Vol. 5, 147-158, 2007.
[20]  Wambugu, R.W., Mathenge, P.W., Auma, E.O. and Rheenen, H.A, Efficacy of Traditional Maize (zea mays L.) Seed Storage Methods in Western Kenya: African Journal of Food, agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 9(4). 1110-1128, 2009.
[21]  Zinyengere, N., Mhizha, T., Mashonjowa, E., Chipundu, B., Geerts. and Raes, D, Using seasonal climate forecasts to improve maize production decision support in Zimbabwe: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 151(12), 2011, 1792-1799, 2009.