World Journal of Agricultural Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-0643 ISSN (Online): 2333-0678 Website: Editor-in-chief: Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020, 8(2), 39-44
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-8-2-3
Open AccessArticle

Selection of Superior Quality Annona Species by Means of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity

Dilrukshi M.K.D.T1, Dharmadasa R.M.2, , Abeysinghe D.C1 and A.V.C. Abhayagunasekara3

1Department of Plantation Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila (NWP), 60170, Sri Lanka

2Industrial Technology Institute, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 07, 00700, Sri Lanka

3Fruit Crops and Research Development Station, Gannoruwa, Peradeniya

Pub. Date: May 21, 2020

Cite this paper:
Dilrukshi M.K.D.T, Dharmadasa R.M., Abeysinghe D.C and A.V.C. Abhayagunasekara. Selection of Superior Quality Annona Species by Means of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020; 8(2):39-44. doi: 10.12691/wjar-8-2-3


Present study evaluated different parts of (leaves, seeds, bark, roots, ripen fruits, unripen fruits) 6 species of Annona (Annona cherimola, Annona muricata L., Annona reticulata L., Annona squamosa L (green and red varieties) and Annona glabra L. by means of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in order to select superior quality species of Annona for commercial cultivation. TAC, TPC and TFC were determined using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. It was observed that all tested parts of all tested species contained appreciable amount of TAC, TPC and TFC. Significantly higher TPC were recorded in roots of custard apple (82.08±0.74a mg GAE/g DW) followed by roots of soursop (73.10±0.72b mg GAE/g DW), leaves of soursop (55.18±0.18a mg GAE/g DW) respectively. It was interesting to see that the highest TAC was observed in root extracts of soursop (194.98 mg TE/g DW followed by bark extracts of pond apple (134.37 mg TE/g DW) and leaf extracts of soursop (122.67 mg TE/g DW respectively. Total flavonoid content of leaf extracts of six different species were varied as soursops>sugar apple R>pond apple>sugar apple G> custard apple >cherimoya respectively. Strong positive correlations were observed between TAC values and TPCs of leaves, seeds, barks and roots ( = 0.78; p<0.001). Based on the results of bioactive molecules present in different species and their parts, it could be concluded that soursop and custard apple could be recommended as superior quality Annona species for commercial cultivation.

Annona muricata Annonaceae bioactive molecules total phenolic content

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Badrie, N. and Schauss, A.G. (2009). Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Composition, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Uses, and Toxicology. Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health, 39, 621-643.
[2]  Pinto, A.C.Q., Cordeiro, M.C.R.., Andrade, S.R.M., Ferreira, F.R., Filgueiras, H.A.C., Alves, R.E. and Kinpara, D.I. (2005). Annona species, International Centre for Underutilised Crops, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
[3]  González Vega ME (2013) Chirimoya (Annona cherimola Miller), Frutal tropical y subtropical de valores promisorios. Cultiv Trop 34:52-63.
[4]  Solís-Fuentes, J. A., Hernández-Medel, M. del R., & Durán-de-Bazúa, M. del C. (2011). Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Seeds, Therapeutic and Possible Food Potential. Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention, 1045-1052.
[5]  Folorunso, A.E. and O. Olorode, (2008). Biosystematic studies in Annonaceae II. Vegetative and floral morphological studies of some genera of Annonaceae in Nigeria. Res. J. Bot., 3: 1.
[6]  Morton, J. (1987). In J. M. Ockerbloom (Ed.), Fruits of warm climates (pp. 75e80). Miami, FL: Florida Flair Books.
[7]  Bhardwaj, R. Pareek, S. Sagar, N. A. and N. Vyas, (2019). Bioactive Compounds of Annona. In H. N. Murthy, V. A. Bapat (eds.), Bioactive Compounds in Underutilized Fruits and Nuts, Reference Series in Phytochemistry.
[8]  Silva MV, Costa TR, Ferreira EC et al (2001) Growth inhibition effect of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts on Candida species. Pharm Biol 39:138-141.
[9]  Benzie, I.F.F., Strain, J.J., (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma as a measureof Antioxidant Power: the FRAP assay. Journal of Analytical Biochemistry 293, 70-76.
[10]  Liu, M., Li, X.Q., Weber, C., Lee, C.Y., Brown, J. and Liu, R.H. (2002). Antioxidant and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Raspberries. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 50, 2926-2930.
[11]  Gavamukulya, Y., Abou-Elella, F., Wamunyokoli, F., H, A.E.-S., (2014). Phytochemicalscreening, anti-oxidant activity and in vitro anticancer potential of ethanolic andwater leaves extracts of Annona muricata (Graviola). Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med. 7S1, S355-S363.
[12]  Padmini, Chandra & Samarasekera, R. & Pushpakumara, DKNG (2015). Antioxidant capacity and total phenol content of Sri Lankan Annona muricata L. Tropical Agricultural Research. 25. 252. 10.4038/tar.v25i2.8146.
[13]  Alothman M, Bhat R, Karim AA. (2009). Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected tropical fruits from Malaysia, extracted with different solvents. Food Chem. 115: 785-788.
[14]  Widyastuti, Dyah & Rahayu, Praptining. (2017). Antioxidant Capacity Comparison of Ethanolic Extract of Soursop (Annona muricata Linn.) eaves and Seeds as Cancer Prevention Candidate. Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry. 6: 1-10.
[15]  Wang, Y., Qi, D., Wang, S., Cao, X., Ye, Y., & Suo, Y. (2018)/. Comparison of Phenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Different Maturity Stages of Ribes stenocarpum Maxim. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(12), 31-48.
[16]  Nguyen T D-H, Nguyen T H, Nguyen V T N, Tran P L P, Vo D M H, Nguyen C K, Bach L G and Nguyen D H (2020). Determination of the phytochemical screening, total polyphenols, flavonoids content, and antioxidant activity of soursop leaves (Annona muricata Linn.). IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 736 062011.
[17]  Recuenco M, Lacsamana, Hurtada, W.A. Sabularse, V (2016). Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of selected fruits in the Philippines Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of selected fruits in the Philippines Philippine Journal of Science 145(3): 275-281.
[18]  Manochai, B., Ingkasupart, P. Lee, S.H., and Hong, J.H. (2018). Evaluation of antioxidant activities, total phenolic content (TPC), and total catechin content (TCC) of 10 sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) cultivar peels grown in Thailand. Food Science and Technology, Campinas, 38 (Suppl. 1), 294-300.
[19]  Kothari, V. and Seshadri, S. (2010). Antioxidant activity of seed extracts of Annona squamosal and Carica papaya. Nutrition & Food Science. 40 (4), 403-408.