World Journal of Agricultural Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-0643 ISSN (Online): 2333-0678 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/wjar Editor-in-chief: Rener Luciano de Souza Ferraz
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019, 7(4), 149-157
DOI: 10.12691/wjar-7-4-5
Open AccessArticle

Plantation Forests in Amhara Region: Challenges and Best Measures for Future Improvements

Wubalem Tadesse1, , Alemu Gezahgne1, Teshome Tesema2, Bitew Shibabaw3, Berihun Tefera4 and Habtemariam Kassa5

1Central Ethiopia Environment and Forest Research Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2Ethiopian Environment and Forestry Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

3Environment, Forest and Climate Change Commission, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

4Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

55Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Pub. Date: November 19, 2019

Cite this paper:
Wubalem Tadesse, Alemu Gezahgne, Teshome Tesema, Bitew Shibabaw, Berihun Tefera and Habtemariam Kassa. Plantation Forests in Amhara Region: Challenges and Best Measures for Future Improvements. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019; 7(4):149-157. doi: 10.12691/wjar-7-4-5

Abstract

The total area of plantation forests in Ethiopia is estimated at 972,000 ha. Species wise, eucalyptus dominates the current plantation forests, covering more than 90%. The total area of plantation forests in Amhara region is estimated at 684,000 ha, of which Industrial Plantations are 44, 600 ha and Non-industrial Small-scale Private Plantations are 639,400 ha. The application of appropriate silvicultural practice during and after planting of different plantation species is not well developed in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to identify effective plantation practices in the Amhara National Regional State that can be scaled out in other similar agro ecological areas of the country. The study was conducted between September 2013 and October 2015 in ANRS in Fagta Lekoma District of Awi zone and Lay Gayent District of South Gonder Zone. Multistage sampling technique was used to select sample households. The best example of smallholder plantation practices are Acacia decurrens based smallholder plantations in Fagita Lekoma District and E. globulus and E. camaldulensis based plantation in Lay Gayent District and Mecha District, respectively. Adaptability, growth rate, compatibility to the other land uses and suitability to the objective of tree planting were considered in selecting the tree species for planting. Silvicultural management of the plantation especially those of spacing, planting techniques and tending operations were considered in identifying the best plantation practices. In regard to ecological impacts of plantation 135 respondents (75.4%) agreed that plantation of E. camaldulensis have adverse effect on the soil, crop productivity of the adjacent farm land and water resources. Among recognized silvicultural management gaps, narrow spacing has been evaluated as the major constraint by regional experts and farmers. Economic issues like lack of adequate value addition, lack of assortment and product diversification has been identified as significantly important challenges. Proper implementation of best plantation management practices in Ethiopian plantation programs will significantly improve the forest cover of the country and increase the contribution of the forestry sector to the local and national economies.

Keywords:
Ex-ante evaluation communal plantation Silviculture small holder plantation

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  FAO (2012). Forest Resources Assessment Working Paper 180, FRA 2015: Terms and Definitions, Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome
 
[2]  Payn T, Carnus JM, Peter FS, Kimberley M, Kollert W, Liu S, Orazio C, Rodriguez L, Silva LN, Wingfield MJ (2015). Changes in planted forests and future global implications. For Ecol. Manag 352: 57-67.
 
[3]  FAO (2001). State of the World’s Forests. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome.
 
[4]  Evans J, Turnbull JW. (2004). Plantation Forestry in the Tropics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
 
[5]  Lemenih, M and Kassa, H (2014). Article Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons. Forests 2014, 5, 1896-1909.
 
[6]  NFSDPE, 2018. National Forest Sector Development Program National Forest Sector Development Programme. Volume 1.
 
[7]  Wassie A. (2017). Forest Resources in Amhara: Brief Description, Distribution and Status. In: Stave K., Goshu G., Aynalem S. (eds) Social and Ecological System Dynamics. AESS Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies and Sciences Series. Springer, Cham.
 
[8]  Tolera, M., Sass-Klaassen, U., Eshete, A., Bongers, F., Sterck, F.J., 2013. Frankincense tree recruitment failed over the past half century. Forest Ecology and Management 304, 65-72.
 
[9]  Jagger P. and Pender J., 2003. The role of trees for sustainable management of less-favored lands: the case of Eucalyptus in Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics, 5: 83-95.
 
[10]  Lemenih, M., 2010. Growing Eucalyptus by smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.In: Gil, L., Wubalem, T., Tolosana, E and López, R. (eds.), Eucalyptus Species Management, History, Status and Trends in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 91-103.
 
[11]  Jiregna G., 2003. Water and nutrient relations of selected tree species of Ethiopia; Ph.D. Dissertation. Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
 
[12]  Selamyihun K., Tekalign M. and Stroosnijder L., 2004. Eucalyptus - wheat interaction on Ethiopian Nitosols. Agricultural Systems, 80: 151-170.
 
[13]  Tilashwork Ch., Collick A.S., Adgo E. Lehmann C.J and Steenhuis T.S., 2013. Eco-hydrological impacts of Eucalyptus in the semi-humid Ethiopian Highlands: the Lake Tana Plain. Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 61(1): 21-29.
 
[14]  Michelsen A., Lisanework N. andFriis, I., 1993. Impacts of tree plantations in the Ethiopian highland on soil fertility, shoot and root growth, nutrient utilization and mycorrhizal colonization. Forest Ecology and Management, 61: 299-324.
 
[15]  Lisanework N and Michelsen A., 1993. Allelopathy in agroforestry systems – the effects of leaf extracts of Cupressus lusitanica and three Eucalyptus species on four Ethiopian crops. Agroforestry Systems, 21: 63-74.
 
[16]  Ahmed R., Hoque R., and Hossain M.K., 2008.Allelopathic effects of leaf litters of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on some forest and agricultural crops. Journal of Forestry Research, 19: 19-24.
 
[17]  Negash, M. 2013. The Indigenous Agroforestry Systems of South-Eastern Rift Valley Escarpment, Ethiopia: Their Biodiversity, Carbon Stocks And Litter Fall. PhD, Dissertation University of Helsinki.
 
[18]  Pohjonen V., 1989. Establishment of fuelwood plantations in Ethiopia. Silva Carelica, 14: 1-388.
 
[19]  Bewket W., 2003. Household level tree planting and its implications for environmental management in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia: a case study in the Chemoga Watershed, Blue Nile Basin. Land Degradation and development, 14: 377-388.