World Journal of Analytical Chemistry
ISSN (Print): 2333-1178 ISSN (Online): 2333-1283 Website: Editor-in-chief: Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2013, 1(1), 8-13
DOI: 10.12691/wjac-1-1-2
Open AccessReview Article

Recent Developments in the Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Indium

Kevin C. Honeychurch1,

1Centre for Research in Bioscience, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK

Pub. Date: February 28, 2013

Cite this paper:
Kevin C. Honeychurch. Recent Developments in the Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Indium. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2013; 1(1):8-13. doi: 10.12691/wjac-1-1-2


The determination of indium has become increasingly more important as the demand for this metal has greatly increased in recent years for the manufacture of touch screen devices, photovoltaic and semi-conductor devices. Concentrations of In generally reported in the environmental are very low requiring highly sensitive techniques such as stripping voltammetry to obtain the detection limits required. This present review focuses on the past and present applications of stripping voltammetry for the determination of In. The majority of applications have utilized Hg working electrodes, either as hanging Hg drop or as thin-film electrodes for use in either anodic stripping voltammetry or adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Detection limits in the low ng/mL range have been generally been reported. The major issue with In determination has been its very low concentrations and interferences from elements such as Pb and Cd, which are generally found in much greater concentrations. More recently alternatives such as Sb and Bi thin film electrodes have been reported and shown to give similar or superior performance characteristics.

indium anodic stripping voltammetry adsorptive stripping voltammetry bismuth mercury antimony

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 6


[1]  Arduini F., Calvo J.Q., Amine A., Palleschi G., Moscone D., Bismuth-modified electrodes for lead detection. TrAC, 2010, 29, 1295-1304.
[2]  Honeychurch K.C., Screen-printed Electrochemical Biosensors and Sensors for Monitoring Metal Pollutants, Insciences Journal, 2012, 2, 1-51.
[3]  Honeychurch K.C., Hart J.P., Screen-printed Electrochemical Sensors for Monitoring Metal Pollutants, TrAC, 2003, 22(7-8), 456-469.
[4]  Kokkinos C., Economou A., Stripping at Bismuth-Based Electrodes. Curr. Anal. Chem. 2008, 4, 183-190.
[5]  Wang J., Stripping analysis at bismuth electrodes: A review, Electroanalysis, 2005, 17, 1341-1346.
[6]  Vydra F., Štulik K., Julakova E., Electrochemical Stripping Analysis, Ellis Horwood Ltd, 1977, Chichester.
[7]  White S.J.O., Hemond, H.F., The Anthrobiogeochemical Cycle of Indium: A Review of the Natural and Anthropogenic Cycling of Indium in the Environment, Crit. Rev. Env. Sci. Tec. 2012, 42, 155-186.
[8]  Nozaki Y., Lerche D., Alibo D.S., Tsutsumi M., Dissolved indium and rare earth elements in three Japanese rivers and Tokyo Bay: Evidence for anthropogenic Gd and In, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2000, 64, 3975-3982.
[9]  Hoet P., De Graef E., Swennen B., Seminck T., Yakoub Y., Deumer G., Haufroid V., Lison D., Occupational exposure to indium: what does biomonitoring tell us? Toxicol. Lett. 2012, 213, 122-128.
[10]  Tanaka A., Hirata M., Kiyohara Y., Nakano M., Omae K., Shiratani M., Koga K., Review of pulmonary toxicity of indium compounds to animals and humans, Thin Solid Films, 2010, 518 2934-2936.
[11]  Cummings K.J., Nakano M., Omae K., Takeuchi K., Chonan T., Xiao Y.-l., Harley R.A., Roggli V.L., Hebisawa A., Tallaksen R.J., Trapnell B.C., Day G.A., Saito R., Stanton M.L., Suarthana E., Kreiss K., Indium Lung Disease, Chest, 2012, 141, 1512-1521.
[12]  The Japan Society for Occupational Health, Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi, 2007, 49, 196 (in Japanese).
[13]  Asakura K., Satoh H., Chiba M., Okamoto M., Serizawa K., Nakano M., Omae, K., Oral Toxicity of Indium in Rats: Single and 28-Day Repeated Administration Studies, J. Occupational Health, 2008, 50, 471-479.
[14]  Bonadio G.A.H., Oral ingestion of indium, United States Patent 1986, 4591506.
[15]  Bonadio G.A.H., Methods for Administering Nutritional Indium, United States Patent, 1999, 6007847.
[16]  Aguilar J.C., Rodriguez de San Miguel E., Gyves J.D., Adsorptive stripping voltammetry of In(III) in the presence of pyrogallol red in chloride-acetate media, Rev. Soc. Quím. Méx. 2001, 45, 17-20.
[17]  Farias P.A.M., Martin C.M.L., Ohara A.K., Gold J.S., Cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry of indium complexed with morin at a static mercury drop electrode, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1994 293, 29-34.
[18]  Benvidi A., Ardakani M.M., Subnanomolar Determination of Indium by Adsorptive Stripping Differential Pulse Voltammetry Using Factorial Design for Optimization, Anal. Lett. 2009, 42, 2430-2443.
[19]  Florence T.M., Batley G.E., Farrar Y.J., The Determination of Indium by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Application to Natural Waters, Electroanal. Chem. 1974, 56, 301-309.
[20]  Ciszewski A., Lukaszewski Z., The influence of long-chain amine and ammonium salts on the anodic stripping voltammetry of thallium, lead, tin, cadmium and indium, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1983, 146, 51-59.
[21]  Paolicchi I., Domınguez Renedo O., Asunción Alonso Lomillo M., Arcos Martınez M.J., Application of an optimization procedure in adsorptive stripping voltammetry for the determination of trace contaminant metals in aqueous medium, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2004, 511, 223-229.
[22]  Medvecký Ľ., Briančin J., Possibilities of Simultaneous Determination of Indium and Gallium in Binary InGa Alloys by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry in Acetate Buffer, Chem. Pap. 2004, 58, 93-100.
[23]  Pratt K.W., Koch W.F., High-accuracy differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry with indium as an internal standard, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1988, 215, 21-28.
[24]  Liu T.Z., Lai D., Osterloh J.D., Indium as Internal Standard in Square Wave Anodic Stripping Analysis of Lead in Blood with Microelectrode Arrays, Anal. Chem. 1997, 69, 3539-3543.
[25]  Tamamushi R., A note on the rate of aquometal ion-metal amalgam electrode-reaction J. Electroanal. Chem. 1980, 109, 353-356.
[26]  Wikiel K., Kublik Z., Resolution of the indium peak from the peaks of lead, cadmium and thallium in stripping voltammetry at mercury film electrodes, J. Electroanal. Chem. 1984, 165, 71-85.
[27]  Nosal-Wiercinska A., Dalmata G., Application of the catalytic properties of N-methylthiourea to the determination of In(III) at low levels by square wave voltammetry, Monatsh Chem. 2009, 140, 1421-1424.
[28]  Labuda J., Vanickova M., Anodic Stripping Voltammetry with Mercury Electrodes in Extracts of Cadmium, Lead, Thallium and Indium Diethyldithiocarbamate Complexes and Analysis of Mixtures, Anal. Chim. Acta, 1988, 208, 219-230.
[29]  Batley G.E., Florence T.M., An Evaluation and Comparison of Some Techniques of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry, Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, 1974, 55, 23-43.
[30]  Wang J., Liu G., Zhu Q., Indium Microrod Tags for Electrochemical Detection of DNA Hybridization, Anal. Chem. 2003, 75, 6218-6222.
[31]  Ali Taher M., Differential pulse polarography determination of indium after column preconcentration with [1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol]-naphthalene adsorbent or its complex on microcrystalline naphthalene, Talanta, 2000, 52, 301-309.
[32]  Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Council Directive 76/769/EEC relating to restrictions on the marketing of certain measuring devices containing mercury, Brussels 20.4.2007, COM (2007) 205 final 2006/0018 (COD).
[33]  Charalambous A., Economou A., A study on the utility of bismuth-film electrodes for the determination of In(III) in the presence of Pb(II) and Cd(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, Anal. Chim. Acta, 2005, 547, 53-58.
[34]  Bobrowski A., Putek M., Zarebski J., Antimony Film Electrode Prepared In Situ in Hydrogen Potassium Tartrate in Anodic Stripping Voltammetric Trace Detection of Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Tl(I), In(III) and Cu(II), Electroanalysis, 2012, 24, 1071-1078.
[35]  Zhang J.L., Shan Y.J., Ma J., Xie L., Du X.Y., Simultaneous Determination of Indium and Thallium Ions by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using Antimony Film, Electrode, Sensor Lett. 2009, 7, 605-608.
[36]  Sopha H., Baldrianova L., Tesarova E., Hocevar S.B., Svancara I., Ogorevc B., Vytras K., Insights into the simultaneous chronopotentiometric stripping measurement of indium(III), thallium (I) and zinc (II) in acidic medium at the in situ prepared antimony film carbon paste electrode, Electrochim. Acta, 2010, 55, 7929-7933.
[37]  Xiang C., Zou Y., Xie J., Fei X. Li J., Nafion-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Trace Determination of Indium, Anal. Lett. 2005, 38, 2045-2055.
[38]  Liu H.M., Jiang J.K., Lin Y.H., Simultaneous determination of gallium (III) and indium (III) in urine and water samples with cloud point extraction and by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, Anal. Lett. 2012, 45, 2096-2107.
[39]  Orians K.J., Boyle E.A., Determination of picomolar concentrations of titanium, gallium and indium in sea-water by inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following an 8-hydroxyquinoline chelating resin preconcentration, Anal. Chim. Acta 1993, 282, 63-74.
[40]  Li X.Y., Wei X.L., Gong Q., Filter coated with phenyl fluorone for enrichment and determination of indium by GFAAS, Spectrosc. Spect. Anal. 2007, 27, 1225-1228.
[41]  Minamisawa. H., Murashima K., Minamisawa M., Arai N., Okutani T., Determination of indium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation with chitosan, Anal. Sci. 2003, 19, 401-404.
[42]  Li J.H., Kuang, D.Z., Feng, Y.L., Qu, J.N., Simultaneous Determination of Indium and Aluminum by Voltammetry Based on Carboxylic Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode, Chinese J. Anal. Chem. 2011, 39, 713-717.
[43]  Anger J.P., Barkat H., Elenga F., Truhaut R., Détermination simultanée de l étain et de l’indium dans les milieu biologiques, par redissolution anodique couplée à la polarographie impulsionnelle, Analusis, 1985, 16, 444-449 (in French).