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Article

Low-Power Air Conditioning Technology with Cold Thermal Energy Storage

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Azad University of Kashan, Iran


Sustainable Energy. 2014, 2(3), 116-120
DOI: 10.12691/rse-2-3-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Leila Dehghan, Ahmad Fakhar. Low-Power Air Conditioning Technology with Cold Thermal Energy Storage. Sustainable Energy. 2014; 2(3):116-120. doi: 10.12691/rse-2-3-6.

Correspondence to: Leila  Dehghan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Azad University of Kashan, Iran. Email: lleiladehghan1385@yahoo.com

Abstract

Air conditioning of buildings is responsible for a large percentage of the greenhouse and ozone depletion effect, as refrigerant harmful gases are released into the atmosphere from conventional cooling systems. The vapor compression refrigeration is one of the many refrigeration cycles and is the most widely used method for air-conditioning of buildings. On the other hand, solar thermal energy can be used to efficiently cool in the summer. Single, double or triple iterative absorption cooling cycles are used in different solar thermal cooling system designs. Absorption chillers operate with less noise and vibration than compressor-based chillers, but their capital costs are relatively high. In this study, a system is proposed as a combination of the aforementioned systems and the power consumption is minimized using cold thermal energy storage (CTES).

Keywords

References

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Article

Electricity from Waste –Bibliographic Survey

1Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Northern India Engineering College, New Delhi, India


Sustainable Energy. 2014, 2(3), 108-115
DOI: 10.12691/rse-2-3-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Anuradha Tomar, Anushree Shrivastav, Saurav Vats, Manuja, Shrey Vishnoi. Electricity from Waste –Bibliographic Survey. Sustainable Energy. 2014; 2(3):108-115. doi: 10.12691/rse-2-3-5.

Correspondence to: Anuradha  Tomar, Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Northern India Engineering College, New Delhi, India. Email: tomar.anuradha19@gmail.com

Abstract

Presented here is a bibliographic survey, which covers the work done in the period ranging from 1913 to 2013; towards realization of feasible methods of electricity generation using waste materials. This paper is the outcome of thorough analysis of various literatures available from the earlier research. This paper would be a great source of literature summarized in one paper. This paper would be helpful as a one stop guide, it will introduce the subject to the reviewer, give him an idea of all the previous work done in this field, the chronological research done by some scientist as well as the development in technology/methodology all along the period.

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References

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Article

Sulfonic Acid Group Functionalized Ionic Liquid Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Cellulose in Water: Structure Activity Relationships

1Department of Chemistry, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, USA


Sustainable Energy. 2014, 2(3), 102-107
DOI: 10.12691/rse-2-3-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ananda S. Amarasekara, Bernard Wiredu. Sulfonic Acid Group Functionalized Ionic Liquid Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Cellulose in Water: Structure Activity Relationships. Sustainable Energy. 2014; 2(3):102-107. doi: 10.12691/rse-2-3-4.

Correspondence to: Ananda  S. Amarasekara, Department of Chemistry, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, USA. Email: asamarasekara@pvamu.edu

Abstract

Catalytic activities of eight sulfonic acid group functionalized ionic liquids in water were compared for the hydrolysis of Sigmacell cellulose (DP ~ 450) in the 150-180°C temperature range by measuring total reducing sugar (TRS) and glucose produced. The catalytic activity of acidic ionic liquids with different cation types decreases in the order imidazolium > pyridinium > triethanol ammonium cation. Among the sulfonic acid group functionalized imidazolium ionic liquids, the catalysts which contain a single imidazolium ion and a flexible linker between sulfonic acid group and the imidazolium ionic liquid core structure are the most active catalysts.

Keywords

References

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Article

Optimization of Power Solar Dish-Stirling: Induced Effects of Heat Source Temperature and Working Fluid Temperature in Hot Side

1Renewable Energies and Environmental Department, Faculty of New Science and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering-Energy Division, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


Sustainable Energy. 2014, 2(3), 91-101
DOI: 10.12691/rse-2-3-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Mohammad H. Ahmadi, Hosyen Sayyaadi. Optimization of Power Solar Dish-Stirling: Induced Effects of Heat Source Temperature and Working Fluid Temperature in Hot Side. Sustainable Energy. 2014; 2(3):91-101. doi: 10.12691/rse-2-3-3.

Correspondence to: Mohammad  H. Ahmadi, Renewable Energies and Environmental Department, Faculty of New Science and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Email: mohammadhosein.ahmadi@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper presents an investigation on finite time thermodynamic evaluation and analysis of a Solar-dish Stirling heat engine. Finite time thermodynamics has been applied to determine the net power output and thermal efficiency of the Stirling system with finite-rate heat transfer, regenerative heat loss, conductive thermal bridging loss and finite regeneration process time. The model investigates the effects of the inlet temperature of the heat source and heat sink, the volumetric ratio of the engine, effectiveness of heat exchangers and heat capacitance rates on the net power output and thermal efficiency of the engine and entropy generation. The thermal efficiency of the cycle corresponding to the magnitude of the maximized power of the engine is evaluated. Finally, sensitivities of results in a variation of the thermal parameters of the engine are studied. The present analysis provides a good theoretical guideline for designing and operating of the Stirling heat engine systems.

Keywords

References

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Article

Introduction to Organic Solar Cells

1Department of Physics Azad University, North branch, Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Sustainable Energy. 2014, 2(3), 85-90
DOI: 10.12691/rse-2-3-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Askari. Mohammad Bagher. Introduction to Organic Solar Cells. Sustainable Energy. 2014; 2(3):85-90. doi: 10.12691/rse-2-3-2.

Correspondence to: Askari.  Mohammad Bagher, Department of Physics Azad University, North branch, Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Email: MB_Askari@yahoo.com

Abstract

Polymer solar cells have many intrinsic advantages, such as their light weight, flexibility, and low material and manufacturing costs. Recently, polymer tandem solar cells have attracted significant attention due to their potential to achieve higher performance than single cells. Photovoltaic's deal with the conversion of sunlight into electrical energy. Classic photovoltaic solar cells based on inorganic semiconductors have developed considerably [1] since the first realization of a silicon solar cell in 1954 by Chapin, Fuller and Pearson in the Bell labs. [2] Today silicon is still the leading technology on the world market of photovoltaic solar cells, with power conversion efficiencies approaching 15 – 20% for mono-crystalline devices. Though the solar energy industry is heavily subsidized throughout many years, the prices of silicon solar cell based power plants or panels are still not competitive with other conventional combustion techniques – except for several niche products. An approach for lowering the manufacturing costs of solar cells is to use organic materials that can be processed under less demanding conditions. Organic photovoltaic's has been developed for more than 30 years, however, within the last decade the research field gained considerable in momentum [3,4]. The amount of solar energy lighting up Earth's land mass every year is nearly 3,000 times the total amount of annual human energy use. But to compete with energy from fossil fuels, photovoltaic devices must convert sunlight to electricity with a certain measure of efficiency. For polymer-based organic photovoltaic cells, which are far less expensive to manufacture than silicon-based solar cells, scientists have long believed that the key to high efficiencies rests in the purity of the polymer/organic cell's two domains -- acceptor and donor.

Keywords

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Article

Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil

1Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT Wollo University, Kombolcha (SW), Ethiopia


Sustainable Energy. 2014, 2(3), 81-84
DOI: 10.12691/rse-2-3-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Seid Yimer, Omprakash Sahu. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil. Sustainable Energy. 2014; 2(3):81-84. doi: 10.12691/rse-2-3-1.

Correspondence to: Omprakash  Sahu, Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT Wollo University, Kombolcha (SW), Ethiopia. Email: ops0121@gmail.com

Abstract

Energy is basic need for growth of any country. The world energy demand is increasing so rapidly because of increases in industrialization and population that limited reservoirs will soon be depleted at the current rate of consumption. Both the energy needs and increased environmental consciousness have stimulated the researching of an alternative solution. So an attempted has been made to investigation of biodiesel production using transesterification reaction with solid or heterogeneous catalyst at laboratory scale and to compare the physical properties with the standard biodiesel properties. The selected process parameters are temperature ranged from 318 K to 333 K, molar ratio of methanol to oil from 4:1 to 8:1, mass ratio of catalyst to oil from 3% to 5% and rotation speed at optimum biodiesel yield was produced at 600 rpm.

Keywords

References

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