Sustainable Energy
ISSN (Print): 2372-2134 ISSN (Online): 2372-2142 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Sustainable Energy. 2016, 4(1), 28-33
DOI: 10.12691/rse-4-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Dynamics of Geothermal Variability in the Nigerian Sector of the Chad Basin

M. Y. Kwaya1, E. Kurowska2 and A. S. Arabi3,

1Department of Geology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria

2Department of Fundamental Geology, University of Silesia, Poland

3Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bayero University Kano-Nigeria

Pub. Date: December 21, 2016

Cite this paper:
M. Y. Kwaya, E. Kurowska and A. S. Arabi. Dynamics of Geothermal Variability in the Nigerian Sector of the Chad Basin. Sustainable Energy. 2016; 4(1):28-33. doi: 10.12691/rse-4-1-4


Having a sedimentary fills of approximately 10km is an indication that the Nigerian sector of the Chad Basin is deep enough for attainment of geothermal field. Geothermal gradients of more than 3.0°C/100m in the region were reported by earlier workers. This work is set out to determine the spatial distribution of temperatures at different depth within the Chad Basin. Isothermal maps were prepared on the basis of previously produced “Map of Geothermal Gradient and of mean annual air temperature in the area using computer program and other calculations using “Grid Math” option. Maps of depth to Isothermal temperature of 100°C, 125°C, 150°C and 175°C were produced and the results shows that isothermal surface of 100°C vary from 1200mbgl west of Dikwa town to about 2400mbgl around Kala area. Isothermal temperature of 125°C can be reached at 1800mbgl west of Dikwa to about 2200mbgl around Kukawa while isothermal surface 175°C which happens to be a major important temperature for generation of electricity occur in the study area at 2600mbgl west of Dikwa and 3000mbgl north of Bida. The spatial distribution of these temperatures at varying depths suggest occurrence of geothermal resources that can be harnessed for different applications such as binary technology for electricity generation.

geothermal gradient bida energy nigeria chad basin

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Avbovbo, A.A, Ayoola, E.O and Osahon, G.A (1986). Depositional and Structural Styles of the Chad Basin of Northeastern Nigeria. Bulletin American Association of Petroleum Geologist 70, 1787-1798.
[2]  Nur, A. (2001) Spectral Analysis and Hilbert Transformation of Gravity Data over the Southwest of the Chad Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Mining Geology vol.37 (2) Pp 153-161.
[3]  Kwaya, M.Y., Kurowska, E., Alagbe, S.A., Ikpokonte, A. E. and Arabi, A.S. 2013. Evaluation of Depth to Basement Complex and Cenozoic Unconformity from Seismic Profiles and Boreholes in the Nigerian Sector of the Chad Basin. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 3, no. 2, 43-49.
[4]  Kwaya, M.Y., Kurowska, E. and Arabi, A.S. (2016). Geothermal Gradient and Heat Flow in the Nigeria Sector of the Chad Basin, Nigeria. Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 5, 70-78.
[5]  Binks, R.M. and Fairhead, J.D. 1992. A Plate Tectonic Setting for Mesozoic Rifts of West and Central Africa. Techtornophysics 213, 141-151.
[6]  Olugbemiro, O. R.1997. Hydrocarbon Potential, Maturation and Paleoenvironment of the Cretaceous, Cenomanian- Santonian. Series in the Chad. Basin NE Nigeria. Tiibinger Mikropalaontologische Mitteilungen 14, Viii+ 150p.
[7]  Barber, W., 1965. Pressure Water in the Chad Formation of Borno and Dikwa Emirate, Northeastern Nigeria. Geological Survey of Nigeria, Bulletin Vol. 70 No. 12.
[8]  Bako, M. D., Adetola, B. A. and Umaru, A. F. M. 1998. The Chad Basin Aquifers; New Evidence from Seismic Reflection Section and Wire-line logs. Water Resources Journal of NAH, Vol. 9, pp.10-21.
[9]  Cratchley, C.R., Louis P. and Ajakaiye, D.E., 1984. Geophysical and Geological Evidence for the Benue - Chad Basin Cretaceous Rift System and its Tectonic Implications. Journal African Earth Sciences 2, pp. 141-150.
[10]  Schoeneich, K., 1998. Unpublished Lecture Notes on Hydrogeology. Department of Geology, Faculty of Science. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
[11]  Lindal, B., 1973. Industrial and other Application of Geothermal Energy. In: Armstead, H.C.H., Geothermal Energy, UNESCO, Paris, pp.135-148.