Physics and Materials Chemistry:

Home » Journal » PMC » Archive » Volume 1, Issue 2

Article

Study of Electromagnetic Waves on Industrial Waste Water

1Department of Chemical Engineering, NIT, Raipur

2Department of Electrical and Electronic, NIT, Raipur


Physics and Materials Chemistry. 2013, 1(2), 34-40
DOI: 10.12691/pmc-1-2-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M. Srinivasa Rao, Omprakash Sahu. Study of Electromagnetic Waves on Industrial Waste Water. Physics and Materials Chemistry. 2013; 1(2):34-40. doi: 10.12691/pmc-1-2-5.

Correspondence to: Omprakash  Sahu, Department of Electrical and Electronic, NIT, Raipur. Email: ops0121@gmail.com

Abstract

Wastewater treatment is essential to protecting the environment and human welfare. Water is a resource that is fundamental to human life, which makes taking action to protect the resource on the forefront of research. Treated wastewater effluent is a possible source that can pollute receiving water bodies and cause contamination. It is often discharged into larger bodies of water that are used in people’s everyday lives. A new and novel approach technology is introduced to treat the waste water. Electromagnetic waste water is old but approached in new way to reduce the pollutant level. By applying this method chemical oxygen demand 1500mg, hardness80mg/l, suspended soild 65mg/l was reduced respectively. The purpose of the research described herein is to test the feasibility of alternative wastewater by electromagnetic methods. Treatment facilities are implementing alternative technologies, though the cost and efficiency associated with these practices leave much room in the wastewater field for innovation.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Porter, A.F., 1865. U.S. Patent No. 50,774, October 31.
 
[[2]  Cowan, J.C., Weintritt, D.J., 1976. Water-Formed Scale Deposits, Gulf, Houston.
 
[[3]  Hay, A.T., 1873. U.S. Patent No. 140,196, June 24.
 
[[4]  Gruber, C.E., Carda, D.D., 1981. Performance analysis of permanent magnet type water treatment devices, Final Report issued to the Water Quality Association, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology.
 
[[5]  Busch, K.W., Busch, M.A., McAtee, J.L., Darling, R.E., Parker, D.H., 1985. Evaluation of the Principles of Magnetic Water Treatment, American Petroleum Institute Publication 960, Washington, DC.
 
Show More References
[6]  Levich, V.G., 1996. Soviet Physics, USPEKHI, 9(316).
 
[7]  Inaba, H., Saitou, T., Tozaki, K., Hayashi, H., 2004. Effect of the magnetic field on the melting transition of H2O and D2O measured by a high resolution and supersensitive differential scanning calorimeter. Applied Physics, 96 (11): 6127- 6132.
 
[8]  Higashitani, K., Kage, A., Katamura, S., Imai, K., Hatade, S.,1993. Effects of a magnetic field on the formation of CaCO3 particles, Colloid and Interface Science, 156 (1): 90-95.
 
[9]  Chibowski, E., Szczes, A., Hołysz, L., 2005. Influence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Static Magnetic Field on the Properties of Freshly Precipitated Calcium Carbonate, ACS Publications, 21(18): 8114-8122.
 
[10]  Busch, K.W., Busch, M.A., 1997. Laboratory studies on magnetic water treatment and their relationship to a possible mechanism for scale reduction, Desalination, 109:131-148.
 
[11]  Coey, J.M.D., Cass, S., 2007. Magnetic water treatment, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 209: 71-74.
 
[12]  Krzemieniewski, M. Dębowski, M., Janczukowicz, W., Pesta, J., 2004. The Influence of Different Intensity Electromagnetic Fields on Phosphorus and COD Removal from Domestic Wastewater in Steel Packing Systems, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 13(4):381-387.
 
[13]  Lipusa, L.C., Dobersekb, D., 2007. Influence of magnetic field on the aragonite precipitation, Chemical Engineering Science, 62:2089-2095.
 
[14]  Ghauri,S.A., Ansari, M.S., 2006. Increase of water viscosity under the influence of magnetic field. Applied Physics, 100(2).
 
[15]  Barrett, R.A., Parsons, S.A., 1998. The influence of magnetic fields on calcium carbonate precipitation. Water Research, 32 (3): 609-612.
 
[16]  Higashitani, K., Oshitani, J., 1996. Measurements of magnetic effects on electrolyte solutions by atomic force microscope, In: Proceedings of the Second International Meeting on Antiscale Magnetic Treatment, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, England.
 
[17]  Bogatin, J., Bondarenko, N., Gak, E.Z., Rokhinson, E.E., Ananyev, I.P., 1999. Magnetic treatment of irrigation water: Experimental results and application conditions. Environmental Science and Technology, 33: 1280-1285.
 
[18]  Mostafazadeh-Fard, B., Khoshravesh, M., Mousavi, S.F., Kiani A.R., 2011. Effects of Magnetized Water and Irrigation Water Salinity on Soil Moisture Distribution in Trickle Irrigation. ASCE, Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, American Society of Civil Engineering, 137(6).
 
Show Less References

Article

Predictability of Phosphorus Removal Based on Simultaneously Removed Sulphur and Mass-Input of Iron Ore Leached in Potassium Hydroxide

1Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

3Department of Industrial Physics, Ebonyi State, Abakiliki, Nigeria

4Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Enugu State University of Science & Technology, Enugu Nigeria


Physics and Materials Chemistry. 2013, 1(2), 27-33
DOI: 10.12691/pmc-1-2-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
C. I. Nwoye, P. O. Offor, N. E. Idenyi, S. O. Nwakpa, A.O. Agbo. Predictability of Phosphorus Removal Based on Simultaneously Removed Sulphur and Mass-Input of Iron Ore Leached in Potassium Hydroxide. Physics and Materials Chemistry. 2013; 1(2):27-33. doi: 10.12691/pmc-1-2-4.

Correspondence to: C.  I. Nwoye, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email: nwoyennike@gmail.com

Abstract

This paper presents the predictability of phosphorus removal based on simultaneously removed sulphur and mass-input of iron ore leached in potassium hydroxide. The reaction vessel containing the solution and ore was heated at a temperature of 600°C for 10minutes. The model; P = 61.8477 x 10-3μ - 2.27S shows that the predicted concentration of removed phosphorus, is dependent on the mass-input of iron oxide ore and the concentration of sulphur simultaneously removed during the reduction process. The validity of the model is rooted in the expression k1P = (2μ – k2S) where both sides of the expression are correspondingly equal. The maximum deviation of the model-predicted (D-Model) concentrations of removed phosphorus (during the beneficiation process) from the concentrations obtained from experiment is less than 3.6861%. This translates to confidence level of over 96%. The concentrations of phosphorus removed per unit mass-input of iron oxide ore as obtained from experiment (ExD), derived model (D-Model) and regression model (R-Model) are 1.01, 1.1549 and 0.87 mg kg-1 g-1 respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of phosphorus removed per unit concentration of sulphur simultaneously removed as obtained from experiment, D-Model and R-Model are 1.8843, 2.1546 and 1.6231 mg kg-1 (mg kg-1)-1 respectively. The standard errors in D-Model prediction of the removed phosphorus concentration for each value of simultaneously removed sulphur concentration is 0.0167 compared to ExD (0.6439) and R-Model (2.05 x 10-5). The F-test result between D-Model and R-Model based on removed sulphur concentration is 0.6926, and 0.7633 between D-Model and experimental results. F-test result between R-Models (based on ore mass-input and removed sulphur concentration) was evaluated as 0.9933. D-Model predicted values agree with the experiment that the concentration of phosphorus removed is ≈ 2.3 times higher than the simultaneously removed sulphur concentration.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Cheng, C. Y., Misra, V. N., Clough, J., Mun, R., 1999. Dephosphorisation of Western Australian iron ore by Hydrometallurgical process. Miner. 12, pp. 1083-1092.
 
[[2]  Zhang, Y. and Muhammed, M., 1990. An integrated process for the treatment of apatite obtained from dephosphorization of iron ore. J. Chem. Tech. & Biotech. 47, pp. 47-60.
 
[[3]  Patent Publication No. 101037724, 2007.
 
[[4]  Anyakwo, C. N., and Obot, O.W., 2008, Phosphorus Removal from Nigeria`s Agbaja Iron Ore by Aspergillus niger, Inter. Res. J. Eng. Sc. Tech. 5(1), pp. 54-58.
 
[[5]  Nwoye, C. I., C. N. Mbah., C. C. Nwakwuo., and A. I. Ogbonna., 2010, Model for Quantitative Analysis of Phosphorus Removed during Leaching of Iron Oxide Ore in Oxalic Acid Solution. J. Min. Mater. Charact. Eng. 9(4), pp. 331-341.
 
Show More References
[6]  Nwoye, C. I., 2009, Model for Evaluation of the Concentration of Dissolved Phosphorus during Leaching of Iron Oxide Ore in Oxalic Acid Solution. J. Min. Mater. Charact. Eng. 8(3), pp. 181-188.
 
[7]  Nwoye, C. I., Agu, P. C., Mark, U., Ikele, U. S., Mbuka, I. E., and Anyakwo, C. N., 2008, Model for Predicting Phosphorus Removal in Relation to Weight of Iron Oxide Ore and pH during Leaching with Oxalic Acid. Inter. J. Nat. Appl. Sc. 4(3), pp. 292-298.
 
[8]  Nwoye, C. I. and Ndlu, S., 2009, Model for Predictive Analysis of the Concentration of Phosphorus Removed during Leaching of Iron Oxide Ore in Sulphuric Acid Solution J. Min. Mater. Charact. Eng. 8(4), pp. 261-270.
 
[9]  Nwoye, C. I., 2009, Model for Predicting the Concentration of Phosphorus Removed during Leaching of Iron Oxide Ore in Oxalic Acid Solution. J. Eng. Appl. Sc. (in press).
 
[10]  Odesina, I. A., 2003, Essential Chemistry, 1st Edition, Lagos, Macmillan, pp. 169-186.
 
[11]  Nwoye, C. I., 2009, SynchroWell Research Work Report, DFM Unit, No 2007146, pp. 35-45.
 
[12]  Nwoye, C. I., 2008. C-NIKBRAN; Data Analytical Memory.
 
[13]  Microsoft Excel. 2003 version.
 
Show Less References

Article

Density Functional Theory and Semi-empirical Investigations of Amino Tetrahydrofuran Molecules

1Babylon University- Collage of Science for Women -Laser Dep


Physics and Materials Chemistry. 2013, 1(2), 21-26
DOI: 10.12691/pmc-1-2-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Hussein Neama Najeeb. Density Functional Theory and Semi-empirical Investigations of Amino Tetrahydrofuran Molecules. Physics and Materials Chemistry. 2013; 1(2):21-26. doi: 10.12691/pmc-1-2-3.

Correspondence to: Hussein  Neama Najeeb, Babylon University- Collage of Science for Women -Laser Dep. Email: Neama.hussein@yahoo.com

Abstract

This document gives formatting instructions for authors preparing papers for publication in the journal. Authors are encouraged to prepare manuscripts directly using this template. This template demonstrates format requirements for the Journal.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  H. Dorsett, and A. White, Overview of Molecular and Ab initio Molecular Orbital Methods Suitable for Use with Energetic Materials, Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory, Australia, 2000.
 
[[2]  Johannes Grotenders, High Performance Computing in Chemistry, John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Jülch, NIC Series, Vol.25, 2005.
 
[[3]  Michael Mueller, Fundamentals of Quantum Chemistry, Molecular Spectroscopy and Modern Electronic Structure Computations, Rose Hullman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, Indiana, 2002.
 
[[4]  David C. Young, "Computational Chemistry: A Particle Guide for Applying Techniques to Real - World Problems", John Wiley & Sons, INC., 2001.
 
[[5]  "Ethers, Lawrence Karas and W. J. Piel". KirkOthmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2004.
 
Show More References
[6]  Herbert Müller, Tetrahydrofuran in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
 
[7]  Morrison, Robert Thornton; Boyd, Robert Neilson: Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed., Allyn and Bacon 1972, p. 569.
 
[8]  Donald Starr and R. M. Hixon (1943), Tetrahydrofuran, Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 2: 566
 
[9]  Polyethers, Tetrahydrofuran and Oxetane Polymers by Gerfried Pruckmayr, P. Dreyfuss, M. P. Dreyfuss. KirkOthmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1996.
 
[10]  Jonathan Swanston Thiophene in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006.
 
[11]  "Chemical Reactivity". Cem.msu.edu. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
 
[12]  "FileAve.com". Gashydrate.fileave.com. Retrieved 2010-02-15.
 
[13]  Elschenbroich, C.; Salzer, A. ”Organometallics: A Concise Introduction” (2nd Ed) (1992) Wiley-VCH: Weinheim.
 
[14]  E.g., B.L. Lucht, D.B. Collum "Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation through a Glass-Bottom Boat" Accounts of Chemical Research, 1999, volume 32, 1035-1042.
 
[15]  Williams, D. B. G., Lawton, M., "Drying of Organic Solvents: Quantitative Evaluation of the Efficiency of Several Desiccants", The Journal of Organic Chemistry 2010, vol. 75, 8351.
 
[16]  Ali A. M., "Investigations of some antioxidant materials by using density functional and semiempirical theories", Department of Physics, University of Basrah, College of Science, (2009).
 
[17]  Ghoch D. C. and Bhattacharyy S., " Molecular orbital and density functional study of the formation, charge transfer, bonding and the conformational isomerism of the boron trifluoride (BF3) and ammonia (NH3) donor-accebtor complex", Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyami, India, (2004).
 
[18]  Kampen T. U., Mendes H. and Zahn D. R., "Energy level alignment at molecular semiconductor/ GaAs(100) interfaces", Department of physic, University of Technische, Germany, (1999).
 
Show Less References

Article

Properties of Proton Exchange Membranes Poly-ethylene Terephthalate (PET) Films Developed by Gamma Radiation Induced Grafting and Sulfonation Technique

1Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2School of Engineering & Information Technology, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

3Institute of Radiation & Polymer Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh


Physics and Materials Chemistry. 2013, 1(2), 13-20
DOI: 10.12691/pmc-1-2-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Khadiza Begam, Md. AlamgirKabir, M. Mahbubur Rahman, Md. Abul Hossain, Mubarak A. Khan. Properties of Proton Exchange Membranes Poly-ethylene Terephthalate (PET) Films Developed by Gamma Radiation Induced Grafting and Sulfonation Technique. Physics and Materials Chemistry. 2013; 1(2):13-20. doi: 10.12691/pmc-1-2-2.

Correspondence to: M. Mahbubur Rahman, Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: mahbub235@yahoo.com

Abstract

Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were developed by radiation induced grafting of styrene onto poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) membranes using two steps technique. Subsequent sulfonation on the PET films was conducted by chlorosulfonic acid (ClSO3H). The PET films in 45% styrene solution at 1500 krad dose has found to show the highest grafting (17.4%) in both techniques while the maximum degree of sulfonation was noticed to be 9% with a soaking time 150 minutes. Surface morphology was investigated from scanning electron microgram (SEM). Proton exchange capacity (PEC) was confirmed by pH change in 0.01 M NaCl solution. Optical and electrical characteristics of the PEMs were performed by the measurements of FTIR optical absorption, electrical impedance, and electrical resistance respectively.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  B. Gupta, F.N. Biichi, G.G. Scherer, A. Chapiro, Crosslinked ion exchange membranes by radiation grafting of styrene/ divinylbenzene into FEP films, J. Memb. Sci., 118, 231-238, 1996.
 
[[2]  M.M. Nasef, Thermal stability of radiation grafted PTFE-g-polystyrene sulfonic acid membranes, Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 68, 231-238, 2000.
 
[[3]  M.M. Nasef, H. Saidi, H.M. Nor, Proton exchange Membranes prepared by simultaneous radiation grafting of styrene onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene) films. І. Effect of grafting conditions, J. Appl. Poly. Sci., 76, 220-227, 2000.
 
[[4]  J. Zu, Z. Hu, W. Wang, J. Zhang, E. S. Pino, J. Gu, L. Tong, The effect of additives on radiation induced grafting of AA and SSS onto HDPE, J. Radioanalyt. Nucl. Chem., 273, 479-484, 2007.
 
[[5]  J. Yang,   D. Aili,   Q. Li,   Y. Xu,   P. Liu,   Q. Che,   Jens Oluf Jensen,   N.J. Bjerrum, R. He, Benzimidazole grafted polybenzimidazoles for proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Accepted Manuscript: Polym. Chem., (2013).
 
Show More References
[6]  J. Chen, M. Asano, T. Yamaki, M. Yoshida, Preparation and characterization of chemically stable polymer electrolyte membranes by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of four monomers into ETFE films, J. Memb. Sci., 269, 194-204, 2006.
 
[7]  M.M. Nasef, H. Saidi, H.M. Nor, Cation exchange membranes by radiation induced graft copolymerization of styrene onto PFA copolymer films. Ш. Thermal stability of the membranes, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 77, 1877-1885, 2000.
 
[8]  S. Moghaddam, E. Pengwang, Y-B. Jiang, A.R. Garcia, D.J. Burnett, C. J. Brinker, R.I. Masel1, M.A. Shannon, An inorganic–organic proton exchange membrane for fuel cells with a controlled nanoscale pore structure, Nature Nanotech., 5, 230-236, 2010.
 
[9]  L. Unnikrishnan, S. Mohanty, S.K. Nayak, Proton exchange membranes from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) reinforced with silica nanoparticles, High Perform. Polym., 1-14, 2013.
 
[10]  M.M. Nasef, H. Saidi, H.M. Nor, Proton exchange Membranes prepared by simultaneous radiation grafting of styrene onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene) films. П. Properties of sulfonated membranes, J. Appl. Poly. Sci., 78, 2443-2453, 2000.
 
[11]  M. Zhai, S. Hasegawa, J. Chen, Y. Maekawa, Radiation-induced grafting of perfluorinated vinyl ether into fluorinated polymer films. J. Fluo. Chem., 129, 1146-1149, 2008.
 
[12]  S. Hasegawa, Y. Suzuki, Y. Maekawa., Preparation of poly(ether ether ketone)-based polymer electrolytes for fuel cell membranes using grafting technique, Rad. Phys. Chem., 77, 617-621, 2008.
 
[13]  J. Chen, M. Asano, Y. Maekawa, M. Yoshida., Fuel cell performance of polyetheretherketone-based polymer electrolyte membranes prepared by a two-step grafting method, J. Memb. Sci., 319, 1-4, 2008.
 
[14]  Z. Belkhiri, M. Zeroual, N. Saidani, H.B. Moussa, A two-dimensional analysis of mass transport in proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Influence of porosity and permeability, Int. J. Chem. Env. Engg., 2(6), 390-394, 2011.
 
[15]  S. Takahashi, H. Okonogi, T. Hagiwara, Y. Maekawa, Preparation of polymer membranes consisting of alkyl sulfonic acid for a fuel cell using radiation grafting and subsequent substitution/ elimination reactions, J. Memb. Sci., 324,173-180, 2008.
 
[16]  P. Bhavani, D. Sangeetha, Characterization of proton exchange membranes based on SPSEBS/SPSU blends, J. Polym. Res., 19, 9824-9833, 2012.
 
[17]  M.M. Nasef, Gamma Radiation-Induced Graft Copolymerization of Styrene onto Poly(ethyleneTerephthalate) Films., J. Appl. Poly. Sci., 77, 1003-1012, 2000.
 
[18]  M.M. Nasef, Structural Investigations of Poly (ethylene terephthalate)-graft-polystyrene Copolymer Films, J. Appl. Poly. Sci., 84, 1949-1955, 2002.
 
[19]  S. Thomas, M. Zalbowitz, and J. Cruz, Fuel Cells: Green Power, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, 1999.
 
[20]  M. S. Boroglu, S. Cavus, I. Boz, A. Ata, Synthesis and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) proton exchange membranes modified with 4,4-diaminodiphenylether-2,2-disulfonic acid, Express Polym. Lett., 5(5), 470-478, 2011.
 
[21]  E. Barsoukov, J.R. Macdonald, Impedance Spectroscopy: Theory, Experiment and Applications, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey, USA, 2005.
 
Show Less References

Article

Non-Scattering Photon Electron Interaction

1J.P.Morgan Chase

2Deerfield High School, Deerfield


Physics and Materials Chemistry. 2013, 1(2), 9-12
DOI: 10.12691/pmc-1-2-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao. Non-Scattering Photon Electron Interaction. Physics and Materials Chemistry. 2013; 1(2):9-12. doi: 10.12691/pmc-1-2-1.

Correspondence to: Zhiliang Cao, J.P.Morgan Chase. Email: williamcao12252000@yahoo.com

Abstract

We propose a new model of the interaction between photons and electrons. During this interaction, the photon’s direction of movement does not change. The electron’s velocity along the photon’s direction of movement is close to c/2 in order to allow the interaction to proceed. During the photon and electron energy exchange process, when an electron’s speed is less than 0.7071c and greater than 0.5c, the photon will lose energy while the electron will gain energy; when an electron’s speed is more than 0.7071c, the photon will gain energy while the electron loses energy. Three physical experiments are proposed. In the first experiment, the electron speed is set to 0.6c and a red-shift is expected to occur. In the second experiment, the electron speed is set to 0.8c and a blue-shift is expected to occur. In the third experiment, the electron speed is set to 0.7071c or 0.4c. The theory predicts that there won’t be a photon wavelength change.

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
[[1]  Compton, Arthur H. (May 1923). "A Quantum Theory of the Scattering of X-Rays by Light Elements". Physical Review 21 (5): 483-502.
 
[[2]  Einstein A. (1916 (translation 1920)), Relativity: The Special and General Theory, New York: H. Holt and Company.
 
[[3]  Planck, Max (1906), "The Measurements of Kaufmann on the Deflectability of β-Rays in their Importance for the Dynamics of the Electrons", Physikalische Zeitschrift 7: 753-761.
 
[[4]  Miller, Arthur I. (1981), Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity. Emergence (1905) and early interpretation (1905-1911), Reading: Addison–Wesley.
 
[[5]  Will, Clifford M (August 1, 2010). "Relativity". Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
 
Show More References
[6]  Will, Clifford M (August 1, 2010). "Space-Time Continuum". Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
 
[7]  Will, Clifford M (August 1, 2010). "Fitzgerald–Lorentz contraction". Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
 
[8]  Einstein, Albert (November 28, 1919). "Time, Space, and Gravitation". The Times.
 
[9]  Feynman, Richard Phillips; Morínigo, Fernando B.; Wagner, William; Pines, David; Hatfield, Brian (2002). Feynman Lectures on Gravitation. West view Press. p. 68. Lecture 5.
 
[10]  Roberts, T; Schleif, S; Dlugosz, JM (ed.) (20 07). "What is the experimental basis of Special Relativity?". Usenet Physics FAQ. University of California, Riverside. Retrieved 2010-10-31.
 
[11]  Livingston, M. S.; Blewett, J. (1962). Particle Accelerators. New York: McGraw-Hill.
 
[12]  Karimi E, Marucci L, Grillo V and Santamato E 2012 Phys. Rev Lett 108 044801.
 
[13]  Uchida M and Tonomura A 2010 Nature 737 464.
 
[14]  Verbeeck J, Tian H and Schattschneider P. 2010 Nature 467 301.
 
[15]  McMorran B J, Agrawal A, Anderson I M, Herzing A A, Lezec H J, McClelland J J and Unguris J 2011 Science 331 192.
 
[16]  Cowley J M and Moodie A F 1957 Acta Crystallographica 10 609.
 
[17]  Pozzi G 1995 Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics 93 173.
 
[18]  Ehremberg W and Siday, R E 1949 Proc. Phys. Soc. B 62 8.
 
[19]  Aharonov Y and Bohm D 1959 Phys. Rev. 115 485.
 
[20]  Jagannathan R. 1990 Phys. Rev. A 42 6674.
 
[21]  Rother A and Scheerschmidt K 2009 Ultramicroscopy 109 154.
 
[22]  Pozzi G 1989 Ultramicroscopy 30 417.
 
[23]  Fujiwara K. 1961 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 16 2226.
 
[24]  Jagannathan R 1990 Phys. Rev. A 42 6674.
 
[25]  Cohen-Tannoudji C, Diu B and Laloe F, 1977 Quantum Mechanics (Wiley and Hermann, Paris).
 
[26]  Kirkland E J 2010 Advanced Computing in Electron Microscopy (Springer).
 
[27]  Grillo V and Rotunno E 2013. Ultramicroscopy (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2012.10.016).
 
[28]  Rose H and Wan W, Aberration Correction in Electron Microscopy, presented at Proceedings of 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference, (Knoxville, Tennessee) (unpublished).
 
[29]  Hasselbach F. 2010 Rep. Prog. Phys. 73 016101.
 
[30]  Karimi E, Piccirillo B, Nagali E, Marrucci L and Santamato E 2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 231124.
 
[31]  Nicklaus M and Hasselbach F. 1993 Physical Review A 48 152
 
[32]  Krivanek, O. and al. 2009 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 367 3683.
 
[33]  Verbeek J and Schattschneider P 2011 Ultramicroscopy 111, 1461 (2011).
 
[34]  Baartman R 1997 presented at Proc. Particle Accelerator Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, (unpublished).
 
Show Less References
comments powered by Disqus