Research in Plant Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2333-8512 ISSN (Online): 2333-8539 Website: Editor-in-chief: Fathy El-Fiky
Open Access
Journal Browser
Research in Plant Sciences. 2013, 1(2), 38-44
DOI: 10.12691/plant-1-2-6
Open AccessArticle

Factors Affecting in vitro Shoot Proliferation and Rooting of Mature Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem Tree

Hemshikha Tyagi1 and Uttar Kumar Tomar1,

1Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding Division, Arid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur, India

Pub. Date: November 13, 2013

Cite this paper:
Hemshikha Tyagi and Uttar Kumar Tomar. Factors Affecting in vitro Shoot Proliferation and Rooting of Mature Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem Tree. Research in Plant Sciences. 2013; 1(2):38-44. doi: 10.12691/plant-1-2-6


Tecomella undulata (Marwar teak) is valuable timber yielding tree of Rajasthan. Micropropagation techniques are desirable in this species but commercially viable technique is still lacking. Thus in vitro propagation of Tecomella undulata using nodal segments of mature trees was refined. The in vitro shoot cultures can be established throughout the year but the most favourable months for bud break (75%) was January and February. Maximum 73% bud break with average 2.6 cm shoot length was observed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.54 µM NAA and 8.8 µM BA. Shoots derived from the apical part of the propagule resulted in highest increment in shoot length (33.3 mm) and shoot number (2.0) after four weeks when cultured on MS + 4.4 µM BA medium. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted maximally (43.3%) by dip treatment for 15 minutes in NAA (537.06 µM) & Indole -3-butyric acid (IBA) solution (492.1 µM) followed by transfer on ½ strength Gamborg (B5) basal medium in Jan-March months. Additives like Ascorbic Acid (567.8 µM) and Thiamine HCl (29.6 µM) were found best for root length and root number respectively. But, interaction of these additives was antagonistic for rooting. Correlation studies on different classes of shoot length and rooting revealed that the rooting percentage increases with the increase in shoot length. Shoots less than 2.5 cm long do not root. The rooted plantlets were successfully hardened. Flowering was also observed in tissue culture plants in first year as well as in second year.

clonal forestry flowering in vitro rooting micropropagation Rohida

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 7


[1]  Aslam, M., Singh, R., Anandhan, S., Pande, V. and Ahmed, Z, “Development of a transformation protocol for Tecomella undulata (Smith) Seem from cotyledonary node explants,” Sci Horti, 121(1). 119-121. 2009.
[2]  Shankaranarayan, K.A. and Nanda, P.C, “Cytotaxonomy of Tecomella undulata Seem,” Ann Arid Zone, 1. 174-175. 1963.
[3]  Bhau, B.S., Negi, S., Jindal, S.K., Singh, M. and Lakshmikumaran, M, “Assessing genetic diversity of Tecomella undulata (Sm)-an endangered tree species using amplified fragment length polymorphisms-based molecular markers,” Curr Sci, 93(1). 67-72. 2007.
[4]  Jain, S.K. and Rao, R.R, An assessment of threatened plants of India. Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, 1983, p 334.
[5]  Vengadesan, G. and Pijut, P.M, “In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.),” In vitro Cell Dev Bio Plant, 45 (4). 474-482. 2009.
[6]  Xavier, A. and Otoni, W.C, “Applications of micropropagation of Eucalyptus in clonal silviculture in Brazil,” Agronomia Costarricense, 33 (2). 303-307. 2009.
[7]  Palanisamy, K., Gireesan, K., Nagarajan, V. and Hegde, M, “Selection and clonal multiplication of superior trees of teak (Tectona grandis) and preliminary evaluation of clones,” J Trop Forest Sci, 21 (2). 168-174. 2009.
[8]  Wahid, N., Rainville, A., Lamhamedi, M.S., Margolis, H.A., Beaulieu, J. and Deblois, J, “Genetic parameters and performance stability of white spruce somatic seedlings in clonal tests,” Forest Eco Manage, 270. 45-53. 2012.
[9]  Sharma, R.K., Mason, E.G. and Sorensson, C.T, “Productivity of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.) clones in monoclonal and clonal mixture plots at age 12 years,” Forest Ecol Manage, 255 (1). 140-148. 2008.
[10]  Varshney, A. and Anis, M, “Improvement of shoot morphogenesis in vitro and assessment of changes of the activity of antioxidant enzymes during acclimation of micropropagated plants of Desert Teak,” Acta Physiol Plant, 34 (3). 859-867. 2011.
[11]  Nandwani, D., Mathur, N. and Ramawat, K.G, “In-vitro shoot multiplication from cotyledonary node explants of Tecomella undulata,” Gartenbauwissenschaft, 60. 65-68. 1995.
[12]  Nandwani, D., Sharma, R. and Ramawat, K.G, “High frequency regeneration in callus cultures of a tree-Tecomella undulata,” Gartenbauwissenschaft, 61 (3). 147-150. 1996.
[13]  Rathore, T.S., Singh, R.P. and Shekhawat, N.S, “Clonal propagation of desert teak (Tecomella undulata) through tissue culture,” Plant Sci, 79 (2). 217-222. 1991.
[14]  Bhansali, R.R, “Bud culture for shoot multiplication and plantlet formation of Tecomella undulata (Rohida), a woody tree of the arid zone,” Trop Sci, 33. 1-8. 1993.
[15]  Robinson, R., Kumara, B. and Beniwal, V.S, “In vitro shoot multiplication of Tecomella undulata (SM.) Seem.- An endangered tree species,” Indian J Plant Physiol, 10 (4). 372-376. 2005.
[16]  Tyagi, H.S, In vitro, ex vitro rooting and hardening studies in Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. and Tecomella undulata Sm. Seem, Ph. D. Thesis, 2013. FRI University Dehra Dun
[17]  Sahoo, A.Y. and Chand, R.K, “Micropropagation of Vitex negundo (L.) a woody aromatic medicinal shrub, through high frequency axillary shoots propagation,” Plant Cell Rep, 18 (3-4). 301-307. 1998.
[18]  Nobre, J., Santos, C. and Romano, A, “Micropropagtion of the Mediterranean species Viburnum tinus,” Plant Cell Tiss Org, 60 (1). 75-78. 2000.
[19]  Bonga, J.M. and Von Aderkas, P, In vitro culture of trees (Vol. 38), 1992, Springer-Verlag.
[20]  Ndoye, M., Diallo, I. and Gassama, Y.K, “In vitro multiplication of the semi-arid forest tree, Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del,” Afri J Biotechnol, 2 (11). 421-424. 2004.
[21]  Girijashankar, V. “Micropropagation of multipurpose medicinal tree Acacia auriculiformis,” J Medi Plants Res, 5 (3). 462-466. 2011.
[22]  Islam, M.R., Zaman, S. and Nasirujjaman, K. “Regeneration of plantlet from node derived callus in Aegle marmelos Corr.,” Biotechnol, 6 (1). 72-75. 2007.
[23]  Sharma, N.K, In vitro and In vivo studies to develop the clonal propagation technique for Ailanthus excelsa Roxb, Ph. D. Thesis, 1999, FRI University Dehra Dun.
[24]  Bhatt, I.D. and Dharr, U, “Factors controlling micropropagation of Myrica esculenta buch. – Ham. ex D. Don: a high value wild edible of Kumaun Himalaya,” Afri J Biotechnol, 3(10). 534-540. 2005.
[25]  Vengadesan, G., Ganapati, A., Amutha, S. and Selvaraj, N, “In vitro propagation of Acacia species-a revie,” Plant Sci, 163 (4). 663-671. 2002.
[26]  Siril, E.A. and Dhar, U, “Micropropagation of mature Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum Roxb.),” Plant Cell Rep, 16 (9). 637-640. 1997.
[27]  Thakur, A. and Kanwar, J.S, “Micropropagation of ‘Wild Pear’ Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. F.) Nakai. I. Explant establishment and shoot multiplication,” Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj, 36 (1). 103-108. 2008.
[28]  Devi, W.S. and Sharma, G.J, “In vitro propagation of Arundinaria callosa Munro—an edible bamboo from nodal explants of mature plants,” The Open Plant Sci J, 3. 35-39. 2009.
[29]  Seth, R., Kendurkar, S. and Nadgauda, R, “In vitro clonal propagation of Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. from mature tree-derived explants,” Curr Sci, 92 (3). 287-290. 2007.
[30]  Josekutty, P.C., Kilafwsaru, T.N. and Salic, S.C, “Micropropagation of four banana cultivars in Micronesia,” Micronesica Suppl, 7. 77-81. 2003.
[31]  Khalafalla, M.M. and Daffalla, H.M, “In vitro micropropagation and micrografting of gum arabic tree [Acacia Senegal (l.) wild]”, Int J Sustain Crop Prod, 3 (1). 19-27. 2008.
[32]  Lobna, S., Taha, M.M., Ibrahim, S. and Farahat, M.M, “A micropropagation protocol of Paulownia kowakamii through in vitro culture technique,” Aust J Basic Appl Sci, 2. 594-600. 2008.
[33]  Barik, D.P., Naik, S.K., Mudgal, A. and Chand, P.K, “Rapid plant regeneration through in vitro axillary shoot proliferation of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) – a twinning legume,” In vitro Cell and Develop Bio, 43 (2). 144-148. 2007.
[34]  Salvi, N.D., Singh, H., Tivarekar, S. and Eapen, S, “Plant regeneration from different explants of neem,” Plant Cell Tiss Org, 65(2). 159-162. 2001.
[35]  Takayama, S., Swedlund, B. and Miwa, Y, “Automated propagation of microbulbs of Lilies, in cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants,” Acad Press, 8. 111-131. 1991
[36]  Rech, E.L. and Pires, M.J.P, “Tissue culture propagation of Mentha spp. by the use of axillary buds,” Plant Cell Rep, 5 (1). 17-18. 1986.
[37]  Sen, J. and Sharma, A.K, “Micropropagation of Withania somnifera from germinating seeds and shoots tips,” Plant Cell Tiss Org, 26(2). 71-73. 1991.
[38]  Kukreja, A.K., Mathur, A.K. and Zaim, M, “Mass production of virus free patchouli plants [Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.] by in vitro culture,” Trop Agrc, 67 (2). 101-104. 1990.
[39]  Memon, N., Qasim, M., Jaskani, M.J. and Ahmad, R, “In vitro cormel production of Gladiolus,” Pak J Agri Sci, 47 (2). 115-123. 2010.
[40]  Udomdee, W., Wen, P.J., Chin, S.W. and Chen, F.C, “Shoot multiplication of Paphiopendilum orchid through in vitro cutting methods,” Afri J Biotechnol, 1.1 (76). 14077-14082. 2012.
[41]  Sriskandarajah, S., Skirvin, R.M. and Abu-Qaoud, H, “The effect of some macronutrients on adventitious root development on scion apple cultivars in vitro,” Plant Cell Tiss Org, 21 (2). 185-189. 1990.
[42]  Zakaria, R.A., Hour, M.H. and Zare, N, “Callus production & regeneration of the medicinal plant Papaver orientale,” Afri J Biotechnol, 10 (54). 11152-11156. 2011.
[43]  Khanna, P.K., Ahuja, A., Sharada, M., Ram, G., Koul, K. and Kaul, M.K, “Regeneration via organogenesis in callus cultures of Argyrolobium roseum,” Biol Plant, 50 (3). 417-420. 2006.
[44]  Guru, S.K., Chandra, R., Khetrapal, S., Raj, A. and Palisetty, R, “Protein pattern in differentiating explants of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.),” Ind J Plant Physiol 4. 147-151. 1999.
[45]  Jablonski, J.R. and Skoog, F, “Cell enlargement and cell division in excised tobacco pith tissue,” Physiol Plantarum, 7(1). 16-24. 1954.
[46]  Rumary, C. and Thorpe, T.A, “Plantlet formation in black and white Spruce I. in vitro techniques,” Can J For Res, 14(1). 10-16. 1984.
[47]  Gupta, P.P, “Eradication of Mosaic disease and rapid clonal multiplication of bananas and plants through meristem tip culture,” Plant Cell Tiss Org, 6(1). 33-39. 1986.
[48]  Chee, P.P, “Organogenesis in Taxus brevifolia tissue culture,” Plant cell Rep, 14 (9). 560-565. 1995.
[49]  Dykeman, B.W. and Cumming, B.G, “In vitro propagation of the ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris),” Can J Plant Sci, 65(4). 1025-1032. 1985.
[50]  Bonner, J. and Devirian, P.S, “Growth factor requirements of four species of isolated roots,” Am J Bot, 26. 661-665. 1939.
[51]  Bose, T.K., Mukhopadhyay, T.P. and Basu, R.N, “Note on effect of ascorbic acid and IBA on rooting in cuttings,” Indian J Plant Physiol, 25(3). 310-312. 1982.
[52]  Sharma, V. and Rai, V.K, “Rooting response of Cucumis satius L. hypocotyls cuttings to IBA and vitamins,” Indian J Plant Physiol, 36. 134-136. 1993.
[53]  Le, C.L, “Factors influencing in vitro rooting of Chestnut,” For Snow Landsc Res, 76(3). 468-470. 2001.
[54]  Tyagi, H., Choudhary, G.R. and Tomar, U.K, “Clonal Propagation of an Economically Important Woody Tree of the Arid Zone-Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem,” In: 1st Indian Forest Congress – 2011 held at NAS Complex Pusa New Delhi on Nov 22-25 2011. pp 356-362.