Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research
ISSN (Print): 2372-4668 ISSN (Online): 2372-4676 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mehrdad Hamidi, Javad Verdi
Open Access
Journal Browser
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research. 2017, 4(4), 127-131
DOI: 10.12691/nnr-4-4-2
Open AccessArticle

XRD Peak Shift and Enhancement of Repeated Mechanically Exfoliated SnO2 Thin Films Synthesized from SnCl2 Powder by Direct Heating

Muqtaf Najich Abdillah1 and Wipsar Sunu Brams Dwandaru1,

1Physics Education Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Karangmalang Complex, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Pub. Date: September 19, 2017

Cite this paper:
Muqtaf Najich Abdillah and Wipsar Sunu Brams Dwandaru. XRD Peak Shift and Enhancement of Repeated Mechanically Exfoliated SnO2 Thin Films Synthesized from SnCl2 Powder by Direct Heating. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research. 2017; 4(4):127-131. doi: 10.12691/nnr-4-4-2


Mechanical exfoliation (ME) using a duct tape has been conducted upon SnO2 thin film. The film is synthesized from direct heating of SnCl2 powder. The SnCl2 powder is deposited upon a special arrangement of glass slides and directly heated using an electric stove with a temperature of around 350°C. The material resulted from the heating process occurs on glass slides adjacent to the heated powder glass slides. The materials are then analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) to confirm the presence of SnO2 material. The SEM results show stacking of spherical particles with sizes in the ranges of 700 nm to 1 μm. The EDX result confirms the occurrence of 20% and 66% of Sn and O, respectively, as well as 13% of carbon and a very small percentage (0.99%) of chlorine remaining. The thin films are then mechanically exfoliated using a duct tape for as many as 5, 10, and 20 times. For each ME variation, the thin films are analyzed and compared using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results show semi-crystalline structure of SnO2 in cubic phase. The XRD results after ME show peaks, which are characteristics to SnO2 and tend to shift the peaks to higher 2θ. Furthermore, the intensity of the peaks is highest for 10 times ME showing crystalline improvement of the thin film after the ME treatment.

SnO2 direct heating mechanical exfoliation X-ray Diffraction

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 6


[1]  Gibson, G., Wang, Z., Hardacre, C., et al., “Insights into the mechanism of electrochemical ozone production via water splitting on the Ni and Sb doped SnO2 catalyst”, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 3800, Jan 2017.
[2]  Kumar, B., Atla, V., Brian, J.P., et al., “Reduced SnO2 porous nanowires with a high density of grain boundaries as catalysts for efficient electrochemical CO2-into-HCOOH conversion”, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 56, 3645, March 2017.
[3]  Shirahata, Y., Oku, T., Kanamori, Y., Murozono, M., “Effects of heat treatment on fluorine-doped tin oxide anti-reflection films coated on silicon spheres”, Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan, 125(3), 145, March 2017.
[4]  Yalcinkaya, F. and Lubasova, D., “Quantitative evaluation of antibacterial activities of nanoparticles (ZnO, TiO2, ZnO/TiO2, SnO2, CuO, ZrO2, and AgNO3) incorporated into polyvinyl butyral nanofibers”, Polym. Adv. Technol., 28, 137, Aug 2017.
[5]  Zhao, K., Zhang, L., Xia, R., et al., “SnO2 quantum dots@graphene oxide as a high-rate and long-life anode material for lithium-ion batteries”, Small, 12, 588, Dec 2016.
[6]  Zhou, X., Yu, L., Lou, X.W., “Formation of uniform N-doped carbon-coated SnO2 submicroboxes with enhanced lithium storage properties”, Adv. Energy Mater., 6, 1600451, May 2016.
[7]  Hasan, A.S., Moyer, K., Ramachandran, B.R., Wick, C.D., “Comparison of storage mechanisms in RuO2, SnO2, and SnS2 for lithium-ion battery anode materials”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 120(4), 2036, Jan 2016.
[8]  Barbe, J., Tietze, M.L., Neophytou, M., et al., “Amorphous tin oxide as a low-temperature-processed electron-transport layer for organic and hybrid perovskite solar cells”, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, accepted paper, 2017.
[9]  Mashreghi A., and Zare, H., “Electrochemical deposition of Ni on F-doped SnO2 substrate and its post-annealing for use as current collector of dye-sensitized solar cell”, J. Solid State Electrochem., 20, 2693, Oct 2016.
[10]  Lin, Y.-C. and Lee, M.–W., “Bi2S3 liquid-junction semiconductor-sensitized SnO2 solar cells”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 161, H1, Oct 2014.
[11]  Wang, B., Zhu, L.F., Yang, Y.H., Xu, N.S., Yang, G.W., “Fabrication of a SnO2 nanowire gas sensor and sensor performance for hydrogen”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 112(17), 6643, Apr 2008.
[12]  Leite, E.R., Weber, I.T., Longo, E., Varela, J.A., “A new method to control particle size and particle size distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles for gas sensor applications”, Adv. Mater., 12, 965, June 2000.
[13]  Barsan, N. and Weimar U., “Understanding the fundamental principles of metal oxide based gas sensors; the example of CO sensing with SnO2 sensors in the presence of humidity”, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 15, R813, May 2003.
[14]  Li, F., Song, J., Yang, H., et al., “One-step synthesis of graphene/SnO2 nanocomposites and its application in electrochemical supercapacitors”, Nanotechnology, 20, 455602, Oct 2009.
[15]  Wu, N.–L., “Nanocrystalline oxide supercapacitors”, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 75, 6, April 2002.
[16]  Prasad, K.R. and Miura, N., “Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of nanostructured tin oxide for electrochemical redox supercapacitors”, Electrochemistry Communications, 6(8), 849, Aug 2004.
[17]  Datolli, E.N., Wan, Q., Guo, W., Chen, Y., Pan, X., Lu, W., “Fully transparent thin-film transistor devices based on SnO2 nanowires”, Nano Lett., 7(8), 2463, June 2007.
[18]  Jang, J., Kitsomboonloha, R., Swisher, S.L., et al., “Transparent high-performance thin film transistors from solution-processed SnO2/ZrO2 gel-like precursors”, Adv. Mater., 25, 1042, Nov 2013.
[19]  Kim, W.J., Koo, W.H., Jo, S.J., et al., “Ultraviolet-enduring performance of flexible pentacene TFTs with SnO2 encapsulation films” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., 9(7), G251, May 2006.
[20]  Fang, M., Zhang, L., Tan, X., et al., “Fabrication and photoluminescence property of SnO2 microtowers with interstitial tin ions”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 113(22), 9676, May 2009.
[21]  Zhu, J., Lu, Z., Aruna, S.T., Aurbach, D., Gedanken, A., “Sonochemical synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles and their preliminary study as Li insertion electrodes”, Chem. Mater., 12(9), 2557, Aug 2000.
[22]  Chiu, H.C. and Yeh, C.–S., “Hydrothermal synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles and their gas-sensing of alcohol”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 111(20), 7256, April 2007.
[23]  Anandan, K. and Rajendran, V., “Size controlled synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles: facile solvothermal process”, Journal of Non-Oxide Glasses, 2(2), 83 May 2010.
[24]  Luo, S., Fan, J., Liu, W., et al., “Synthesis and low-temperature photoluminescence properties of SnO2 nanowires and nanobelts”, Nanotechnology, 17(6), 1695, Feb 2006.
[25]  Liu, Z., Zhang, D., Han, S., et al., “Laser ablation synthesis and electron transport studies of tin oxide nanowires”, Adv. Mater., 15, 1754, Oct 2003.
[26]  Qin, L., Xu, J., and Dong, X., et al., “The template-free synthesis of square-shaped SnO2 nanowires: the temperature effect and acetone gas sensors”, Nanotechnology, 19(18), 185705, April 2008.
[27]  Hu, J.Q., Ma, X.L., Shang, N.G., et al., “Large-scale rapid oxidation synthesis of SnO2 nanoribbons”, J. Phys. Chem. B, 106(15), 3823, March 2002.
[28]  Kong, X., Yu, D., and Li, Y., “Synthesis of SnO2 nanoribbons by direct oxidation of tin powders”, Chemistry Letters, 32(1), 100, 2003.
[29]  Liu, Y., Zheng, C., Wang, W., “Synthesis and characterization of rutile SnO2 nanorods”, Adv. Mater., 13, 1883, Dec 2001.
[30]  Xu, X., Zhuang, J., and Wang, X., “SnO2 quantum dots and quantum wires: controllable synthesis, self-assembled 2D architectures, and gas-sensing properties”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130(37), 12527, Aug 2008.
[31]  Zhu, H., Yang, D., Yu, G., and Yao, K., “A simple hydrothermal route for synthesizing SnO2 quantum dots”, Nanotechnology, 17(9), 2386, Apr 2006.
[32]  Wang, W.–W. and Yao, J.–L., “Hydrothermal synthesis of SnO2/Fe3O4 nanocomposites and their magnetic property”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 113(8), 3070, Jan 2009.
[33]  Yang, H.X., Qian, J.F., Chen, Z.X., et al., “Multilayered nanocrystalline SnO2 hollow microspheres synthesized by chemically induced self-assembly in the hydrothermal environment”, J. Phys. Chem C, 111(38), 14067, Sept 2007.
[34]  Chen, D. and Gao, L., “Facile synthesis of single-crystal tin oxide nanorods with tunable dimensions via hydrothermal process”, Chemical Physics Letters, 398(1 – 3), 201, Nov 2004.
[35]  Niu, M., Huang, F., Ciu, L., et al., “Hydrothermal synthesis, structural characteristics, and enhanced photocatalysis of SnO2/α-Fe2O3 semiconductor nanoheterostructures”, ACS Nano, 4(2), 681, Jan 2010.
[36]  Liu, Z., Sun, D.D., and Guo, P., and Leckie, J.O., “An efficient bicomponent TiO2/SnO2 nanofiber photocatalyst fabricated by electrospinning with a side-by-side dual spinneret method”, Nano Lett., 7(4), 1081, Sept 2007.
[37]  Patil, G.E., Kajale, D.D., and Chavan, D.N., et al., “Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing performance of SnO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis”, Bull. Mater. Sci., 34, 1, Feb 2011.
[38]  Liu, Y., Koep, E., and Liu, M., “A highly sensitive and fast-responding SnO2 sensor fabricated by combustion chemical vapor deposition”, Chem. Mater., 17(15), 3997, June 2005.
[39]  Davazoglou, D., “Optical properties of SnO2 thin films grown by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition oxiding SnCl4”, Thin Solid Films, 302(1-2), 204, June 1997.
[40]  Yin, W, Wei, B., and Hu, C., “In situ growth of SnO2 nanowires on the surface of Au-coated Sn grains using water-assisted chemical vapor deposition”, Chemical Physics Letters, 471(1-3), 11, 2009.
[41]  Olivi, P., Pereira, E.C., Longo, E., et al., “Preparation and characterization of a dip‐coated SnO2 film for transparent electrodes for transmissive electrochromic devices”, J. Electrochem. Soc., 140(5), L81, Feb 1993.
[42]  Novoselov, K.S., Geim, A.K., Morosov, S.V., et al., “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films”, Science 306(5696), 666, Oct 2004.
[43]  Singh, D.K., Iyer, P.K, and Giri, P.K., “Improved chemical synthesis of graphene using a safer solvothermal route”, International Journal of Nanoscience, 10(1), 1, February & April 2011.