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Article

Kinetics of Recovery of Alumina from Coal Fly Ash through Fusion with Sodium Hydroxide

1Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh


American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013, 1(3), 54-58
DOI: 10.12691/materials-1-3-6
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
M A Rahaman, M A Gafur, A S W Kurny. Kinetics of Recovery of Alumina from Coal Fly Ash through Fusion with Sodium Hydroxide. American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013; 1(3):54-58. doi: 10.12691/materials-1-3-6.

Correspondence to: A  S W Kurny, Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: aswkurny@mme.buet.ac.bd

Abstract

Keywords

References

[[[[[[[
[[1]  N A Siddique and A S W Kurny, “Kinetics of leaching of alumina from discarded high alumina refractory bricks”, International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 10 No: 01, pp 23-26.
 
[[2]  Abdel-Aal E.A., Rashad M.M., “Kinetic study on the leaching of spent nickel oxide catalyst with sulfuric acid”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 74, pp 189-194, 2004.
 
[[3]  U.K.Sultana, A.S.W.Kurny., “Kinetics of dissolution of iron oxide in clay in hydrochloric acid solutions”, Physical CHEMISTTRY, PCAIJ, 7(2), 63-67, 2012.
 
[[4]  Bazin C., El-Quassirri K., Uuellet V., “Sequential leaching for the recovery of alumina from a Canadian clay”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 88, pp 196-201, 2007.
 
[[5]  Felker K., Seeley F., Egan Z., Kelmers D., “Aluminum from fly ash”, ChemTech, Vol. 12, pp 123, 1982.
 
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[6]  SEIDEL A, SLUSZNY A, SHELEF G, ZIMMELS Y. Self inhibition of aluminum leaching from coal fly ash by sulfuric acid[J]. Chemical Engineering Journal, 1999, 72: 195-207.
 
[7]  KUMAMOTO J. Recovery of metal oxides from fly ash. Kobelco Technology Review, 1990(7): 53-57.
 
[8]  PADILLA R, SOHN H Y. Sintering Kinetics and Alumina Yield in lime-soda sinter process for alumina from coal wastes [J]. Metallurgical Transactions B, June- 1985, Volume 16B: 385.
 
[9]  MATJIE R H, BUNT J R, and HEERDEN J H P. Minerals Engineering, 2005, 18: 299-310.
 
[10]  BAI Guang-hui, et al/Trans. “Alkali desilicated coal fly ash as substitute of bauxite in lime-soda sintering process for aluminum production”, Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20(2010) s169-s175.
 
[11]  LU S, FANG R L, ZHAO H. Study of recovery of highly pure super-fine powdered aluminum oxide from fly ash by way of lime sintered self powdering [J]. Scientific Study, 2003(1): 15-17.
 
[12]  VIKTOR L R, SOLOMON A S, RONALD S D. Technology for chemical-metallurgical coal ash utilization [J]. Energy & Fuels, 1997, 11: 761-773.
 
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Article

Utilizing a Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Technique (MAF) Via Adaptive Nero Fuzzy (ANFIS)

1automation manufacturing engineering department, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq


American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013, 1(3), 49-53
DOI: 10.12691/materials-1-3-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Amer A. Moosa. Utilizing a Magnetic Abrasive Finishing Technique (MAF) Via Adaptive Nero Fuzzy (ANFIS). American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013; 1(3):49-53. doi: 10.12691/materials-1-3-5.

Correspondence to: Amer A. Moosa, automation manufacturing engineering department, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. Email: amermoosa@kecbu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

Abstract

An experimental study was conducted for measuring the quality of surface finishing roughness using magnetic abrasive finishing technique (MAF) on brass plate which is very difficult to be polish by a conventional machining process where the cost is high and much more susceptible to surface damage as compared to other materials. Four operation parameters were studied, the gap between the work piece and the electromagnetic inductor, the current that generate the flux, the rotational Spindale speed and amount of abrasive powder size considering constant linear feed movement between machine head and workpiece. Adaptive Neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was implemented for evaluation of a series of experiments and a verification with respect to specimen roughness change has been optimized and usefully achieved by obtained results were an average of the error between the surface roughness predicted by model simulation and that of direct measure is 2.0222 %.

Keywords

References

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[[1]  S.C. Jayswal, V.K. Jain, and P.M. Dixit, “Modeling and simulation of magnetic abrasive finishing process”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.26 (2005), pp. 477-490.
 
[[2]  Ching-Tien Lin, Lieh-Dai Yang, and Han-Ming Chow, “Study of magnetic abrasive finishing in free-form surface operations using the Taguchi method”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, (2006).
 
[[3]  Yan Wang, and Dejin Hu, ”Study on the inner surface finishing of tubing by magnetic abrasive finishing”, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol.45 (2005), pp. 43-49.
 
[[4]  Geeng-Wei Chang, Biing-Hwa, and Yan, Rong-Tzong Hsu, “Study on cylindrical magnetic abrasive finishing using unbounded magnetic abrasives”, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol.42 (2002), pp. 575-583.
 
[[5]  T. Mori, K. Hirota, and Y. Kawashima, “Clarification of magnetic abrasive finishing mechanism”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vols.143-144 (2003), pp. 682-686.
 
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[6]  V. S. Maiboroda and E. A. Khomenko, “Tribotechnical characteristics of ferroabrasive powders in magnetic-abrasion machining”, Journal of Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics, Vol.42 (2003), pp. 9-10.
 
[7]  Dhirendra K. Singh, V.K. Jain, and V. Raghuram., “Parametric study of magnetic abrasive finishing process”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.149 (2004), pp. 22-29.
 
[8]  Nazar kais M.naif“Study on the Parameter Optimization in Magnetic Abrasive Polishing for Brass Plate Using Taguchi Method “journal of college of engineering, vol,3(2011).9- Jae-SeobKwak and Tae-Kyung Kwak, “Parameter Optimization in Magnetic Abrasive Polishing for Magnesium Plate”, IEEE, Vol.5 (2010), pp.544-547.
 
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Article

The Preliminary Heating at Welding Copper and Steel

1Donbass State Engineering Academy, Kramatorsk, Ukraine


American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013, 1(3), 46-48
DOI: 10.12691/materials-1-3-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
P. A. Gavrish. The Preliminary Heating at Welding Copper and Steel. American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013; 1(3):46-48. doi: 10.12691/materials-1-3-4.

Correspondence to: P. A. Gavrish, Donbass State Engineering Academy, Kramatorsk, Ukraine. Email: nauka_breda@mail.ru

Abstract

Stability of process of welding of copper with copper and copper with steel is provided with a special thermal cycle which includes preliminary heating before welding. Difficulties welding copper and steel are connected with its physical and chemical properties, high affinity of copper to oxygen, the low temperature of melting of copper, considerable absorption by liquid copper of gases, various sizes of coefficients of heat conductivity, linear expansion etc. In view of high heat conductivity of copper the most part of heat entered at welding is removed from heat input zone that leads to necessity of supply to a place of welding considerably a more heat, than at welding other metals. More rational is the local heating. Using impulse heating of welded details at welding copper and steel instead of gas flame lowers carbonization of details’ surfaces. Uniformity of welded details microstructure is provided. Welding defects caused by non-uniform heating are eliminated.

Keywords

References

[[1]  Gavrish, P.A, Prevention of formation of crystallization cracks when welding copper with steel, The 10th International Scientific Conference ″New constructional became both alloys and methods of their processing for increase of reliability and durability of products ″, Zaporizhia National Technical University, Zaporizhia, 2005,77-79.
 
[[2]  Gavrish, P.A, Local thermal processing at welding copper with steel, Proceedings of 7th International Conference ”Equipment and Technologies for Heat Treatment of Metals and Alloys”, 2007, Vol. I, 133-137.
 
[[3]  Gavrish, P.A., Tulupov, V.I, Preliminary heating at welding of copper with steel / The 10th International Conference ″Research and Development in Mechanical Industry″. RaDMI 2010. In Memoriam of Prof.Dr Georgios Petropoulos. Donji Milanovac, Serbia, 16-17, Septemder, 2010, Vol.1, 156-158.
 
[[4]  Tulupov, V.I, Increase of depth of hardening at the electromechanical fair turning, “Reliability of the tool and optimization of technological systems”, HERALD of the Donbass State Engineering Academy, Collection of science papers, 2008, Vol.23, 277-282.
 
[[5]  Chigarev, V.V, Gavrish, P.A, Gribkov E.P, Investigation of the process of drawing flux-cored wire for welding cooper to steel, Taylor & Francis Engineering. Journal Welding international Vol.26, No 9, September, 2012, 718-722 ISSN 0950-7116.
 

Article

Predicting the Rheological Behavior of AISI D2 Semi-Solid Steel by Plastic Instability Approach

1Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013, 1(3), 41-45
DOI: 10.12691/materials-1-3-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A. kalaki, M. ketabchi. Predicting the Rheological Behavior of AISI D2 Semi-Solid Steel by Plastic Instability Approach. American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013; 1(3):41-45. doi: 10.12691/materials-1-3-3.

Correspondence to: M. ketabchi, Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. Email: ketabchi@aut.ac.ir

Abstract

Determining tool steels properties, especially deformation and flow behavior in the semi-solid zone, is an essential parameter for thixoforming process. The main objective of this work is an analysis microstructure and flow behavior determining of AISI D2 tool steel in the combined uniaxial constant load compression and electrical resistance heating in the semi-solid state. The as-received material used for experiments, were in the hot rolled-annealed condition. The globular solid particles suspended in liquid phase, were obtained by the joule heating of samples. The experiments were carried out for 0.2 to 0.3 liquid phase fraction under 160N uniaxial constant load in the specimens with 10 mm height and the same Diameter value. Microstructural evaluation before and after heating has also been presented. Structural and elemental analysis was performed with the help of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The microhardness test has been carried out on the solid particles of quenched samples. The hardness values were changed from 317HV0.1 to 463HV0.1 by increasing the liquid phase. Finally, a new approach based on plastic instability and power law equation was used for flow behavior detection. The results showed that combination joule heating and plastic instability approach is compatible for flow behavior detection of AISI D2 steels in the semi-solid state.

Keywords

References

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[[1]  Fan, Z., 2002. Semi-solid metal processing. Inter. Mater. Rev. 47, 21, 1-37.
 
[[2]  Bigot, R., Favier, V., Rouff, C., 2005. Characterization of semi-solid material mechanical behavior by indentation test. J. Mater. Process. TechnoL. 160, 43-53.
 
[[3]  Hirt, G., Kopp, R., 2009. thixoforming: Semi -Solid metal processing. S.l. first ed. WILEY.VCH Verlag GmbH, Germany, 25-38.
 
[[4]  Koke, J., Modigell, M., 2003. Flow behavior of semi-solid metal alloys. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 2003, 141-160.
 
[[5]  Kiuchi, M., Kopp, R., 2002. Mushy/Semi-solid metal forming technology-present and future. Manuf. Technol. 51, 2, 653-670.
 
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[6]  Kopp, R., Neudenberger, D., Winning, W., 2001. Different concepts of thixoforging and experiments for rheological data. J. Mater. process. technol. 111, 48-52.
 
[7]  Kiuchi, M., Yanagimoto, J., Yokobayashi, H., 2001. Flow Stress, Yield Criterion and Constitutive Equation of Mushy/Semi -Solid Alloys. Manuf. Technol. 50, 1, 157-160.
 
[8]  Macioł, P., Zalecki, W., Kuziak, R., 2010. Results of experimental investigations of tool steel during forming in semi-solid state. Int. J. Mater. Form. 2010, Vol. 3, suppl 1, 759-762.
 
[9]  Sołek, K P., Łukaszek-Sołek, A., 2008. Analysis of the heating process and development of a microstructure. Int. J. Mater. Form. 1, 1015-1018.
 
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Article

Experimental Studies on Fly Ash-Sand-Lime Bricks with Gypsum Addition

1Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh


American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013, 1(3), 35-40
DOI: 10.12691/materials-1-3-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tahmina Banu, Md. Muktadir Billah, Fahmida Gulshan, ASW Kurny. Experimental Studies on Fly Ash-Sand-Lime Bricks with Gypsum Addition. American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013; 1(3):35-40. doi: 10.12691/materials-1-3-2.

Correspondence to: ASW Kurny, Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: aswkurny@mme.buet.ac.bd

Abstract

Coal fly ash, a burnt residue of pulverized coal, is hazardous and its disposal is a problem. In Bangladesh, the annual generation of this waste is approximately 0.6 million tons. On a global basis, less than 20 percent of coal fly ash (CFA) is used in the concrete related applications while the remainder is disposed of in landfills leading to various environmental problems such as polluting soils and groundwater. In this study, production of light weight structural bricks using fly ash, generated at Barapukuria Thermal Power Plant, as the major ingredient has been investigated. Optimum mix of fly ash, sand, hydrated lime and gypsum has been identified and the brick forming pressure was also optimized. 55% fly ash, 30% sand and 15% hydrated lime with 14% gypsum was found to be the optimum mix. The compressive strength, microstructure, shrinkage property, unit volume weight, Initial rate of absorption, absorption capacity, apparent porosity, open pore and impervious pore of the fly ash–sand–lime-gypsum bricks produced with optimized composition under various brick forming pressures were determined. Efflorescence and radio activity of the bricks formed under optimized conditions were also investigated. Later on effect of various curing process and variation of curing period were studied. The results of this study suggested that it was possible to produce good quality light weight non-fired structural bricks from coal fly ash generated at Barapukuria Thermal Power Plant.

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References

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Article

Kinetics of Recovery of Alumina from Aluminium Casting Waste through Fusion with Sodium Hydroxide

1Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh


American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013, 1(3), 30-34
DOI: 10.12691/materials-1-3-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
U K Sultana, Fahmida Gulshan, M A Gafur, A S W Kurny. Kinetics of Recovery of Alumina from Aluminium Casting Waste through Fusion with Sodium Hydroxide. American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2013; 1(3):30-34. doi: 10.12691/materials-1-3-1.

Correspondence to: A S W Kurny, Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: aswkurny@mme.buet.ac.bd

Abstract

Aluminium dross containing 72% Al2O3 and 14.0% SiO2 was fused with NaOH for a period of up to 60 minutes in the temperature range of 500 – 750°C in a stainless steel crucible. The fused mass was dissolved in water. Amount of alumina in the solution was determined by EDTA compleximetric (masking and demasking) chemical method. The optimum condition for alumina extraction was determined as NaOH to aluminium dross weight ratio = 3.5, temperature = 750°C and time 60 minutes. Avrami-Erofeev equation [-ln (1-α) = (k3t) m, m = 3/2] seemed to be most appropriate one to fit the kinetic data of fusion of aluminium dross with NaOH. The activation energy was found to be 6.452kJ/mol.

Keywords

References

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[6]  Bazin C., El-Quassirri K., Uuellet V., “Sequential leaching for the recovery of alumina from a Canadian clay”, Hydrometallurgy, Vol. 88, pp 196-201, 2007.
 
[7]  Felker K., Seeley F., Egan Z., Kelmers D., “Aluminum from fly ash”, ChemTech, Vol. 12, pp 123, 1982.
 
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