American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology
ISSN (Print): 2333-8903 ISSN (Online): 2333-8911 Website: Editor-in-chief: Serge Samper
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2015, 3(2), 19-26
DOI: 10.12691/materials-3-2-1
Open AccessReview Article

Dental Ceramics: Part II – Recent Advances in Dental Ceramics

Srinivasa Raju Datla1, Rama Krishna Alla2, , Venkata Ramaraju Alluri1, Jithendra Babu P1 and Anusha Konakanchi3

1Department of Prosthodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

2Department of Dental Materials, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

3Department of Chemistry, Sasi Merit School, Bhimavaram, West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

Pub. Date: April 23, 2015

Cite this paper:
Srinivasa Raju Datla, Rama Krishna Alla, Venkata Ramaraju Alluri, Jithendra Babu P and Anusha Konakanchi. Dental Ceramics: Part II – Recent Advances in Dental Ceramics. American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology. 2015; 3(2):19-26. doi: 10.12691/materials-3-2-1


Over the last decade, it has been observed that there is an increasing interest in the ceramic materials in dentistry. Esthetically these materials are preferred alternatives to the traditional materials in order to meet the patients’ demands for improved esthetics. Dental ceramics are usually composed of nonmetallic, inorganic structures primarily containing compounds of oxygen with one or more metallic or semi-metallic elements. Ceramics are used for making crowns, bridges, artificial denture teeth, and implants. The use of conservative ceramic inlay preparations, veneering porcelains is increasing, along with all-ceramic complete crown preparations. The earlier ceramics are very fragile and can not with stand the high tensile forces. Several modifications have been made in ceramics in order to address this quandary. This article is a review of dental ceramics; divided into two parts such as part I and II. Part I reviews the composition, structure and properties of dental ceramics from the literature available in PUBMED and other sources from the past 50 years. Part II reviews the developments in evolution of all ceramic systems over the last decade and considers the state of the art in several extended materials and material properties.

all-ceramics sintering feldspar silica glass firing slip casting zirconia CAD-CAM

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Rama Krishna Alla, Dental Materials Science, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt Limited, New Delhi, India, 2013, 1st Edition, 333-354.
[2]  Sukumaran VG, Bharadwaj N, Ceramics in Dental Applications, Trends Biomater. Artif. Organs, 20(1), 7-11, Jan 2006.
[3]  Badami V, Ahuja B, Biosmart materials: Breaking new ground in dentistry, The Scientific World J, Article ID 986912, 7 pages, Volume Feb 2014.
[4]  Denry I, Holloway JA, Ceramics for dental applications: A Review, Materials, 3, 351-368, Jan 2010.
[5]  Hämmerle C, Sailer I, Thoma A, Hälg G, Suter A, and Ramel C, Dental Ceramics: Essential Aspects for Clinical Practice, Quintessence, Surrey, 2008.
[6]  Ho GW, Matinlinna JP, Insights on porcelain as a dental material. Part I: ceramic material types in dentistry, Silicon, 3(3), 109-15, July 2011.
[7]  Lung CYK, Matinlinna JP, Aspects of silane coupling agents and surface conditioning in dentistry: An overview, Dent Mater, 28(5), 467-77, May 2012.
[8]  Garber DA, Goldstein RE, Porcelain and Composite Inlays and Onlays: Esthetic Posterior Restorations, Quintessence, Chicago, 1994.
[9]  Touati B, Miara P, Nathanson D, Esthetic Dentistry and Ceramic Restorations, Martin Dunitz, London, 1999.
[10]  Jithendra Babu P, Rama Krishna Alla, Venkata Ramaraju Alluri, Srinivasa Raju Datla, Anusha Konakanchi, “Dental Ceramics: Part I - An Overview of Composition, Structure and Properties.” American Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology, 3(1): 13-18, Mar 2015.
[11]  Anusavice KJ, Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials, Elsevier, A division of Reed Elsevier India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, India, 2010, 11th Edition, 655-720.
[12]  Sakaguchi RL, Powers JM, Craig’s Restorative Dental Materials, Elsevier, Mosby, A division of Reed Elsevier India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, India, 2007, 12th Edition, 443-464.
[13]  Denry IL, Recent advances in ceramics for dentistry, Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 7(2):134-143, 1996.
[14]  Vergano PJ, Hill DC, Uhlmann DR, Thermal expansion of feldspar glasses. J. Am. Ceram. Soc, 50, 59-60, 1967.
[15]  Mackert, J.R., Jr.; Butts, M.B.; Fairhurst, C.W. The effect of the leucite transformation on dental porcelain expansion. Dent Mater, 2, 32-36, Feb 1986.
[16]  Paul P, Reddy SND, RK Alla, Rajasigamani K, Chidambaram, Evaluation of shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets bonded to ceramic crowns etched with Er; Cr: YSGG Laser and Hydrofluoric acid: An In vitro study, Brit J Medical Med Res, 7(7): 550-560, March 2015.
[17]  Meyer, J.M.; O'Brien, W.J.; Cu, Y. Sintering of dental porcelain enamels. J. Dent. Res, 55(4), 696-699, Jul 1976.
[18]  Claus, H.; Rauter, H. The structure and microstructure of dental porcelain in relationship to the firing conditions. Int. J. Prosthodont, 2, 376-384, 1989.
[19]  Cheung KC, Darvell BW, Sintering of dental porcelain: effect of time and temperature on appearance and porosity, Dent Mater, 18(2): 163-173, Mar 2002.
[20]  Chu SJ, Use of a synthetic low fusing quartz glass-ceramic material for the fabrication of metal-ceramic restorations, Pract Proced Aesthet Dent, 13(5):375-380, jun/jul 2001.
[21]  Bergmann CP, Stumpf A, Micro structure of ceramic materials, in Dental Ceramics: Microstructure, Properties and degradation, Springer, New York, USA, 2013; 31-44.
[22]  Shenoy A, Shenoy N, Dental Ceramics: An Update, J Cons Dent, 13(4):195-203, Oct 2010.
[23]  Bumgardner JD, Lucas LC. Cellular response to metallic ions released from nickelchromium dental alloys. J Dent Res, 74(8):1521-7 Aug 1995.
[24]  Venclíkova Z, Benada O, Bártova J, Joska L, Mrklas L. Metallic pigmentation of human teeth and gingiva: Morphological and immunological aspects. Dent Mater J, 26:96-104, Jan 2007.
[25]  Mehulic K, Prlic A, Komar D, Prskalo K. The release of metal ions in the gingival fluid of prosthodontic patients Acta Stomatol Croat, 39:47-51, Mar 2005.
[26]  Houndrum SO. A review of the strength properties of dental ceramics. J Prosthet Dent 67:859-65, Jun 1992.
[27]  Frazier KB, Mjor IA, The teaching of all- ceramic restorations in North American dental schools: materials and techniques employed. J Esthet Dent. 9(2):86-93, 1997.
[28]  Kelly JR. Dental Ceramics: current thinking and trends. Dent clin N Am, 48(2): 513-530, Apr 2004.
[29]  Raigrodski AJ Contemporary all-ceramic fixed partial dentures: a review Dent Clin N Am 48(2): 531-44, Apr 2004.
[30]  Mclean JW, Hughes TH. The reinforcement of dental porcelain with ceramic oxides. BR Dent J, 119(6);251-67, Sep 1965.
[31]  Lawn BR, Pajares A, Yuzang et al. Materials design in the performance of all-ceramic crowns. Biomaterials 25(14);2885-92, Jun 2004.
[32]  Sozio RB, Riley EJ. The shrink-free ceramic crown. J Prosthet Dent, 49(2):182-9, Feb 1983.
[33]  Pilathadka S, Vahalová D, Contemporary all-ceramic materials, Part- 1, ACTA MEDICA (Hradec Králové) 2007;50(2):101-104.
[34]  Bergmann CP, Stumpf A, Micro structure of ceramic materials, in Dental Ceramics: Microstructure, Properties and degradation, Springer, New York, USA, 2013; 31-44.
[35]  Piche PW, O'Brien WJ, Groh CL, Boenke KM, Leucite content of selected dental porcelains, Biomed Mater Res 28(5):603-609, May 1994.
[36]  Denry IL, Rosenstiel SF, Phase transformations in feldspathic dental porcelains. In: Bioceramics: materials and applications. Fischman G, Clare A, Hench L, editors. Westerville: The American Ceramic Society, 1995, 149-156.
[37]  Vaidyanathan TK, Vaidyanathan J, Prasad A, Properties of a new dental porcelain, Scanning Microsc 3:1023-1033, 1989.
[38]  Katz S, inventor, American Thermocraft Corp., assignee. High strength feldspathic dental porcelains containing crystalline leucite. US patent 4,798,536. Jan 1989.
[39]  Sadaqah NR, Ceramic Laminate Veneers: Materials Advances and Selection. Open Journal of Stomatology, 4, 268-279, May 2014.
[40]  Guess PC, Schultheis S, Bonfante EA, Coelho PG, Ferencz J, et al, All-Ceramic Systems: Laboratory and Clinical Performance. Dental Clinics of North America, 55(2), 333-352, Apr 2011.
[41]  Fons-Font A, Solá-Ruíz MF, Granell-Ruíz M, Labaig-Rueda C, Martínez-González A, Choice of Ceramic for Use in Treatments with Porcelain Laminate Veneers. Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal, 11(3), E297-E302, May 2006.
[42]  Conrad HJ, Seong WL, Pesun IJ, Current Ceramic Materials and Systems with Clinical Recommendations: A Systematic Review. J Prosthet Dent, 98(5), 389-404, Nov 2007.
[43]  Kelly JR, Benett P, Ceramic Materials in Dentistry: Historical Evolution and Current Practice. Aust Dent J, 56, 84-96, Jun 2011.
[44]  Atala MH, Gul EB, How to Strengthen Dental Ceramics. Int J Dent Sci Res, 3(1):24-27, Jan 2015.
[45]  Van Noort R, Introduction to Dental Materials, Mosby, Spain, 1994: 201-214.
[46]  Kelly JR. Dispersion strengthened composite.US Patent 4978640 Issued Dec 18th 1990.
[47]  Kelly JR. Dental ceramics: What is this stuff anyway? J Am Dent Assoc, 139:4S-7S, Sep 2008.
[48]  O'Brien WJ, Magnesia ceramic jacket crowns. Dent Clin North Am 29(4):719-724, Oct 1985.
[49]  O'Brien WJ, Groh CL, Boenke KM, Mora GP, Tien TY, The strengthening mechanism of a magnesia core ceramic. Dent Mater 9(4):242-245, Jul 1993.
[50]  Wagner WC, O'Brien WJ, Mora GP, Fracture-surface analysis of a glaze-strengthened magnesia core material. Int ] Prosthodont 5(5):475-478, Sept-Oct 1992.
[51]  Sadaqah NR, Ceramic Laminate Veneers: Materials Advances and Selection. Open Journal of Stomatology, 4, 268-279, May 2014.
[52]  Piconi C, Maccauro G, Zirconia as a Ceramic Biomaterial. Biomater, 20(1): 1-25, Jan 1999.
[53]  Garvie RC, Hannink RH, Passcoe RT, Ceramic Steel? Nature, 258, 703-704, 1975.
[54]  Garvie, RC, Nicholson PS, Phase Analysis in Zirconia Systems. J Am Cer Soc, 55, 303-305, 1972.
[55]  Luthardt RG, Sandkuhl O, Reitz B, Zirconia-TZP and Alumina—Advanced Technologies for the Manufacturing of Single Crowns. Eur J Prosthodont Rest Dent, 7(4), 113-119, Dec 1999.
[56]  Kosmac T, Oblak C, Jevnikar P, Funduk N, Marion L, The Effect of Surface Grinding and Sandblasting on Flexural Strength and Reliability of Y-TZP Zirconia Ceramic. Dent Mater, 15(6), 426-433, Nov 1999.
[57]  Raigrodski AJ, Contemporary All-Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures: A Review. Dent Clin Nort Am, 48(2), 531-544, Apr 2004.
[58]  Raut A, Rao PL, Ravindranath T. Zirconium for esthetic rehabilitation: An overview. Indian J Dent Res,22(1):140-3, Jan-Feb 2011.
[59]  Aboushelib MN, Kleverlaan CJ, Feilzer AJ, Microtensile Bond Strength of Different Components of Core Veneered All-Ceramic Restorations. Part 3: Double Veneer Technique. J Prosthodont, 17(1): 9-13, Jan 2008.
[60]  Adair PJ. Glass ceramic dental products. 1982. US Patent 4,431,420, 1984 - Google Patents.
[61]  Grossman D. Tetrasilicic mica glassceramic method. 1973. US Patent 3,732,087, 1973 - Google Patents.
[62]  Stookey SD. Method of making ceramics and products thereof, 1956. US Patent 2,920,971, 1960 - Google Patents.
[63]  Griggs JA, Recent advances in materials for all-ceramic restorations, Den Clin North Am, 51(3):713, July 2007.
[64]  Pallis K, Griggs JA, Woody RD, Guillen GE, Miller AW. Fracture resistance of three all-ceramic restorative systems for posterior applications. J Prosthet Dent, 91(6):561-569, Jun 2004.
[65]  Sulaiman F, Chai J, Jameson LM, Wozniak WT. A comparison of the marginal fit of In-Ceram, IPS Empress, and Procera crowns. Int J Prosthodont, 10(5):478-484, Sep-Oct 1997.
[66]  Yeo IS, Yang JH, Lee JB. In vitro marginal fit of three all-ceramic crown systems. J Prosthet Dent, 90(5):459-464, Nov 2003.
[67]  Scotti R, Catapano S, D’Elia A. A clinical evaluation of In-Ceram crowns. Int J Prosthodont, 8(4):320-3, Jul-Aug 1995.
[68]  Probster L, Diehl J. Slip casting alumina ceramics for crown and bridge restorations. Quintessence Int,23(1):25-31, Jan 1992.
[69]  Wolf WD, Francis LF, Lin CP, Douglas WH (1993). Meltinfiltration processing and fracture toughness of alumina-glass dental composites. J Am Ceram Soc 76:2691-2694.
[70]  Wen MY, Mueller HJ, Chai J, Wozniak WT, Comparative Mechanical Property Characterization of 3 All-Ceramic Core Materials. Int J Prosthodont, 12(6), 534-541, Nov-Dec 1999.
[71]  Seghi, R.R., Denry, I.L. and Rosenstiel, S.F. (1995) Relative Fracture Toughness and Hardness of New Dental Ceramics. J Prosthet Dent, 74(2): 145-150, Aug 1995.
[72]  Guazzato M, Albakry M, Swain MV, Ironside J, Mechanical Properties of In-Ceram Alumina and In-Ceram Zirconia. Int J Prosthodont, 15(4), 339-346, Jul-Aug 2002.
[73]  Heffernan MJ, Aquilino SA, Diaz-Arnold AM, Haselton DR, Stanford CM, Vargas MA, Relative Translucency of Six All-Ceramic Systems. Part I: Core Materials. J Prosthet Dent, 88(1), 4-9, Jul 2002.
[74]  Raigrodski AJ, Contemporary Materials and Technologies for All-Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures: A Review of the Literature. J Prosthet Dent, 92(6), 557-562, Dec 2004.
[75]  Sundh A, Sjögren G, A Comparison of Fracture Strength of Yttrium-Oxide-Partially-Stabilized Zirconia Ceramic Crowns with Varying Core Thickness, Shapes and Veneer Ceramics. J Oral Rehabil, 31(7), 682-688, Jul 2004.
[76]  Seghi R, Sorensen J, Relative flexural strength of six new ceramic materials. Int. J. Prosthodont, 8(3), 239-246, May-Jun 1995.
[77]  Guazzato M, Albakry M, Ringer SP, Swain MV, Strength, fracture toughness and microstructure of a selection of all-ceramic materials. Part I. Pressable and alumina glassinfiltrated ceramics. Dent. Mater, 20(5), 441-448, Jun 2004.
[78]  Denry IL, Mackert JRJ, Holloway JA, Rosenstiel SF, Effect of cubic leucite stabilization on the flexural strength of feldspathic dental porcelain. J. Dent. Res. 75(12), 1928-1935, Dec 1996.
[79]  Mackert JR, Jr, Williams AL, Microcracks in dental porcelains and their behavior during multiple firing. J. Dent. Res, 75(7), 1484-1490, Jul 1996.
[80]  Dong JK, Luthy H, Wohlwend A, Heat-pressed ceramics: Technology and strength. Int. J. Prosthodont, 5(1), 9-16, Jan-Feb 1992.
[81]  Höland W, Apel E, van't Hoen C, Rheinberger V, Studies of crystal phase formations in highstrength lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 4041-4050, 2006.
[82]  Borom, MP, Turkalo AM, Doremus, R.H. Strength and microstructure in lithium disilicate glass-ceramics. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 58, 385-391, 1975.
[83]  Albakry M, Guazzato M, Swain MV, Influence of hot pressing on the microstructure and fracture toughness of two pressable dental glass-ceramics. J. Biomed. Mater. Res, 71(1), 99-107, Oct 2004.
[84]  Thiel S, Schnapp JD, Anisotropic crack extension in aligned glass ceramic. J Non-Cryst. Solids, 242, 189-194, Dec 1998.
[86]  McLean JW, Kedge MI, High-strength ceramics. Quintessence Int 18:97-106, 1987.
[87]  Wohlwend A, Strub JR, Scharer P, Metal ceramic and all-porcelain restorations: current considerations. Int I Prosthodont 2(1):13-26, Jan-Feb 1989.
[88]  Fairhurst CW, Dental Ceramics: The state of the science, Adv Dent Res, 6: 78-81, Sep 1992.
[89]  Taskonak B, Anusavice K, Mecholsky J, Role of Investment Interaction Layer on Strength and Toughness of Ceramic Laminates. Dent Mater, 20(8), 701-708, Oct 2004.
[90]  Mormann WH, The Evolution of the CEREC System. J Am Dent Assoc, 137,7S-13S, Sep 2006.
[91]  Miyazaki T, Hotta Y, Kunii J, Kuriyama S, Tamaki Y, A review of dental CAD/CAM: Current status and future perspectives from 20 years of experience, Dent Mater J, 28(1): 44-56, Jan 2009.
[92]  Duret F, Preston JD. CAD/CAM imaging in dentistry. Curr Opin Dent, 1(2): 150-154, Apr 1991.
[93]  Mormann WH, Brandestini M, Lutz F, Barbakow F. Chair side computer-aided direct ceramic inlays. Quintessence Int, 20(5): 329-339, May 1989.
[94]  Grossman DG, Structure and physical properties of Dicor/MGC glass-ceramic. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on computer restorations. Mormann WHr editor. Chicago: Quintessence, 103-114, 1991.
[95]  Sita Ramaraju DV, Rama Krishna Alla, Venkata Ramaraju Alluri, Raju MAKV, A Review of Conventional and Contemporary Luting Agents Used in Dentistry. American Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, 2(3): 28-35, Aug 2014.
[96]  Dhillon J, Tayal SC, Tayal A, Amita, Kaur AD, Clinical aspects of adhesion of all ceramics: An Update, Ind J Dent Sci, 4(4): 123-126, Oct 2012.
[97]  Ravi RK, Alla RK, Shammas M, Devarhubli A, Dental Composties – A Versatile Restorative material: An Overview, Ind J Dent Sci, 5(5), 111-115, Dec 2013.
[98]  Scherrer SS, de Rijk WG, Belser UC, Meyer JM, Effect of cement film thickness on the fracture resistance of a machinable glass-ceramic. Dent Mater 10(3):172-177, May 1994.
[99]  McLaren EA, Sorensen JA, High strength alumina crowns and fixed partial dentures generated by copy-milling technology. Quintessence Dent Technol 18:31-38, 1995.
[100]  Andersson M, Oden A. A new all-ceramic crown: a dense-sintered, high purity alumina coping with porcelain. Acta Odontol Scand 51(1): 59-64, Feb 1993.
[101]  Mantri SS, Bhasin AS, CAD/CAM Dental Restorations: An Overview, Annals and Essences of Dentistry, 2(3): 123-128, Sept 2010.
[102]  Chaiyabutr Y, Kois JC, Lebeau D, Nunokawa G, Effect of Abutment Tooth Color, Cement Color, and Ceramic Thickness on the Resulting Optical Color of a CAD/CAM Glass Ceramic Lithium Disilicate-Reinforced Crown. J Prosthet Dent, 105(2), 83-90, Feb 2011.
[103]  Alghazzawi TF, Lemons J, Liu PR, Essig ME, Janowski GM, Evaluation of the Optical Properties of CAD-CAM Generated Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia and Glass-Ceramic Laminate Veneers. J Prosthet Dent, 107(5), 300-308, May 2012.
[104]  Shammas M, Alla RK, Color and shade matching in dentistry, Trends Biomater Artif Organs, 25(4):172-175, 2011.
[105]  Bona AD, Pecho OE, Ghinea R, Cardona JC, Pérez MM, Colour parameters and shade correspondence of CAD-CAM ceramic systems, J Dent. S0300-5712(15)00055-X, Mar 2015.
[106]  Saracoglu A, Cura C, Cotert HS. Effect of various surface treatment methods on the bond strength of the heat-pressed ceramic samples. J Oral Rehabil. 2004;31(8):790-7.
[107]  Lacy AM, LaLuz J, Watanabe LG, Dellinges M, Effect of porcelain surface treatment on the bond strength to composites. J Prosthet Dent. 1988;60(3): 288-291.
[108]  Barbosa VLT, Alameda MA, Chevitarese O, Keith O. Direct bonding to porcelain. Am. J Orthod. 1995;107:159-64.
[109]  Neis CA, Albuquerque NLG, de Souza Albuquerque I, Gomes EA, de Souza-Filho CB, Feitosa VP, Spazzin AO, Bacchi A, Surface Treatments for Repair of Feldspathic, Leucite- and Lithium Disilicate-Reinforced Glass Ceramics Using Composite Resin, Braz Dent J, 26(2): 152-155, 2015.
[110]  Noro A, Kameyama A, Haruyama A, Takahashi T, Influence of hydrophilic pre-treatment on resin bonding to zirconia ceramics, Bull Tokyo Dent Coll, 56(1): 33-39, 2015.