Journal of Sociology and Anthropology
ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending ISSN (Online): ISSN Pending Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jsa Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2019, 3(1), 1-10
DOI: 10.12691/jsa-3-1-1
Open AccessCase Study

Citizen Journalism in the Digital Age: The Case of the 2011 Social Protests in Egypt

Isam Mrah1,

1Regional Teaching Training Center, Oujda, Morocco

Pub. Date: January 22, 2019

Cite this paper:
Isam Mrah. Citizen Journalism in the Digital Age: The Case of the 2011 Social Protests in Egypt. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 2019; 3(1):1-10. doi: 10.12691/jsa-3-1-1

Abstract

This study set out to explore the functions and affordances of Twitter for protest movements through a case study of the 2011 Egyptian uprising. Drawing on theories of social networks and social movements, this study adds to the growing body of scholarship on online activism in an attempt to explore how activists mobilize Web 2.0 technologies in times of social and political unrest. The paper hypothesized that the usage of Twitter for political activism should perform the primary function of citizen journalism which has the potential to effectively disseminate information to large audiences and raise awareness towards the protest movement. To test this hypothesis, this research undertook a content analysis of tweets, particularly the #jan25 hashtag, to verify whether they fulfill the functions of citizen journalism. The results obtained from this study were consistent with the formulated hypothesis. The findings offer a useful foundation for further studies on online political activism in developing countries, particularly the MENA region.

Keywords:
citizen journalism social movements 2011 Egyptian uprising twitter

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Shirky. The olitical power of social media., Foreign Affairs, 90 (1), 28-41, 2011.
 
[2]  Gladwell, M,. “Small Change: Why the revolution will not be tweeted,” New York Times, 2010.
 
[3]  Howard, P.N.,& and Hussain, M. M,. Democracy’s fourth wave: Digital media and the Arab Spring, Oxford University Press, 2013.
 
[4]  Howard, P.N, The digital origins of dictatorship and democracy: Information technology and political Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
 
[5]  Joyce, M.C, Digital activism decoded: The new mechanics of change. Idebate Press., 2010.
 
[6]  Khamis, S., & Vaughn, K, “Cyberactivism in the Egyptian revolution: How civic engagement and citizen journalism tilted the balance.” Arab Media Society, 13(3), 2011.
 
[7]  Khatib, L, “Image politics in the Middle East: The role of the visual in political struggle” I.B.Tauris, 2013.
 
[8]  Lindgren, “The potential and limitations of Twitter activism: Mapping the 2011 Libyan uprising” Tripple C, 11(1), 2013, 207-220.
 
[9]  Lotan, G., Graeff, E., Ananny, M., Gaffney, D., Pearce, I., & Boyd, D, “The Arab Spring|The revolutions were tweeted: Information flows during the 2011 Tunisian and Egyptian.” International Journal of Communication, 2011.
 
[10]  Morozov, E, The net delusion. London: Penguin Books, 2011.
 
[11]  Papacharissi, Z. (2015). Affective publics: Sentiment, technology, and politics. Oxford University Press.
 
[12]  Burns, A., & Eltham, B., "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of Twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis" In: Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009, 19th-20th November 2009, University of Technology, Sydney.
 
[13]  Chodak, J, "New petterns of protest and revolution in the age of social media," KONTEKSTY SPOŁECZNE, 1 (7), 54-68, 2016.
 
[14]  Tusa, F, "How social media can shape a protest movement: The cases of Egypt in 2011 and Iran in 2009," Arab Media and Society, 2 (17), 2013.
 
[15]  Rucht, Dieter, Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens and Social Movements. Routledge, 2004.
 
[16]  Atton, C, Alternative media, Thousand Oaks, 2002, CA: Sage Publications.
 
[17]  Thomas CW, " Beware of the Third Eye: The Impact of Citizen Journalism in the Digital Age" J Mass Communicat Journalism 5:e159. 2015.
 
[18]  Poell, T., & Borra, E, "Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr as platforms of alternative journalism: The social media account of the 2011 Toronto G20 protests" SageJournals, 13, (6), 2011.
 
[19]  Tumber, H., & Waisbord, S,. The Routledge companion to media and human rights. Routledge, 2017.
 
[20]  The Ecomomist, "Social media: The people formely known as the audience" The Economist, July 2011.
 
[21]  Allen, S., & Thorsen, E. (Eds.), Citizen journalism: Global perspectives, Peter Lang. Anderson, L. (Vol. 1), 2011.
 
[22]  Franklin, B, The Future of journalism, Routledge, 2013.
 
[23]  Boyd, D, "Social network sites as networked publics: Affordances, dynamics, and implications," Research Gate, 2010.
 
[24]  Sunstein, C. R, Infotopia. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
 
[25]  Adams, N, "A crowd content analysis assembly line: Annotating text units of analysis," SSRN, July 2016.
 
[26]  Bruns A., & Burgess, J, "The use of Twitter hashtags in the formation of Ad Hoc publics" Paper presented at the 6th European Consortium for Political Research General Conference, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, 25-27, August 2011.
 
[27]  Wilson, C., & Dunn, A. "Digital media in the Egyptian revolution: Descriptive analysis from the Tahrir data sets" International Journal of Communication 5, 1248-1272, 2011.
 
[28]  Bastos, M. T, Raimundo, R, L .G., & Rodrigo, T, "Gatekeeping Twitter: Message diffusion in political hashtags," Media, Culture & Society, SGAE publications, 2013.
 
[29]  Castells, M, Communication power. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
 
[30]  Boyd, d., Golder, S., & Lotan, G,. "Tweet, tweet, retweet: Conversational aspects of retweeting on Twitter". Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2010.