World Journal of Preventive Medicine
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World Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2017, 5(1), 26-32
DOI: 10.12691/jpm-5-1-4
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Occupational Health Hazards in Small and Medium-scale Manufacturing Industries in Anambra State, South East, Nigeria

Eguvbe A.O1, , Akpede N2 and Egbagba J.E3

1Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

2Department of Community Medicine, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State

Pub. Date: August 08, 2017

Cite this paper:
Eguvbe A.O, Akpede N and Egbagba J.E. Occupational Health Hazards in Small and Medium-scale Manufacturing Industries in Anambra State, South East, Nigeria. World Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2017; 5(1):26-32. doi: 10.12691/jpm-5-1-4


Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) defined "occupational health” as dealing with all aspects of health and safety in the workplace and has a strong focus on primary prevention of hazards. A hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or someone under certain conditions at work. Globally, there are 2.9 billion workers who are exposed to hazardous risk at their work places. Annually, there are two million deaths that are attributable to occupational diseases and injuries, while 4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is lost due to occupational diseases and injuries. Objectives: To assess the occupational health hazards in small and medium-scale manufacturing industries in Anambra State. Methodology: This was a comparative descriptive cross-sectional study amongst registered medium and small-scale manufacturing industries in Anambra State. Data were collected using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS version 17. An inspection of the industries was done and the measurement of noise level, dust and psychosocial hazards within the factory floor was carried out. Results: A preponderance of male staff was found in the small scale (77.6%) and medium scale (75.0%) industries. The medical staffs constituted 7.4% in the medium scale industries and 2.1% in the small scale industries. The medical staff in both the small and medium scale industries constituted only 3.9% of the total work force. The average noise level was found to be higher in the medium scale industries (76.2) as compared to the small scaled industries (72.6). The average environmental dust concentration and psychosocial hazards were found to be higher in the small scale industries (2.3mg/m3 and 52.1%); as compared to the medium scale industries (1.1mg/m3 and 26.3%) respectively. Cuts and injuries constituted 41.2%; 35.4 and 25.9%; 30.0 of complaints by workers associated with hazards in the small and medium scale industries respectively. Conclusion: The average noise level was higher in the medium scale industries and generally lower than the threshold limits value (TLV) for noise of 85dB over an 8 hour working period. The average environmental dust concentration and psychosocial hazards were higher in the small scale industries. There was high potentials for accidents and injuries.

occupational health hazards small medium scale manufacturing industries

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