World Journal of Preventive Medicine
ISSN (Print): 2379-8823 ISSN (Online): 2379-8866 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jpm Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
World Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2015, 3(3), 61-72
DOI: 10.12691/jpm-3-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Continuous Low Level Heat Wraps; Faster Healing and Pain Relief during Rehabilitation for Back, Knee and Neck Injuries

Jerrold Petrofsky1, , Michael Laymon2, Faris Alshammari1, Iman Akef Khowailed2 and Haneul Lee3

1Loma Linda University, United States

2Touro University, Henderson Nevada

3Gachom University, Soul Korea

Pub. Date: July 20, 2015

Cite this paper:
Jerrold Petrofsky, Michael Laymon, Faris Alshammari, Iman Akef Khowailed and Haneul Lee. Continuous Low Level Heat Wraps; Faster Healing and Pain Relief during Rehabilitation for Back, Knee and Neck Injuries. World Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2015; 3(3):61-72. doi: 10.12691/jpm-3-3-3

Abstract

Back, knee and neck pain are the 3 most common disabilities found in outpatient physical therapy. In-clinic therapy is accomplished 2-3 times per week, which is far less than optimal in providing pain relief and healing. Home therapy and self-range of motion is limited by pain. Continuous low level heat wraps are sold over the counter and used to reduce pain. In this study, they were used to reduce pain before home exercise programs to see if this would increase compliance and healing during a 2 week therapy intervention. Two hundred and forty eight subjects participated. There were 3 control groups and 3 investigational groups. Two groups had diagnosed back pain, 2 with knee pain and 2 with neck pain. Subjects were followed for 2 weeks with 2 therapy sessions per week. Progress was measured by analog visual pain scales, range of motion, strength measurements and mobility questionnaires. The groups receiving 6 hours of continuous low level heat wraps per day had less pain each day, participated in significantly more home exercise and increased significantly more range of motion and strength than the control groups. Conclusion- Continuous heat wraps are an important adjunct to rehabilitation outpatient therapy, reducing pain and increasing recovery.

Keywords:
heat pain outpatient rehabilitation physical therapy

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Copeland, L.J. and M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute., Treatment modalities, in ACS core curriculum cervix series program no 4. 1983, University of Texas System Cancer Center, M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute,: Houston, Tex.
 
[2]  Denegar, C.R., E. Saliba, and S.F. Saliba, Therapeutic modalities for musculoskeletal injuries. 2nd ed. Athletic training education series. 2006, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. xvi, 295 p.
 
[3]  Petrofsky, J., et al., Effects of contrast baths on skin blood flow on the dorsal and plantar foot in people with type 2 diabetes and age-matched controls. Physiother Theory Pract, 2007. 23(4): p. 189-97.
 
[4]  Farage, M.A., K.W. Miller, and H.I. Maibach, eds. Textbook of Aging Skin. 2010, Springer-Verlag: Berlin Heidelberg.
 
[5]  Stanchev, D., et al., Cross-inhibition between native and recombinant TRPV1 and P2X(3) receptors. Pain, 2009. 143(1-2): p. 26-36.
 
[6]  Bele, T. and E. Fabbretti, P2X receptors, sensory neurons and pain. Curr Med Chem, 2015. 22(7): p. 845-50.
 
[7]  Puchalowicz, K., et al., P2X and P2Y receptors-role in the pathophysiology of the nervous system. Int J Mol Sci, 2014. 15(12): p. 23672-704.
 
[8]  Brederson, J.D., P.R. Kym, and A. Szallasi, Targeting TRP channels for pain relief. Eur J Pharmacol, 2013. 716(1-3): p. 61-76.
 
[9]  Suh, H., et al., The combined effect of a three-channel electrode delivery system with local heat on the healing of chronic wounds. Diabetes Technol Ther, 2009. 11(10): p. 681-8.
 
[10]  Suh, H., et al., A new electrode design to improve outcomes in the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds in diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther, 2009. 11(5): p. 315-22.
 
[11]  Petrofsky, J.S., et al., The influence of local versus global heat on the healing of chronic wounds in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther, 2007. 9(6): p. 535-44.
 
[12]  Lawson, D. and J.S. Petrofsky, A randomized control study on the effect of biphasic electrical stimulation in a warm room on skin blood flow and healing rates in chronic wounds of patients with and without diabetes. Med Sci Monit, 2007. 13(6): p. CR258-63.
 
[13]  Stark, J., et al., Continuous low-level heatwrap therapy relieves low back pain and reduces muscle stiffness. Phys Sportsmed, 2014. 42(4): p. 39-48.
 
[14]  Malanga, G.A., N. Yan, and J. Stark, Mechanisms and efficacy of heat and cold therapies for musculoskeletal injury. Postgrad Med, 2015. 127(1): p. 57-65.
 
[15]  Petrofsky, J.S. and M. Laymon, Heat transfer to deep tissue: the effect of body fat and heating modality. J Med Eng Technol, 2009. 33(5): p. 337-48.
 
[16]  Nadler, S.F., K. Weingand, and R.J. Kruse, The physiologic basis and clinical applications of cryotherapy and thermotherapy for the pain practitioner. Pain Physician, 2004. 7(3): p. 395-9.
 
[17]  Edwards, R.H., et al., Effect of temperature on muscle energy metabolism and endurance during successive isometric contractions, sustained to fatigue, of the quadriceps muscle in man. J Physiol, 1972. 220(2): p. 335-52.
 
[18]  Furlan, A.D., et al., Complementary and alternative therapies for back pain II. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep), 2010(194): p. 1-764.
 
[19]  French, S.D., et al., A Cochrane review of superficial heat or cold for low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 2006. 31(9): p. 998-1006.
 
[20]  French, S.D., et al., Superficial heat or cold for low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2006(1): p. CD004750.
 
[21]  Nadler, S.F., et al., Overnight use of continuous low-level heatwrap therapy for relief of low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2003. 84(3): p. 335-42.
 
[22]  Michlovitz, S., et al., Continuous low-level heat wrap therapy is effective for treating wrist pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2004. 85(9): p. 1409-16.
 
[23]  Mayer, J.M., et al., Continuous low-level heat wrap therapy for the prevention and early phase treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness of the low back: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2006. 87(10): p. 1310-7.
 
[24]  Petrofsky, J., et al., Moist heat or dry heat for delayed onset muscle soreness. J Clin Med Res, 2013. 5(6): p. 416-25.
 
[25]  Al-Nakhli, H.H., et al., The use of thermal infra-red imaging to detect delayed onset muscle soreness. J Vis Exp, 2012(59).
 
[26]  Petrofsky, J., et al., Comparison of different heat modalities for treating delayed-onset muscle soreness in people with diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther, 2011. 13(6): p. 645-55.
 
[27]  Petrofsky, J.S., M. Laymon, and H. Lee, Effect of heat and cold on tendon flexibility and force to flex the human knee. Med Sci Monit, 2013. 19: p. 661-7.
 
[28]  Lee, H., et al., Differences in anterior cruciate ligament elasticity and force for knee flexion in women: oral contraceptive users versus non-oral contraceptive users. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2013.
 
[29]  Lee, H., et al., Anterior cruciate ligament elasticity and force for flexion during the menstrual cycle. Med Sci Monit, 2013. 19: p. 1080-8.
 
[30]  Khowailed, I.A., et al., 17beta-Estradiol Induced Effects on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Laxness and Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Female Runners. J Womens Health (Larchmt), 2015.
 
[31]  Khowailed, I.A., et al., Six Weeks Habituation of Simulated Barefoot Running Induces Neuromuscular Adaptations and Changes in Foot Strike Patterns in Female Runners. Med Sci Monit, 2015. 21: p. 2021-30.
 
[32]  Laymon, M., et al., Effect of heat, cold, and pressure on the transverse carpal ligament and median nerve: a pilot study. Med Sci Monit, 2015. 21: p. 446-51.
 
[33]  Childs, J.D., et al., Neck pain: Clinical practice guidelines linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health from the Orthopedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 2008. 38(9): p. A1-A34.
 
[34]  Cleland, J.A., J.D. Childs, and J.M. Whitman, Psychometric properties of the Neck Disability Index and Numeric Pain Rating Scale in patients with mechanical neck pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2008. 89(1): p. 69-74.
 
[35]  Kersten, P., P.J. White, and A. Tennant, Is the pain visual analogue scale linear and responsive to change? An exploration using Rasch analysis. PLoS One, 2014. 9(6): p. e99485.
 
[36]  Kendall, F.P. and F.P. Kendall, Muscles : testing and function with posture and pain. 5th ed. 2005, Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. xxiv, 480, 48 p.
 
[37]  Stratford, P.W., et al., Defining the minimum level of detectable change for the Roland-Morris questionnaire. Phys Ther, 1996. 76(4): p. 359-65; discussion 366-8.
 
[38]  Stratford, P.W., et al., Sensitivity to change of the Roland-Morris Back Pain Questionnaire: part 1. Phys Ther, 1998. 78(11): p. 1186-96.
 
[39]  Zarrabian, M.M., M. Johnson, and D. Kriellaars, The relationship between sleep, pain and disability in patients with spinal pathology. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2014.
 
[40]  Farasyn, A., et al., Exploration of the validity and reliability of the backache disability index (BADIX) in patients with non-specific low back pain. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil, 2013. 26(4): p. 451-9.
 
[41]  Fairbank, J.C., et al., The Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire. Physiotherapy, 1980. 66(8): p. 271-3.
 
[42]  MacDermid, J.C., et al., Measurement properties of the neck disability index: a systematic review. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 2009. 39(5): p. 400-17.
 
[43]  Vernon, H. and S. Mior, The Neck Disability Index: a study of reliability and validity. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1991. 14(7): p. 409-15.
 
[44]  Irrgang, J.J., et al., Development of a patient-reported measure of function of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 1998. 80(8): p. 1132-45.
 
[45]  McGuirk, B. and N. Bogduk, Evidence-based care for low back pain in workers eligible for compensation. Occup Med (Lond), 2007. 57(1): p. 36-42.
 
[46]  Waterman, B.R., P.J. Belmont, Jr., and A.J. Schoenfeld, Low back pain in the United States: incidence and risk factors for presentation in the emergency setting. Spine J, 2012. 12(1): p. 63-70.
 
[47]  Svensson, H.O., et al., Low-back pain in relation to other diseases and cardiovascular risk factors. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 1983. 8(3): p. 277-85.
 
[48]  Svensson, H.O. and G.B. Andersson, Low-back pain in 40- to 47-year-old men: work history and work environment factors. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 1983. 8(3): p. 272-6.
 
[49]  Barene, S., P. Krustrup, and A. Holtermann, Effects of the Workplace Health Promotion Activities Soccer and Zumba on Muscle Pain, Work Ability and Perceived Physical Exertion among Female Hospital Employees. PLoS One, 2014. 9(12): p. e115059.
 
[50]  McCaskey, M.A., et al., Effects of proprioceptive exercises on pain and function in chronic neck- and low back pain rehabilitation: a systematic literature review. BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 2014. 15(1): p. 382.
 
[51]  Wirth, B., et al., Respiratory dysfunction in patients with chronic neck pain - influence of thoracic spine and chest mobility. Man Ther, 2014. 19(5): p. 440-4.
 
[52]  Long, M.H., F.E. Bogossian, and V. Johnston, The prevalence of work-related neck, shoulder, and upper back musculoskeletal disorders among midwives, nurses, and physicians: a systematic review. Workplace Health Saf, 2013. 61(5): p. 223-9; quiz 230.
 
[53]  Werner, B.C., et al., Medial Injury in Knee Dislocations: What Are the Common Injury Patterns and Surgical Outcomes? Clin Orthop Relat Res, 2014.
 
[54]  Werner, B.C., et al., Ultra-low velocity knee dislocations: patient characteristics, complications, and outcomes. Am J Sports Med, 2014. 42(2): p. 358-63.
 
[55]  Alentorn-Geli, E., et al., Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports-Part I: Systematic review of risk factors in male athletes. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2014. 22(1): p. 3-15.
 
[56]  Alentorn-Geli, E., et al., Prevention of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. Part II: systematic review of the effectiveness of prevention programmes in male athletes. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2014. 22(1): p. 16-25.
 
[57]  Holzer, L.A., A. Leithner, and G. Holzer, Surgery versus physical therapy for meniscal tear and osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med, 2013. 369(7): p. 677.
 
[58]  Wilson, F.A., et al., Analysis of provider specialties in the treatment of patients with clinically diagnosed back and joint problems. J Eval Clin Pract, 2015.
 
[59]  Frank, J., et al., Preventing disability from work-related low-back pain. New evidence gives new hope--if we can just get all the players onside. CMAJ, 1998. 158(12): p. 1625-31.
 
[60]  Woolf, A.D., et al., Musculoskeletal pain in Europe: its impact and a comparison of population and medical perceptions of treatment in eight European countries. Ann Rheum Dis, 2004. 63(4): p. 342-7.
 
[61]  Walsh, N.E., et al., Standards of care for acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain: the Bone and Joint Decade (2000-2010). Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 2008. 89(9): p. 1830-45.
 
[62]  Kinkade, S., Evaluation and treatment of acute low back pain. Am Fam Physician, 2007. 75(8): p. 1181-8.
 
[63]  Koes, B. and M. Van Tulder, Acute low back pain. Am Fam Physician, 2006. 74(5): p. 803-5.
 
[64]  Koes, B.W., M.W. van Tulder, and S. Thomas, Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain. BMJ, 2006. 332(7555): p. 1430-4.
 
[65]  Lee, H., et al., Differences in anterior cruciate ligament elasticity and force for knee flexion in women: oral contraceptive users versus non-oral contraceptive users. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2014. 114(2): p. 285-94.
 
[66]  Kettenmann, B., et al., Impact of continuous low level heatwrap therapy in acute low back pain patients: subjective and objective measurements. Clin J Pain, 2007. 23(8): p. 663-8.
 
[67]  Mayer, J.M., et al., Treating acute low back pain with continuous low-level heat wrap therapy and/or exercise: a randomized controlled trial. Spine J, 2005. 5(4): p. 395-403.