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Article

Mark-Houwink Parameters for Aqueous-Soluble Polymers and Biopolymers at Various Temperatures

1Laboratorio de Membranas, Instituto de Física Aplicada, CONICET, Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco, San Luis, Argentina


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(2), 37-43
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Martin Alberto Masuelli. Mark-Houwink Parameters for Aqueous-Soluble Polymers and Biopolymers at Various Temperatures. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(2):37-43. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Martin  Alberto Masuelli, Laboratorio de Membranas, Instituto de Física Aplicada, CONICET, Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco, San Luis, Argentina. Email: masuelli@unsl.edu.ar

Abstract

The intrinsic viscosity measurements used to calculate the Mark-Houwink (M-H) parameters are generally performed for different molecular weights at a constant temperature, with the standard value of this temperature being 25°C, or else 37°C in the case of mammalian proteins, or else under theta conditions for polymers and biopolymers. In the polymer industry, polysaccharides and proteins must circulate through pipes during transport processes where pumps have a very high-energy expenditure and where temperatures must be greatly increased, and at this point calculation of the Mark-Houwink parameters becomes important. The M-H parameters are calculated at standardized temperatures and in many cases, these are not useful because of the errors they carry, and it then becomes very difficult to calculate the molecular weight. It is therefore necessary to know the change in molecular weight as evidence of a change in the product obtained, as this may create a need to halt the production process, transport, or extrusion. The basic criterion is that the molecular weight does not change with temperature, or at least within one discrete range of temperatures, but that there is hydrodynamic change (intrinsic viscosity). The method is simple and requires iterative mathematical processing and measurement of intrinsic viscosity at different temperatures.

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References

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Article

Nuclear Waste Reduction Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

1University of Pittsburgh, USA


Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(2), 29-36
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Joe Nero, Jon Bartczak. Nuclear Waste Reduction Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(2):29-36. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Jon  Bartczak, University of Pittsburgh, USA. Email: jab331@pitt.edu

Abstract

Nuclear power accounts for just over twenty percent of America’s electrical output and does not contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Unfortunately, nuclear power does produce a deleterious by-product known as radioactive waste. One of the primary goals of nuclear power proponents is the development of methods that reduce the volume of radioactive waste, such as cobalt. Radioactive cobalt is usually accompanied by non-radioactive iron, making it more difficult to solely extract the harmful cobalt atoms. The application of molecularly imprinted polymers and chitosans increase the effectiveness of the removal of radioactive cobalt from cooling medium in order to reduce the overall volume of nuclear waste by having a high selectivity for the radioactive cobalt ions even in the presence of similar particles. This method’s efficacy will be analyzed and compared to the current procedures for removing radioactive cobalt from cooling medium. A relevant explanation of a nuclear reactor’s inner workings, radioactive waste formation, along with societal implications of cleaner nuclear power, and the benefits of its successful implementation, will also be discussed.

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