Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry
ISSN (Print): 2373-3403 ISSN (Online): 2373-3411 Website: Editor-in-chief: Martin Alberto Masuelli
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014, 2(1), 25-28
DOI: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Variations in Specific Heat and Microstructure in Natural Rubber Filled with Different Fillers as Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

Arunava Mandal1, Sandip Pan1, Subrata Mukherjee1, Achintya K. Saha1, Sabu Thomas2 and Asmita Sengupta1,

1Physics Department, Visva-Bharati Central University, P.O.- Santiniketan, West Bengal, India

2Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India

Pub. Date: March 20, 2014

Cite this paper:
Arunava Mandal, Sandip Pan, Subrata Mukherjee, Achintya K. Saha, Sabu Thomas and Asmita Sengupta. Variations in Specific Heat and Microstructure in Natural Rubber Filled with Different Fillers as Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry. 2014; 2(1):25-28. doi: 10.12691/jpbpc-2-1-4


The variation of specific heat (Cp) of natural rubber (NR) is studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The NR samples are filled with different fillers (nanoclay, TiO2, and nanosilica) at different concentrations. The DSC measurements are done in N2 atmosphere with constant pressure of 0.3 bar to prevent any oxidation of the samples. The temperature has been varied up to 210°C from -40°C at a constant heating rate of 10°C \min throughout the experiment and Proteus analysis software is used to study the variation of specific heat (Cp) as function of both temperature and filler concentrations. The investigation shows that the Cp values increase with the increase of filler concentrations. Due to nanometer range diameter, these fillers fill up some of the free volume holes of NR sample. The fillers also make cross-link with NR chains causing an increase the molecular weight of NR as well as the Cp values. Thus the fillers act as active fillers for NR sample.

Format Microsoft Word Template Style Insert Template

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Dlubek, G., Sengupta, A., Pionteck, J., Krause-Rehberg, R., Kaspar Harald and Helmut Lochhaas, K., “Temperature Dependence of the Free Volume in Fluoroelastomers from Positron Lifetime and PVT Experiments”, Macromolecules, 37. 6606-6618. 2004
[2]  Vleeshouwers, S., Kluin, J. E., McGervey, J. D., Jamieson, A. M., and Simha, R., “Monte Carlo calculations of hole size distribution: simulation of positron annihilation spectroscopy” J. Polym. Sci., Part B. Polym. Phys., 30. 1429. 1992.
[3]  Schmitz, H. and Muller- Plathe, F., “Calculation of the lifetime of positronium in polymers via molecular dynamics simulations”, J. Chem. Phys., 11. 1040. 2000.
[4]  Wang, J., Vincent, J. and Quarles, C. A., “Review of positron annihilation spectroscopy studies of rubber with carbon black filler”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 241. 271-275. 2005.
[5]  Mandal, A., Mukherjee, S., Pan, S. and Sengupta, A., “positron lifetime measurements in natural rubber with different fillers” Int. Journal of Modern Physics, 22. 112-117. 2013.
[6]  Mandal, A., Mukherjee, S., Pan, S., Saha, A. K. and Sengupta, A., “PALS and DSC studies in high energy electron irradiated semicrystalline polypropylene” Int. Conf. on Recent Trends in Applied Physics and Ma terial Science. AIP Conf. Proc. 1536. 839. 2013.
[7]  Mandal, A., Pan, S., Mukherjee, S., Saha, A. K. Ranganathaiah, C. and Sengupta, A. “High energy electron irradiated polystyrene: free volume and thermal properties studied by PALS and DSC”, Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry, 1. No. 1, 26-30. 2013.
[8]  Mogensen, O. E, Positron Annihilation in Chemistry, Springer-Verlag, Barlin, vol. 58, 1995.
[9]  Dallas D. Parker , J. L. Koenig , Makio Mori, “Correlation of 13 C NMR Analysis and Physical Testing Results of Natural Rubber” Rubber Chem. Technol. 68. 551. 1995.
[10]  Nesterov, A. E. and Lipatov, Y. S., “Compatibilizing effect of filler in binary polymer mixtures” Polymer, 40. 1347-1349. 1999.
[11]  Saad A. L. G., El-Sabbagh S.: Compatibility studieson some polymer blend systems by electrical and mechanical techniques. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 79, 60- 71 2001.
[12]  Sae-oui1, P., Sirisinha, C. and Hatthapanit, K., “Effect of blend ratio on aging, oil and ozone resistance of silica-filled chloroprene rubber/natural rubber (CR/NR) blends” Express Polymer Letters 1, No. 1. 8-14. 2007.
[13]  Ramesan M. T., Alex R., Khanh N. V., “Studies on the cure and mechanical properties of blends of natural rubber with dichlorocarbene modified styrene-butadi-ene rubber and chloroprene rubber”. Reactive & Functional Polymers, 62, 41-50 2005.
[14]  Ismail H., Leong H. C., “Curing characteristics and mechanical properties of natural rubber/chloroprene rubber and epoxidized natural rubber/chloroprene rub-ber blends”, Polymer Testing, 20, 509- 516, 2001.
[15]  Kueseng, P.; Sae-oui, P. and Rattanasom, N., “Mechanical and electrical properties of natural rubber and nitrile rubber blends filled with multi-wall carbon nanotube,” Polymer Testing. 32, 731- 738, 2013.
[16]  Zhang, P., Shi, X., Yu, G. and Zhao, S., “The structure change of dynamically fatigued unfilled natural rubber vulcanizates,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 115. No. 6. 3535- 3541, 2010.
[17]  Yehia, A. A.; Mansour, A. A. and Stoll, B. J. “Detection of compatibility of some rubber blends by DSC.” J Thermal Analysis. 48. 1299. 1997.
[18]  Pyda, M., “Conformational Heat Capacity of Interacting Systems of Polymer and Water”, Macromolecules, 35. 4009-4016. 2002.
[19]  Reading, M. and Hourston, D. J., “Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry: Theoretical and Practical Application in Polymer characterization”, Springer, 2006.
[20]  O’Neill, M. J., “Measurement of Specific Heat Functions by Differential Scanning Calorimetry”, Analytical Chemistry, 38 (10). 1331. 1966.