Journal of Physical Activity Research
ISSN (Print): 2574-4437 ISSN (Online): 2574-4437 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jpar Editor-in-chief: Peter Hart
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Physical Activity Research. 2018, 3(1), 28-34
DOI: 10.12691/jpar-3-1-5
Open AccessArticle

Relationship between After-School Physical Activity and Dietary Habits with Cardio-metabolic Risk in Low-income Children

Sara A. Goodrum1, Timothy A. Brusseau1, Janet M. Shaw1 and Ryan D. Burns1,

1Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Recreation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, U.S.A

Pub. Date: March 31, 2018

Cite this paper:
Sara A. Goodrum, Timothy A. Brusseau, Janet M. Shaw and Ryan D. Burns. Relationship between After-School Physical Activity and Dietary Habits with Cardio-metabolic Risk in Low-income Children. Journal of Physical Activity Research. 2018; 3(1):28-34. doi: 10.12691/jpar-3-1-5

Abstract

Childhood obesity is a major focus of public health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether after-school physical activity and dietary habits predict cardio-metabolic risk in a sample of ethnic minority elementary school-aged children from low-income schools. Participants were a convenience sample of 92 children (3rd-6th grades) recruited from four Title I schools located in a metropolitan area from the Mountain West region of the United States. Children completed portions of the After School Student Questionnaire (ASSQ) and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) to measure after-school physical activity and nutrition, respectively. Blood pressure, waist circumference and cardio-metabolic blood markers were collected in a fasted state to calculate a continuous metabolic syndrome (MetS) composite score. Predictive relationships were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model. Neither physical activity or nutrition scores were predictive of a MetS score. However, there was a linear, positive, and moderate correlation between physical activity and nutrition scores (r = 0.29, p < 0.05). The findings indicate that cardio-metabolic health cannot be predicted based on self-reported after-school physical activity and nutrition habits. There are many challenges that arise when analyzing cardio-metabolic health in children; however, this is an area of research that needs further analysis. A clearer understanding of these relationships can aid in identifying risk factors for disease at an earlier age and aid in future intervention development.

Keywords:
children’s health metabolic syndrome cardiovascular disease diabetes overweight

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 1

References:

[1]  Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Childhood and Adult Obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA 311(8): 806-814, 2014.
 
[2]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Childhood Obesity Causes and Consequences. Atlanta, GA, 2015. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/causes.html Accessed on January 15, 2016.
 
[3]  Freedman DS, Mei Z, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Dietz WH. Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Pediatr 150(1): 12-17, 2007.
 
[4]  Hall KD, Heymsfield SB, Kemnitz JW, Klein S, Schoeller DA, Speakman JR. Energy balance and its components: implications for body weight regulation. Am J Clin Nutr 95(4): 989-994, 2012.
 
[5]  Spurrier NJ, Bell L, Wilson A, Lowe E, Golley R, Magarey AA. Minimal change in children’s lifestyle behaviours and adiposity following a home-based obesity intervention: results from a pilot study. BMC Res Notes 9:26, 2016.
 
[6]  National Physical Activity Plan. The 2014 United States report card on physical activity for children and youth. Washington, DC, 2014. http://www.physicalactivityplan.org/index.html Accessed on January 15, 2016.
 
[7]  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015 – 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: 8th Edition. Washington, DC, 2015. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/ Accessed on February 22, 2016.
 
[8]  Kavey RW, Daniels SR, Lauer RM, Atkins DL, Hayman LL, Taubert, K. American Heart Association guidelines for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood. J Pediatr 142(4): 368-372, 2003.
 
[9]  Ekelund U, Luan J, Sherar LB, Esliger DW, Griew P, Cooper A. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time and cardio-metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. JAMA 307(7): 704-712, 2012.
 
[10]  Funtikova AN, Navarro E, Bawaked RA, Fito M, Schroder H. Impact of diet on cardio-metabolic health in children and adolescents. Nutr J 14: 118, 2015.
 
[11]  Fuemmeler BF, Anderson CB, Masse LC. Parent-child relationship of directly measured physical activity. J Behav Nutr Phys Act 8:17, 2011.
 
[12]  Birch L, Savage JS, Ventura A. Influences on the development of children’s eating behaviors: from infancy to adolescence. Can J Diet Pract Res 68(1): s1-s56, 2007.
 
[13]  Dobbins M, Husson H, DeCorby K, LaRocca RL. School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolscents aged 6 to 18 (review). Cochrance Database Syst Rev 28(2): CD007651, 2013.
 
[14]  Elsbernd SL, Reicks MM, Mann TL, Redden JP, Mykerezl E, Vickers ZM. Serving vegetables first: A strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary schools cafeterias. Appetite 96: 111-115, 2016.
 
[15]  Tak NI, teVelde SJ, Singh AS, Brug J. The effect of a fruit and vegetable promotion intervention on unhealthy snacks during mid-morning school breaks: Results on the Dutch Schoolgruiten Project. J Hum Nutr Diet 23(6): 609-615, 2010.
 
[16]  Young EM, Fors SW, Hayes DM. Associations between perceived parent behaviors and middle school student fruit and vegetable consumption. J Nutr Educ Behav 36(1): 2-8, 2004.
 
[17]  Dale D, Corbin CB, Dale KS. Restricting opportunities to be active during school time: do children compensate by increasing physical activity levels after school? Res Q Exerc Sport 71(3): 240-248, 2000.
 
[18]  Hume C, Salmon J, Ball K. Children’s perceptions of their home and neighborhood environments, and their association with objectively measure physical activity: a qualitative and quantitative study. Health Educ Res 20(1): 1-13, 2005.
 
[19]  Santiago-Torres M, Adams AK, Carrel AL, LaRowe TL, Schoeller DA. Home food availability, parental dietary intake, and familial eating habits influence the diet quality of urban Hispanic children. Child Obes 10(5): 408-415, 2014.
 
[20]  Tandon PS, Zhou C, Sallis JF, Cain KL, Frank LD, Saelens BE. Home environment relationships with children’s physical activity, sedentary time, and screen time by socioeconomic status. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9:88, 2012.
 
[21]  Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A, Lang AG. Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behav Res Methods 41(4): 1149-1160, 2009.
 
[22]  Kowalski KK, Crocker PRE, Donen RM. The physical activity questionnaire for older children (PAQ-C) and adolescents (PAQ-A) manual. Canada: University of Saskatchewan, 2004.
 
[23]  Kelder S, Hoelscher DM, Barroso CS, Walker JL, Cribb P, Hu S. The CATCH Kids Club: a pilot after-school study for improving elementary students’ nutrition and physical activity. Public Health Nutr 8(2): 133-140, 2005.
 
[24]  Issa JS, Strunz C, Giannini SD, Forti N, Diament, J. Precision and accuracy of blood lipid analyses by a portable device (Cholestech LDX). Arq Bras Cardiol 66(6): 339-342, 1996.
 
[25]  Eisenmann JC, Laurson KR, DuBose KD, Smith BK, Donnelly JE. Construct validity of a continuous metabolic syndrome score in children. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2: 8, 2010.
 
[26]  Skinner AC, Perrin EM, Moss LA, Skelton JA. Cardio-metabolic risks and severity of obesity in children and young adults. N Engl J Med 373(14): 1307-1317, 2015.
 
[27]  National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Expert panel on integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents: summary report. Washington, DC, 2011. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ Accessed on February 22, 2016.
 
[28]  DuBose KD, McKune AJ, Brophy P, Geyer G, Hickner RC. The relationship between physical activity and the MetS score in children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 27(3): 364-371, 2015.
 
[29]  Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United states 2007-2010. Vital Health Stat 11(252), 2012.
 
[30]  Wolf RM, Long D. Pubertal Development. Pediatr Rev 37(7): 292-300, 2016.
 
[31]  Bloch CA, Clemons P, Sperling MA. Puberty decreases insulin sensitivity. J Pediatr 110(3): 481-487, 1987.
 
[32]  Jessup A. Harrell JS. The MetS: Look for it in children and adolescents, too! Clin Diabetes 23:26-32, 2005.
 
[33]  Davison KK, Susman EJ, Birch LL. Percent body fat at age 5 predicts earlier pubertal development among girls at age 9. Pediatrics 111(4 Pt 1): 815-821, 2003.
 
[34]  Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Taylor WC. A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32(5): 963-975, 2000.
 
[35]  Welk GJ, Corbin CB, Dale D. Measurement issues in the assessment of physical activity in children. Res Q Exerc Sport 71(2 Suppl): S59-S73, 2000.
 
[36]  Marshall WA, Tanner JM. Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Arch Dis Child 44(235): 291-303, 1969.
 
[37]  Marshall WA, Tanner JM. Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in boys. Arch Dis Child 45(239): 13-23, 1970.
 
[38]  Ekelund U, Anderssen SA, Froberg K, Sardinha LB, Andersen LB, Brage S, European Youth Heart Study Group. Independent association of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: the European youth heart study. Diabetologia 50(9): 1832-1840, 2007.