Journal of Physical Activity Research
ISSN (Print): 2576-1919 ISSN (Online): 2574-4437 Website: Editor-in-chief: Peter Hart
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Journal of Physical Activity Research. 2021, 6(1), 28-35
DOI: 10.12691/jpar-6-1-5
Open AccessArticle

Exercise Causality Orientation, Motivation, and Adherence in an Incentive Walking Program

Katie Helms1, , Duston Morris2 and Sedre’ Auna Griddine1

1School of Counseling, Human Performance, and Rehabilitation, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, United States

2Department of Health Sciences, University of Central Arkansas, Conway, United States

Pub. Date: May 14, 2021

Cite this paper:
Katie Helms, Duston Morris and Sedre’ Auna Griddine. Exercise Causality Orientation, Motivation, and Adherence in an Incentive Walking Program. Journal of Physical Activity Research. 2021; 6(1):28-35. doi: 10.12691/jpar-6-1-5


Participation incentives are commonly used in organizational and workplace exercise programs to encourage and reward selected participant outcomes. Although this program format is associated with limited positive outcomes such as increased exercise frequency, there remains a need to engage participants and consider intrapersonal motivations within this context. The purpose of the study was to investigate Causality Orientations Theory as it relates to the experiences and outcomes of participants enrolled in an incentivized employee walking program. Participants engaged in a 6-week walking program that offered prizes for targeted outcomes, and then completed the Exercise Causality Orientations Scale (ECOS). Participants walked significantly more during the program, although they did not increase frequencies of exercise behaviors other than walking. They also experienced differences in motivation and walking activity according to different primary exercise causality orientations. In this limited context, incentivized exercise programs can help participants achieve a positive outcome related to a specific type of exercise. Exercise program managers should also consider the exercise causality orientation of participants in creating a more customized program experience.

exercise causality orientation exercise incentive programs

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