Journal of Physical Activity Research
ISSN (Print): 2576-1919 ISSN (Online): 2574-4437 Website: Editor-in-chief: Peter Hart
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Physical Activity Research. 2019, 4(2), 80-89
DOI: 10.12691/jpar-4-2-1
Open AccessArticle

Exploration of the Effect of a Daily Structured Physical Activity Programme on Secondary School Students’ Body Measurements and Attitudes

Professor Valerie Stoute1, Nicole Camille Parris2, and Euclid Nicholas-Sammy3

1Environmental and Postgraduate Studies and Research, The University of Trinidad and Tobago, Arima, Trinidad and Tobago

2Science Department, Ministry of Education, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

3Curriculum Division, Ministry of Education, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

Pub. Date: May 04, 2019

Cite this paper:
Professor Valerie Stoute, Nicole Camille Parris and Euclid Nicholas-Sammy. Exploration of the Effect of a Daily Structured Physical Activity Programme on Secondary School Students’ Body Measurements and Attitudes. Journal of Physical Activity Research. 2019; 4(2):80-89. doi: 10.12691/jpar-4-2-1


This study explores the potential of a structured programme of daily physical activity to have a beneficial effect on students’ attitudes and body measurements. An action research study was conducted at a co-educational school with a sample of 21 students aged from 13 to 15years. It was carried out during the lunch period for 30 minutes or more each session over a six-week period for three days per week. The students were measured (height, weight, waist, hip, chest, BMI, and % body fat) at the beginning and at the end of the programme. They were also surveyed, at the beginning, on their then current patterns of engagement in physical activity and on their views on the importance of physical education in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. At the end of the programme, they were surveyed again on what they perceived as the benefits and disadvantages of the programme. In addition to the surveys, Observations and Field notes were used. Statistical Data Analysis was carried out using SPSS V.22. The significance of any changes over the course of the programme in weight, waist measurement, hip measurement, % body fat, or BMI was estimated using a Repeated Measures General Linear Model (GLM) analysis with sex as the independent variable and with the students’ initial heights and ages as covariates. There was no statistically significant difference in any of the biometric measurements, although there were downward trends in waist (for girls) and hip (for boys) measurements, BMI, and % body fat. Participants held positive views of the programme and of its benefits to them with 95% indicating that the programme should be repeated. The researchers’ observations and field notes supported the students reported positive responses since it was noted that students improved in fitness and enjoyed the activity throughout the programme.

action research structured physical activity Repeated Measures statistical design biometric measurements

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  “Physical activity improves quality of life,” American Heart Association, Mar. 2015. [Online] Available: [Accessed May 2nd, 2015].
[2]  Bailey, R., Cope, E., and Parnell, D. “Realising the benefits of Sports and Physical Activity: The Human Capital Model,” Retos, 28, 147-154. 2015.
[3]  Bandura, A., “Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory,” Psychology & Health, 13(4), 623-649, Jan.1998.
[4]  Basch, C. E. “Healthier students are better learners: High-quality, strategically planned, and effectively coordinated school Health Program must be a fundamental mission of schools to help close the Achievement Gap,” Journal of School Health, 81(10), 650-662, Oct. 2011.
[5]  Brophy, J., and Good, T. “Teacher behavior and student achievement,” Handbook of research on teaching 3rd edition, M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), McMillan, New York, 1986, 328-375.
[6]  Carlson, T.B.“Why students hate, tolerate, or love gym: A study of attitude formation and associated behaviors in physical education,” Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34 (3), 467-477. 2015.
[7]  Ennis, C.D. “Students' experiences in sport-based physical education: [More than] apologies are necessary,” Quest, 48, 453-456, 1996.
[8]  Mc Kenzie, T. L., and Lounsbery, M. A. “Physical Education teacher effectiveness in a Public Health context,” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84 (4), 419-430, 2013.
[9]  “NIH study finds leisure-time physical activity extends life expectancy as much as 4.5 years,” National Cancer Institute, Nov. 2012. [Online] Available: [Accessed May 20, 2017].
[10]  Nevill, A. M., Tsiotra, G., Tsimeas, P., and Koutedakis, Y. “Allometric associations between body size, shape, and physical performance,” Pediatric Exercise Science, 21 (2), 220-232, 2009.
[11]  Portman, P. “Who is having fun in physical education class? Experiences of six-grade students in elementary and middle schools,” Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34 (3), 445-461, 2015.
[12]  Rikard, G. “The relationship of teachers' task refinement and feedback to students' practice success,” Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 31 (4), 349-357, 2012.
[13]  Sallis, J., Mc Kenzie, T., Beets, M., Beighle, A., Erwin, H., and Lee, S. “Physical education's role in public health,” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83 (1), 125-135, 2012.
[14]  Thompson, P.D., Buchner, Piña, I.L., Balady, J.G., Williams, M.A.; Marcus, B., … “Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,” Circulation, 107 (24), 3109-3116, August 2003.
[15]  Wing, R.R., Venditti, E., Jakicic, J.M., Polley, B. A., and Lang, W. “Lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals with a family history of diabetes,” Diabetes Care, 21 (3), 350-359, March 1998.
[16]  World Health Organization, “The Ministry of Health targets its youth in the fight against CNCDs,” Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Ministry of Health, May 2011.[Online] Available: [Accessed Sept.21st, 2018].