You are here:

World Journal of Nutrition and Health

ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending

ISSN (Online): ISSN Pending


Content: Volume 2, Issue 2


Management of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars: Role of Nutrition, Drugs, Cryotherapy and Phototherapy

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia

World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014, 2(2), 28-32
DOI: 10.12691/jnh-2-2-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ibrahim A Maghrabi, Ahmed M Kabel. Management of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars: Role of Nutrition, Drugs, Cryotherapy and Phototherapy. World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014; 2(2):28-32. doi: 10.12691/jnh-2-2-4.

Correspondence to: Ahmed  M Kabel, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt. Email:


Keloids and hypertrophic scars are characterized by excessive deposition of dermal collagen with resultant scar tissue. This scar tissue is benign, non-contagious and sometimes accompanied by severe itching, sharp pains and changes in texture. In severe cases, it can affect movement of skin and may ulcerate. There are various lines of treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars including nutritional therapy, drug therapy, radiation therapy, phototherapy cryotherapy and surgical excision.



[1]  Davison SP, Mess S, Kauffman LC, et al. (2006): Ineffective treatment of keloids with interferon alpha-2b. Plast Reconstr Surg., 117(1): 247-252.
[2]  Al-Attar A, Mess S, Thomassen JM et al. (2006): Keloid pathogenesis and treatment. Plast Reconstr Surg., 117(1): 286-300.
[3]  Alster TS, Tanzi EL (2003): Hypertrophic scars and keloids: etiology and management. Am J Clin Dermatol., 4(4): 235-243.
[4]  Kakar AK, Shahzad M, Haroon TS (2006): Keloids: clinical features and management. J Pakis Assoc Dermatol., 16: 97-103.
[5]  Butler PD, Longaker MT, Yang GP (2008): Current Progress in Keloid: Research and Treatment. J Amer College Surg., 206(4): 731-741.
Show More References
6]  Mrowietz U, Seifert O (2009): Keloid Scarring: New Treatments Ahead. Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas., 100 (2): 75-83.
7]  Berman B, Viera MH, Amini S, et al. (2008): Prevention and management of hypertrophic scars and keloids after burns in children. J Craniofac Surg.,19(4): 989-1006.
8]  Fitzpatrick RE (1999): Treatment of inflamed hypertrophic scars using intralesional 5-FU. Dermatol Surg., 25: 224-232.
9]  Margaret Shanthi FX, Ernest K, Dhanraj P (2008): Comparison of intralesional verapamil with intralesional triamcinolone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol., 74(4): 343-348.
10]  Lee JH, Kim SE and Lee AY (2008): Effects of interferon-alpha2b on keloid treatment with triamcinolone acetonide intralesional injection. Int J Dermatol., 47(2):183-186.
11]  Kontochristopoulos G, Stefanaki C, Panagiotopoulos A, et al. (2005): Intralesional 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of keloids: an open clinical and histopathologic study. J Am Acad Dermatol., 52(3): 474-479.
12]  Nanda S, Reddy BS (2004): Intralesional 5-fluorouracil as a treatment modality of keloids. Dermatol Surg., 30(1): 54-56.
13]  Asilian A, Darougheh A, Shariati F (2006): New combination of triamcinolone, 5-Fluorouracil, and pulsed-dye laser for treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars. Dermatol Surg., 32(7): 907-915.
14]  Saray Y, Güleç AT (2005): Treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars with dermojet injections of bleomycin: a preliminary study. Int J Dermatol., 44(9): 777-784.
15]  Muszynska A, Palka J, Gorodkiewicz E (2000): The mechanism of daunorubicin-induced inhibition of prolidase activity in human skin fibroblasts and its implication to impaired collagen biosynthesis. Exp Toxicol Pathol., 52(2): 149-155.
16]  Muszynska A, Wolczynski S, Palka J (2001): The mechanism for anthracycline-induced inhibition of collagen biosynthesis. Eur J Pharmacol., 411(1-2): 17-25.
17]  España A, Solano T, Quintanilla E (2001): Bleomycin in the treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scars by multiple needle punctures. Dermatol Surg., 27(1): 23-27.
18]  Copcu E, Sivrioglu N, Oztan Y (2004): Combination of surgery and intralesional verapamil injection in the treatment of the keloid. J Burn Care Rehabil., 25(1): 1-7.
19]  Kim A, DiCarlo J, Cohen C, et al. (2001): Are keloids really "gli-loids"?: High-level expression of gli-1 oncogene in keloids. J Am Acad Dermatol., 45(5): 707-711.
20]  Mikulec AA, Hanasono MM, Lum J, et al. (2001): Effect of tamoxifen on transforming growth factor beta1 production by keloid and fetal fibroblasts. Arch Facial Plast Surg., 3(2): 111-114.
21]  Saulis AS, Mogford JH, Mustoe TA (2002): Effect of Mederma on hypertrophic scarring in the rabbit ear model. Plast Reconstr Surg., 110(1): 177-183.
22]  Occleston NL, O’Kane S, Goldspink N, et al. (2008): New therapeutics for the prevention and reduction of scarring. Drug Discovery Today, 13(21): 973-981.
23]  Draelos ZD (2008): The ability of onion extract gel to improve the cosmetic appearance of postsurgical scars. J Cosmet Dermatol., 7(2):101-104.
24]  Koc E, Arca E, Surucu B, et al. (2008): An open, randomized, controlled, comparative study of the combined effect of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide and onion extract gel and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide alone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Dermatol Surg., 34(11): 1507-1514.
25]  Hosnuter M, Payasli C, Isikdemir A, et al. (2007): The effects of onion extract on hypertrophic and keloid scars. J Wound Care., 16(6): 251-254.
26]  Garg MK, Weiss P, Sharma AK, et al. (2004): Adjuvant high dose rate brachytherapy (Ir-192) in the management of keloids which have recurred after surgical excision and external radiation. Radiother Oncol., 73(2): 233-236.
27]  Bijlard E, Timman R, Verduijn GM, et al. (2013): Intralesional cryotherapy versus excision and corticosteroids or brachytherapy for keloid treatment: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials., 14:439.
28]  Martin MS, Collawn SS (2013): Combination treatment of CO2 fractional laser, pulsed dye laser, and triamcinolone acetonide injection for refractory keloid scars on the upper back. J Cosmet Laser Ther., 15(3): 166-70.
29]  Chiu LL, Sun CH, Yeh AT, et al. (2005): Photodynamic therapy on keloid fibroblasts in tissue-engineered keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. Lasers Surg Med., 37(3): 231-244.
30]  Oiso N, Kawara S and Kawada A (2008): The effectiveness of narrowband ultraviolet B on hypertrophic scar in a patient having an isomorphic phenomenon and vitiligo. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol., 22 (12): 1527-1535.
31]  Taylor DK, Anstey AV, Coleman AJ, et al. (2002): Guidelines for dosimetry and calibration in ultraviolet radiation therapy: a report of a British photodermatology group workshop. BJD., 146 (5): 755-763.
32]  Shamsi Meymandi S, Rezazadeh A, Ekhlasi A (2014): Studying intense pulsed light method along with corticosteroid injection in treating keloid scars. Iran Red Crescent Med J., 16(2):e12464.
33]  Erol OO, Gurlek A, Agaoglu G, et al. (2008): Treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids using intense pulsed light (IPL). Aesthetic Plast Surg., 32(6): 902-909.
Show Less References


A Study of Biochemical and Hematological Markers in Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

1Department of Biochemistry ,Government Medical College, Nagpur, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Chalmeda Anandarao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India

3Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India

World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014, 2(2), 24-27
DOI: 10.12691/jnh-2-2-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Neelesh Deshpande, Sabitha Kandi, Manohar Muddeshwar, Rajkumar Das, K V Ramana. A Study of Biochemical and Hematological Markers in Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis. World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014; 2(2):24-27. doi: 10.12691/jnh-2-2-3.

Correspondence to: K  V Ramana, Department of Microbiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India. Email:


Progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis, clinically presenting as end-stage liver disease are common outcomes in alcoholic Liver disease (ALD) patients. A variety of laboratory tests are available to assist in the progression and diagnosis of cirrhosis to end stage liver disease. The aim of this study is to identify potential novel biomarkers for progression of cirrhosis to end-stage liver cirrhosis. The biomarkers evaluated in this study included liver function indicators including serum ferritin, prothrombin time, albumin, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), renal parameters (urea and creatinine) and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin and blood glucose. The study included two groups based on severity of cirrhosis of liver; categorized as compensated and decompensated liver cirrhotic patients based on child Pugh criteria. All decompensated cirrhotic patients in the study group had significantly elevated biomarkers levels (P<0.001) than those with compensated cirrhotic patients and control group who were not suffering from liver cirrhosis. Thus these results suggest that elevated and altered liver and hematological biomarkers are associated with pathogenesis and progression of liver cirrhosis.



[1]  B. Usharani, R. Vennila and N. Nalini Biochemical changes in Alcoholics – A case control study, B. Usharani, R. Vennila and N. Nalini. Biochemical changes in Alcoholics – A case control study. 2012, 3 (1): 201-205.
[2]  Felver ME, Merzey E and Herlong HF. Plasma tumor necrosis factor, a predicts decreased long term survival in severe alcoholic hepatitis. Alcohol Clin. Exp Res. 1990; 31: 117-134.
[3]  Tuma DJ. Serial review: Alcohol, oxidative stress and cell injury free. Radi. Biol. Med. 2002; 32: 303-308.
[4]  Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo DL., Braunwald E., Hauser SL., Jameson JL.Harrison’s Priciples of Internal Medicine 16th Edition., 2005, 2: 1808-1855.
[5]  Kimber R.J Rusaki Z., Blunden R.W., Iron deficency and iron overload: Serum ferritin and serum iron in clinical medicine. Pathology., 1983, 15, 497-503.
Show More References
6]  Kanai L. Mukherjee, Medical Labortory Technology-A procedure manual for routine Diagnostic Test Vol. 1, 32004.
7]  Tietz N.W (Ed) Textbook of clinical chemistry, B. Saunders(1986) P. 1388.
8]  Pearlman,P.C. and Lee, R.T. Detection and measurement of total bilirubin in serum, with use of surfactants as solubilizing agents.clin. Chem. (1974), 20: 447-53.
9]  Bergmeyer, H.U., Horder, M, Rej R. Approved recommendation (1985) on IFCC method for the measurement of calalytic concentration of enzymes. Part 3. IFCC Method for ALanine Aminotransferase. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochemistry. 1986; 24: 4481-489.
10]  Tiffany, T.O, Jansen, J. M., Burtis,. C. A., Direct Enzymatic Determination of Urea in Plasma and Urine clin Chem, (1976); 22, 1614-1617.
11]  Larson K.,Determination of serum creatinine. Clin. Chem Acta. (1972); 41, 209.
12]  Doumas B.T., Arends R.L., Pinto P.C in standard Methods of clinical Chemistry (1972) Vol. 7, P. 175-189, Academic Press Chicago.
13]  Szaaz G. A Kinetic photometric method for the measurement of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Clin. Chem. 1976; 15: 124-36.
14]  SK Das, P Nayak and D.M.Vasudevan, Biochemical markers for alcohol consumption, Indian Journal of clinical biochemistry. (2003), 18 (2) 111-118.
15]  Agnieszka Szuster-ciesielska, Jadwiga Danlluk, Martya Kandefer-Szerszen. Oxidative stress in the blood of patients with alcohol-related liver. Med Sci Monit, (2002); 8 (6): CR 419-424.
16]  Seren Ozenirler, Banu Sancak and Ugur Coskun. Serum and ascitic fluid superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels in patients with cirrhosis. Biomarker Insights, (2008); 3: 141-145.
17]  M Minemura, K Tajiri, Y Shimizu.Systemic abnormilities in liver disease..World J Gastroenterol. (2009), 15 (24): 2960-2974.
18]  SQ Siler, RA Neese, MP Christiansen and MK Hellerstein. The inhibition of glucogenesis following alcohol in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 275 (Endocrinol Metab. 38)1998: E897-E907.
19]  SK Das and D.M.Vasudevan. Biochemical markers for alcohol consumption, Indian Journal of clinical biochemistry. (2005) 20 (1) 35-42.
20]  Iqbal T, Diab A, Ward DG, Brookes MJ, Tselepis C, Murray J, Elias E. Is iron overload in alcohol-related cirrhosis mediated by hepcidin? World J Gastroenterol. (2009); 15 (46): 5864-6.
Show Less References


Carotene and Antioxidant Capacity of Dunaliella Salina Strains

1School of Biotechnology, International University-VNU, Vietnam

World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014, 2(2), 21-23
DOI: 10.12691/jnh-2-2-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Trung Vo, Duc Tran. Carotene and Antioxidant Capacity of Dunaliella Salina Strains. World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014; 2(2):21-23. doi: 10.12691/jnh-2-2-2.

Correspondence to: Duc  Tran, School of Biotechnology, International University-VNU, Vietnam. Email:


Beta-carotene is a terpenoid pigment that is highly valuable due to its nutritional benefit as a precursor of vitamin A and its antioxidant properties. A marine green alga Dunaliella salina is well known for high carotene, with above 95% β-carotene, under growth-limiting conditions. Carotene contents are different among D. salina strains and under different culture conditions. Selecting a Dunaliella salina strain with high carotene amount for mass cultivation is crucial. Hence, this study aimed to select a candidate Dunaliella salina for carotene production. Analysis of total carotene contents and antioxidant capacities from 8 different local isolated D. salina strains (A9, A10, A11, A12, A13, D, E and G) and 2 imported strains (D. salina CCAP 19/18 and D. bardawil DCCBC 15) revealed that D. bardawil DCCBC 15 excelled than other strains basing on total carotene and antioxidant capacity per cell and per volume of culture.



[1]  Albayrak S., Aksoy A., Sagdic O., Hamzaoglu E., 2010. Compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Helichrysum (Asteraceae) species collected from Turkey. Food Chemistry. Vol. 119. 114-122.
[2]  Balsano C1, Alisi A. 2009. Antioxidant effects of natural bioactive compounds. Curr Pharm Des. Vol. 15 (26): 3063-73.
[3]  Ben-Amotz A., Polle J. E.W. and Rao D. V. S., 2009. The Alga Dunaliella: Biodiversity, Physiology, Genomics and Biotechnology. Science Publishers. 45-147.
[4]  Ben-Amotz A. & Avron M. 1990. The biotechnology of cultivating the halotolerant alga Dunaliella. Trends in Biotechnology. Vol. 8, 121-126.
[5]  Ben-Amotz A., Lers A. & Avron M. 1988. Stereoisomers of β-carotene and phytoene in the Alga Dunaliella bardawil. Plant Physiology. Vol. 86, 1286-1291.
Show More References
6]  Ben-Amotz A. & Avron M. 1983. On the factors which determine massive b-carotene accumulation in the Halotolerant Alga Dunaliella bardawil. Plant Physiology. Vol. 72, 593-597.
7]  Ben-Amotz A., Katz A. & Avron M. 1982. Accumulation of β-carotene in halotolerant algae: purification and characterization of β-carotene-rich globules from Dunaliella bardawil (Chlorophyceae). Journalof Phycology. Vol. 18, 529-537.
8]  Borowitzka M. A., 2005. Culturing microalgae in outdoor ponds. 205-218. In Algal culturing techniques. Andersen R. A. (ed) Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
9]  Borowitzka M.A., Borowitzka L.J. & Kessly D. 1990. Effects of salinity increase on carotenoid accumulation in the green alga Dunaliella salina. Journal of Applied Phycology. Vol. 2, 111-119.
10]  Çelekli A. and Dönmez G., 2006. Effect of pH, light intensity, salt and nitrogen concentrations on growth and β-carotene accumulation by a new isolate of Dunaliella sp. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology. Vol. 22: 183-189.
11]  Das K. B., Das B., Arpita F. K., Morshed M. A., Uddin A., Bhattacherjee R. and Hannan J. M. A., 2011. Photochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Leucas aspera. IJPSR. Vol. 2 (7). 1746-1752.
12]  El-Baky H. H. A., El-Baz F. K. and El-Baroty G. S., 2004. Production of antioxidant by the green alga Dunaliella salina. Int. J. Agri. Biol., 6: 49-57.
13]  Oren A., 2005. A hundred years of Dunaliella research: 1905-2005. Saline Systems 1: 2.
14]  Phadwal K, Singh PK, 2003. Effect of nutrient depletion on beta-carotene and glycerol accumulation in two strains of Dunaliella sp. Bioresour Technol. Vol. 90 (1): 55-8.
15]  Prietoa A., Canavatea J. P., García-González M., 2011. Assessment of carotenoid production by Dunaliella salina in different culture systems and operation regimes. Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 151. 180-185.
16]  Romeilad R. M., Fayed S. A. and Mahmoud G. I., 2010. Chemical compositions, Antiviral and Antioxidant activities of seven essential oils. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. Vol. 6 (1). 50-62.
17]  Shaish A., Ben-Amotz A., Avron M., 1992. Biosynthesis of _-carotene in Dunaliella. Methods Enzymol. 213, 439-444.
18]  Tran D., Doan N., Louime C., Giordano M., Portilla S., 2014. Growth, antioxidant capacity and total carotene of Dunaliella salina DCCBC15 in a low cost enriched natural seawater medium. World J. Microbiol Biotechnol. Vol. 30. 317-322.
19]  Yaltirak T., Aslim B., Ozturk S., Alli H., 2009. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Russula delica Fr. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 47. 2052-2056.
Show Less References


Amino Acid and Heavy Metal Composition of Afzelia africana Leaves

1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Tansian University, Oba, Nigeria

3Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, Nigeria

World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014, 2(2), 17-20
DOI: 10.12691/jnh-2-2-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Umedum Ngozi Lillian, Nwosu Christian Chisom, Udeozo Ifeoma Prisca, Igwemmar Noela Chinyere. Amino Acid and Heavy Metal Composition of Afzelia africana Leaves. World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014; 2(2):17-20. doi: 10.12691/jnh-2-2-1.

Correspondence to: Umedum  Ngozi Lillian, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Email:


Malnutrition is one of the major problems in Nigeria and other developing countries. The country is blessed with rich soil and favorable climate, but lack of irrigation facilities has resulted to seasonality; and ignorance of nutritional value of lesser-known vegetables have contributed to scarcity of vegetables for the increasing population. This study investigated the amino acid and heavy metal composition of Afzelia africana leaves. Sixteen amino acids were found in varying proportions in the protein of the vegetable. All essential amino acids, except methionine and tryptophan were present in good quantities. Phenylalanine had the highest concentration of 2.27g/100g protein while isoleucine had the lowest concentration of 1.71g/ 100g protein. The heavy metal analysis was done by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results obtained showed the presence of the essential metals: iron (8.49ppm) and nickel (0.03ppm); and the non-essential metals: lead (0.75ppm) and mercury (0.64ppm). Results revealed that the protein contained in the leaves of Afzelia africana is of high quality; however the presence of the toxic metals is an issue of great concern.



[1]  World Food Programme. Food and Nutrition Handbook. Rome: World Food Programme, 2000.
[2]  FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. News release:Global hunger declining, but still unacceptably high. Rome, Italy, 2010.
[3]  WHO World Health Organization. News release” New online nutrition initiative can help protect lives and health of millions of children”. 2011. Available from accessed 8/3/2013
[4]  Obinna C. “Malnutrition: Great concern, little action in Nigeria”. Vanguard News, December 2012.
[5]  Bain L.E., Awah P.,K., Ngia G., Kindong N.P.,Sigal Y., Bernard N., Tanjeko A.T.,”Malnutrition in Sub-saharan Africa: burden, causes and prospects”. The Pan African Medical Journal, 15(120), 2013.
Show More References
6]  Ezzati F., Lopez A.D., Rodgers A., Hoorn S.V., Murray C.J., “Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease”. The Lancet, 360(9343), 1347-1360, 2002.
7]  Igwenyi I.O., Offor C.E., Aja P.M, Aloh G.S., Orji O.U., and Afiukwa C.A., “Potentials of Afzelia africana vegetable oil in biodiesel production”. Asian Journal of Biochemistry 6(6), 450-457, 2011.
8]  Mefoh N.C., Obizoba I.C., Madukwe E.U., “Chemical, nutritive value and organoleptic attributes of in-built products of fermented Afzelia africana tender leaves and shoots”. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 3(8), 1-8, August 2013.
9]  Ikhimioya I., Bamikole M.A, Omoregie A.U, and Ikhatua U.J., “Compositional evaluation of some dry season shrub and tree foliages in a transitionally vegetated zone of Nigeria”. Livestock Research for Rural Development 19(3), March, 2007.
10]  Igbabul B., Hiikyaa O, Amove J. “Effect of fermentation on the proximate composition and functional properties of mahogany bean (Afzelia africana) flour”. Curr Res Nutr.Food Sci 2(1), 2014. Available from
11]  Orwa C., Metua A., Kindt R., Jamnadass R., and Simons A., Agroforestree database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0, 2009. Available from
12]  Oduguwa O.O., Ikeobi C.O.N., Oduguwa B.O., and Oyedele O.O., “Chemical evaluation of foliage of some tropical leguminous trees and shrubs as fodder”. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci 20(1), 31-34, 1997.
13]  Igwenyi I.O and Akubugwo E.I., “Analysis of four seeds used as soup thickeners in the South-eastern part of Nigeria”. Proceedings of the International conference on Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 426-430, 2010.
14]  Sparkman D.H.,Stein E.H., Moore S., Automatic recording apparatus for use in chromatography of amino acids. Anal. Chem 30, 119, 1958.
15]  Okalebo J.R.,Catha K.W., and Woomer P.L. 2002 Laboratory methods of s oil and plant analysis: a working manual TSBF-CIAT and SACRED Africa, Nairobi, Kenya 200.
16]  White J. Essential amino acids and their functions available from accessed 8/3/2014.
17]  Kubmarawa D., Andenyang I.F.H and Magomya A.M 2009 Proximate composition and amino acid profile of two non-conventional leafy vegetables (Hibiscus cannabinus and Haematostaphis barteri). African Journal of Food Science, 3(9), 233-236, 2009.
18]  Kubmarawa D., Shangal M.H., and Diwu B.G., “Amino acid profile of Amaranthus caudatus”. E3 Journal of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research, 4(4), 68-72, 2013. Available from
19]  Fuh C.,Lin H. And Tsai H., “Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in 13 herbs of tocolysis formulation using atomic absorption spectrometry”. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 11(1), 39-45, 2003.
20]  WHO. Cadmium environmental health criteria. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, p 134, 1992.
21]  FAO/WHO, Contaminants. In Codex Alimentarius, vol xvII, Edition 1. FAO/WHO, Codex Alimentarius Commision, Rome. 1984.
22]  Maobe A.G., Gatebe E., Gitu l., and Rotich H., “Profile of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes, malaria and pneumonia in Kisii region, Southwest Kenya”. Global Journal of Pharmacology, 6(3), 245-251, 2012.
23]  Ullah R., Khader J.A., Hussain I.,AbdElsalam N.M., Talha M., Khan N., “Investigation of macro and micro nutrients in selected medicinal plants”. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 6(25), 1829-1832, 2012.
24]  Corbett J.V., “Accidental poisoning with iron supplements”. American Journal of Maternity Child Nursing, 20, 234, 1995.
25]  Jabeen S., Shah M.T., Khan S.,Hayat M.Q., “Determination of major and trace elements in ten important folk therapeutic plants of Haripur basin”. Pakistan Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(7), 559-566, 2010.
26]  Nkansah M.A. and Amoako C.O., “Heavy metal content of some common spices available in market in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana”. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1(2), 158-163, 2010.
27]  deMan J.M Principles of food Chemistry Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1990, p 429.
Show Less References