World Journal of Nutrition and Health
ISSN (Print): 2379-7819 ISSN (Online): 2379-7827 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jnh Editor-in-chief: Srinivas NAMMI
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2018, 6(1), 1-10
DOI: 10.12691/jnh-6-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Men of the Dschang Health District in Western-Cameroon

MBS Dandji1, FN Zambou1, , DSB Dangang1, FCN Nana2 and FM Tchouanguep1

1Laboratory of Medicinal Plants Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, PO BOX: 67 Dschang, Cameroon

2Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang-Cameroon, PO BOX: 222 Dschang, Cameroon

Pub. Date: March 06, 2018

Cite this paper:
MBS Dandji, FN Zambou, DSB Dangang, FCN Nana and FM Tchouanguep. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Men of the Dschang Health District in Western-Cameroon. World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2018; 6(1):1-10. doi: 10.12691/jnh-6-1-1

Abstract

In developing countries, increasing urbanization and lifestyle changes are helping to increase the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among the population through the development of cardiometabolic diseases. The objective was to determine the metabolic syndrome prevalence of men aged from 30 to 60 years. A total of 254 male, initially in apparent good health who consented freely were divided into three age groups: 30-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years. They were randomly selected in 5 urban areas and 5 rural areas. After obtaining ethical clearance, patterns of diet and physical activity, data on socio-demographic conditions, alcoholism and smoking were identified by a questionnaire in a survey. Nurses measured anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose. Transaminases, uric acid, creatinine and lipids were assayed. The data collected was submitted to the EPI-InfoTM software version 7.1.5.0. The metabolic syndrome prevalence was 38.98% in the Dschang Health District and we found 31.97% and 48.6% in the rural and urban areas respectively. This prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the participants in this study showed a close association with the lifestyle, as in the drinkers with a prevalence of 71.53% and 41.67% among smokers. Only 19.3% of the university with the metabolic syndrome were identified, while those with high salt consumption had a prevalence of 34.93%. A significant number of participants had metabolic syndrome in the Dschang Health District. This high prevalence might be related to tobacco consumption, alcoholism, reduced physical activity, low educational level and poor diet.

Keywords:
metabolic syndrome prevalence lifestyle men Cardiometabolic disease Cameroon

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Li, W., Ma, D., Liu, M., Liu, H., Feng, S., Hao, Z., Wu, B. and Zhang, S, “Association between metabolic syndrome and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies”, Cerebrovasc. Dis, 25(6). 539-47. Mai 2008.
 
[2]  Keane, D., Kelly, S., Healy, N.P., McArdle, M.A., Holohan, K. and Roche, H.M, “Diet and metabolic syndrome: An overview”, Curr. Vasc. Pharmacol, 11(6). 842-57. Nov. 2013.
 
[3]  Baillot, A, Réentraînement à l'effort chez des sujets atteints du syndrome métabolique : impact sur les réponses hormonales et la qualité de vie. Thèse de Doctorat PhD, Université d’Orléans, France, 2010.
 
[4]  Lavoie, M.E, Inflammation, stress oxydant, profil métabolique: influence des apports alimentaires et de la dépense énergétique. Thèse de Doctorat PhD, Université de Montréal, Canada, 2012.
 
[5]  Aboussaleh, Y., Farsi, M., El Hioui, M. and Ahami, A, “Transition nutritionnelle au Maroc: Coexistence de l’anémie et de l’obésité chez les femmes au Nord-Ouest marocain”, Antropo, 19. 67-74. 2009.
 
[6]  Salaroli, L.B., Saliba, R.A., Zandonade, E., Molina, M.C. and Bissoli, N.S, “Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in bank employees according to different defining criteria, Vitoria/ES, Brazil”, Clin. Sci, 68 (1). 69-74. Jan. 2013.
 
[7]  Mabchour, A.E., Delisle, H., Vilgrain, C., Larco, P. and Sodjinou, R, “Obésité abdominale et autres biomarqueurs de risque cardiométabolique : influence du niveau socioéconomique et du mode de vie dans deux populations noires apparentées, Cotonou (Bénin) et Port-au-Prince (Haïti)”, Pan. Afr. Med. J, 24. 306. Aug. 2016.
 
[8]  Sossa, C., Delisle, H., Agueh, A., Makoutodé, M. and Fayomi, B, “Four-year trends in cardiometabolic risk factors according to baseline abdominal obesity status in West African adults: The Benin Study”, Journal of Obesity, vol. 2012. 10 pages. Feb. 2012.
 
[9]  El Rhazi, K, Transition nutritionnelle, facteurs associés et émergence des maladies chroniques au Maroc: étude transversale en population générale adulte. Thèse de Doctorat PhD, Université de Bordeaux 2, France, 2010.
 
[10]  Hauhouot-Attoungbre, M.L., Yayo, S.E., Ake-Edjeme, A., Ahibo, H., Yapi, H.F. and Monnet, D, “Le syndrome métabolique existe-t-il en Côte d’Ivoire”?, Immuno-analyse & Biologie Spécialisée, 23 (6). 375-378. Dec. 2008.
 
[11]  World Health Organization 2011- Principales causes de décès dans le monde. [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/causesdedeces/fr/index.html. [Accessed Jul. 08, 2011].
 
[12]  Sossa, C, Evolution du risque cardiométabolique sur une période de quatre ans : Étude chez des adultes béninois (Afrique de l’Ouest). Thèse de Doctorat PhD, Université de Montréal, Canada, 2012.
 
[13]  Abegunde, D.O., Mathers, C.D., Adam, T., Ortegon, M. and Strong K, “The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries”, Lancet, 370 (9603). 1929-38. Dec. 2007.
 
[14]  Kirigia, J.M., Sambo, H.B., Sambo, L.G. and Barry S.P, “Economic burden of diabetes mellitus in the WHO African region”, BMC International Health. And Human Rights, 9. 6. Mar. 2009.
 
[15]  PNUD, Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement: Le Rapport Mondial sur le Développement Humain: Le travail au service du développement humain. [Online]. Available: https://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2015_human_development_report_overview_-_fr.pdf2015.
 
[16]  D. Lemogoum, La Fondation Camerounaise du Cœur en partenariat avec l’entreprise AES-SONEL et le soutien du Ministère des Sports et de la Santé Publique, 6è célébration de cette semaine du cœur sous le thème « protégeons le cœur de la femme et de l'enfant». Afrique. Aurore Plus, N° 1353, P.9, dans: Société: Santé. Sep. 2013. [Accessed Jun. 02, 2015].
 
[17]  Sodjinou, R., Agueh, V., Fayomi, B. and Delisle, H, “Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanization, and lifestyle patterns”, BMC Public Health, 8:84. Mar. 2008.
 
[18]  Kenfack, A., Tchoumboué, J., Teguia, A., Ngoula, F., Defang, H.F., Wadawa, S. and Dongmo A, “Effet du sevrage précoce et du type d’aliment sur les performances de croissance de l’aulacode (Thryonomysswinderianus) en capacité”, Livest. Res. Rural. Dev, 19 (05). May. 2007.
 
[19]  Global Physical Activity Questionnaire 2003-Analysis Guide. World Health Organization. [Accessed May. 07, 2013]. Available: http://www.who.int/chp/steps/GPAQ/en/index.html.
 
[20]  International Physical Activity questionnaire 2007-Programme (Promotion de l’Alimentation et de l’Activité Physique version 2 française). Available: www.evaluationnutrition.fr/outils.html?file=tl_files/evalin/fichiers/outils/outil. [Accessed May. 07, 2013].
 
[21]  Moskalewicz, J., J. Sieroslawski, 2010. Drinking population Surveys- Guidance document for standardized approach. Final report prepared for the project standardizing measurement of alcohol-related troubles-SMART. 83p. [Accessed May. 07, 2013]. Available: www.drugsandalcohol.ie/15682/.
 
[22]  Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2011-Tobacco Free Initiative. Surveillance and monitoring. Available: http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/survey/gats/en/. [Accessed May. 07, 2013].
 
[23]  Dehghan, M., Al Hamad, N., Yusufali, A., Nusrath, F., Yusuf, S. and Merchant, A.T, “Development of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in United Arab Emirates and Kuwait based on local foods”, Nutr. J, 4. 18. May. 2005.
 
[24]  Hu, J., Vecchia M.C., DesMeules, Negri, E. and Mery, L, “Meat and fish consumption and cancer in Canada”, Nutr. Cancer, 60 (3). 313-24. Apr. 2008.
 
[25]  Larsson, S.C., Männistö, S., Virtanen, M.J., Kontto, J., Albanes, D. and Virtamo, J, “Dairy Foods and Risk of Stroke”, Epidemiology, 20 (3). 355-60. May. 2008.
 
[26]  Chen Y., Zhang X., Pan B., Jin X., Yao H., Chen B., Zou Y., Ge J. and Chen H, “A modified formula for calculating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values”, Lipids. Health. Dis, 9. 52. May. 2010.
 
[27]  Alberti, G.K., Eckel, R.H., Grundy, S.M., Zimmet, P.Z., Cleeman, J.I., Donato, K.A., Fruchart, J.C., James, W.P., Loria, C.M. and Smith, S.C, “Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. A Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart Lung and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the study of Obesity”, Circulation, 120 (16).1640-5. Oct. 2009.
 
[28]  Sobngwi, E., Mbanya, J.C., Unwin, N.C., Porcher, R., Kengne, A.P., Fezeu, L., Minkoulou, E.M., Tournoux, C., Gautier, J.F., Aspray, T.J., Alberti, K, “Exposure over the life course to an urban environment and its relation with obesity, diabetes and hypertension in rural and urban Cameroon”, Int. J. Epidemiol, 33 (4). 769-776. May. 2004.
 
[29]  World Health Organization 2016-World health statistics 2016: Monitoring health for the SDGs. [Accessed Mar. 28, 2017]. Available: http://www.sante.public.lu/fr/publications/s/statistiques-sanitaires mondiales-2016-en/index.html
 
[30]  Fezeu, L.K., Assah, F.K., Balkau, B., Mbanya, D.S., Kengne, A.P., Awah, P.K. and Mbanya, J.C, “Ten- year changes in central obesity and BMI in rural and urban Cameroon”, Obesity, 16 (5). 1144-1147. May. 2008.
 
[31]  Bita, F.A., Lemogoum, D., Owona, M.J., Dissongo, J.II., Tobbit, R., Ngounou, M.D., Etapelong, S.G. and Kollo, B, “Epidemiology of obesity in the work milieu, Douala, Cameroon”, Rev. Med. Brux, 33 (3). 131-7. May-Jun. 2012.
 
[32]  Briel, M., Ferreira-Gonzalez, I., You, J.J., Karanicolas, P.J., Akl, E.A., Wu, P., Blechacz, B., Bassler, D., Wei, X., Sharman, A., Whitt, I., Alves da Silva, S., Khalid, Z., Nordmann, A.J., Zhou, Q., Walter, S.D., Vale, N., Bhatnagar, N., O'Regan, C., Mills, E.J., Bucher, H.C., Montori, V.M. and Guyatt, G.H, “Association between change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality: systematic review and meta-regression analysis”, Br. Med. J, 16. 338. b920. Feb. 2009.
 
[33]  Organisation Mondiale de la Santé 2012-Hypertension et diabète sont en forte hausse selon les dernières statistiques sur les maladies non transmissibles. [Accessed Jun. 07, 2015]. Available www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2012/world_health_statistics_20120516/fr/.
 
[34]  Fondation Camerounaise du Cœur 2016-Dépistage gratuit de l’hypertension artérielle et des autres maladies et facteurs de risque cardiovasculaires. Faites évaluer votre risque cardiovasculaire!!! Journée Mondiale, contre l’hypertension, 10 au 25 mai. [Accessed Aug. 21, 2016].
 
[35]  Chiadak, J.D., Perret, J., Womeni, H.M., Kuiaté, J.R., Cullus, P., Senterre, C. and Delporte, C, “Pilot study of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in northern and southern Cameroonians”, Cardiovasc. J. Afr, 28 (4). 235-241. Jul-Aug. 2017.
 
[36]  Cohen, H.W. and Alderman, M.H, “Sodium, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease”, Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 22 (4). 306-310. Jul. 2007.
 
[37]  Strazzullo, P., D'Elia, L., Kandala, N.B. and Cappuccio, F.P, “Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies”, Br. Med. J, 24:339:b4567. Nov. 2009.
 
[38]  El Moudjahid, Actualité de la santé au Maghreb. Le guide de la médecine et de la santé au Maghreb, Algérie. Mar. 2008.