World Journal of Nutrition and Health
ISSN (Print): 2379-7819 ISSN (Online): 2379-7827 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jnh Editor-in-chief: Srinivas NAMMI
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2016, 4(1), 22-26
DOI: 10.12691/jnh-4-1-5
Open AccessArticle

Poor Physical Growth among Perinatally HIV-infected Girls despite Anti-retroviral Therapy in Enugu, South-East Nigeria

Iloh O N1, Ubesie AC1, 2, , Iloh KK2, Emodi IJ1, 2, Ikefuna AN1, 2 and Obumneme-Anyim I.1

1Department of Paediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu

2Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus

Pub. Date: December 28, 2016

Cite this paper:
Iloh O N, Ubesie AC, Iloh KK, Emodi IJ, Ikefuna AN and Obumneme-Anyim I.. Poor Physical Growth among Perinatally HIV-infected Girls despite Anti-retroviral Therapy in Enugu, South-East Nigeria. World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2016; 4(1):22-26. doi: 10.12691/jnh-4-1-5

Abstract

Background: Perinatally acquired HIV infection is associated with early and progressive reductions in weight and height and features of endocrine dysfunction such as pubertal delay. Impairment of growth is a marker of advanced HIV disease and require proper evaluation. The aim of this study was to assess the physical growth of perinatally HIV-infected females aged 8-18 years. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study involving 100 HIV-infected girls aged 8-18 years and 100 un-infected counterparts matched for age and social class. Weight and height were measured to assess the nutritional status of study participants and BMI calculated, Data analysis was done with SPSS version 20 (Chicago IL). Significant levels were assumed at p-values less than 0.05. Results: The mean height of the subjects and controls were 139.19 ± 14.31cm and 145.67 ± 13.09cm respectively (p=0.001). The mean weight of the subjects and controls were 33.56 ± 11.12kg and 37.68 ± 11.07kg (p=0.009) respectively. Conclusions: Perinatally HIV infected females have significantly lower weight and height for age z scores than HIV uninfected controls.

Keywords:
physical growth peri-natal HIV girls poor

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Meléndez A, Eduardo M, Chica G, María M, Ochoa C, Henao-Mejía W, et al. Polysomnographic evaluation of uninfected babies born to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 positive mothers. Iatreia 2013; 26: 269-277.
 
[2]  Tindyebwa D, Kayita J, Musoke P, Eley B,Nduati R, Coovadia H, et al. Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa. African network for the care of children affected by AIDS (ANECCA). Revised edition. Kampala, Uganda. 2006:17-23.
 
[3]  UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013. UNAIDS/JC2502/1/E. www.unaids.org/2013/UNAIDS_Global)Report_2013_en.pdf.
 
[4]  Idele P, Gillespie A, Porth T, Suzuki C, Mahy M, Kasedde S, et al. Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among adolescents: Current status, inequities and data gaps. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014; 66: S144-S153.
 
[5]  UNAIDS Gap Report 2014; UNAIDS Fact Sheet 2014. www.amfar.org/worldwide_aids_stats.
 
[6]  UNAIDS Report on the global AIDS epidemic 2010. UNAIDS /10.11E I 1958E. http://www.unaids.org/documents.
 
[7]  Ubesie AC, Emodi IJ, Ikefuna AN, Ilechukwu GC, Ilechukwu G. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus transmission among transfused children with sickle cell anemia in Enugu Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2012; 2: 109-113.
 
[8]  Ali K, Habibolah TM, Mohammad AK, Masumah S. Key facts about epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in children worldwide. Int J Paediatr. 2014; 7:145-152.
 
[9]  Krist AH, Crawford-faucher A. Management of newborns exposed to maternal HIV infection. Am Fam Physician 2002; 65: 2049-2057.
 
[10]  Zijenah LS, Moulton LH, Iliff P, Nathoo K, Munjoma MW, Mutasa K et al. Timing of mother to child transmission of HIV 1 and infant mortality in the first 6 months of life in Harare Zimbabwe. AIDS 2004; 18: 273-280.
 
[11]  Brady MT, Oleske JM, Williams PL. Declines in mortality rates and changes in causes of death in HIV-1 infected children during the HAART era. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 53: 86-94.
 
[12]  World AIDS Day Report. UNAIDS 2011. www.unaids.org/en/resources/press centre/press release and state. Date assessed 20/5/13.
 
[13]  World Health Organization (WHO) Young people, adolescents and youth. A picture of health, Geneva 1995. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_886 (p1-p144).
 
[14]  Majaliwa ES, Mohn A, Chiarelli F. Growth and puberty in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Endocrinol Invest 2009; 32: 85-90.
 
[15]  Berhane R, Bagenda D, Marum L, Aceng E, Ndugwa C, Bosch RJ, et al. Growth failure as a prognostic indication of mortality in pediatric HIV infection. Pediatrics 1997;100:e7.
 
[16]  Toh-adam R, Srisupundit K, Tongsong T. Short stature as an independent risk factor for cephalopelvic disproportion in a country of relatively small-sized mothers. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2012; 285 (6): 1513-1516.
 
[17]  Bisai S. Maternal Height as an Independent Risk Factor for Neonatal Size Among Adolescent Bengalees in Kolkata, India. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. 2010; 20(3): 153-158.
 
[18]  Omideyi AK. Poverty and development in Nigeria: Trailing the Millenium Development Goals. Afr J Infect Dis 2007; 1: 3-17.
 
[19]  Asinobi CO, Nwankwo CF. Malnutrition and common diseases in adolescent girls in rural farming community of Ohaji/Egbema Local Government Area. Imo State, Nigeria. Nig J Nutr Sci 2010; 31: 35-38.
 
[20]  Oyedeji GA. The effect of socio economic factors on the incidence and severity of gastroenteritis in Nigerian children. Niger Med J 1987; 4: 229-232.
 
[21]  Araoye MO. Subject selection and sample size determination in: Araoye MO (ed). Research Methodology with Statistics for Health and Social Sciences. Ilorin: Nathadex publishers 2003; 115-120.
 
[22]  WHO; Mahe, C; Mayanja, B; Whitwort, JA. Interim Proposal for a WHO Staging system for HIV infection and disease. Wkly Epidemiol Rec, 1990; 65:221-224.
 
[23]  Dinsdale H, Ridler C, Ellis LS. A simple guide to classifying body mass index in children. Oxford: National Obesity Observatory, 2011 p 15.
 
[24]  World Health Organization. Growth standards: length/height for age, weight for age, weight for length, weight for height and body mass index for age. Methods and development. Geneva WHO. http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/2006.accessed 4/111/2011.
 
[25]  Jahoor F, Abramson S, Heird WC. The protein metabolic response to HIV in young children. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78: 182-189.
 
[26]  Pozo J, Argente J. Delayed puberty in chronic illness. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 16: 73-90.
 
[27]  Anyabolu HC, Adejuyigbe EA, Adeodu OO. Undernutrition and anemia among HAART naïve HIV infected children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: a case-controlled hospital based study. Pan Afr Med J 2014; 18: 77-85.
 
[28]  Ferrand RA, Luethy R, Bwakura F, Mujuru H, Miller RF, Corbett EL. HIV infection presenting in older children and adolescents: A case series from Harare Zimbabwe. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 44: 874.
 
[29]  Mbwile GR. Growth and pubertal development among children aged 8-18 years in Dar es Salaam. Dissertation. Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. 2012.
 
[30]  European Collaborative Study. Weight, height and growth in children born to mothers with HIV-1 in Europe. Pediatrics 2003; 111: e52-e60.
 
[31]  Lowenthal ED, Bakeera-Kitaka S, Marukutira T, Chapman J, Goldrath K, Ferrand RA. Perinatally acquired HIV infection in adolescents from sub-Saharan Africa: a review of emerging challenges. The Lancet infectious diseases. 2014; 14(7): 627-639.
 
[32]  Bunupuradah T, Kariminia A, Aurpibul L, Chokephaibulkit K, Hansudewechakul R, Lumbiganon P et al. Final Height and Associated Factors in Perinatally HIV-infected Asian Adolescents. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2016; 35: 201-204.
 
[33]  Gsponer T, Weigel R, Davies M-A, et al. Variability of Growth in Children Starting Antiretroviral Treatment in Southern Africa. Pediatrics. 2012; 130(4): e966-e977.