World Journal of Nutrition and Health
ISSN (Print): 2379-7819 ISSN (Online): 2379-7827 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jnh Editor-in-chief: Srinivas NAMMI
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014, 2(1), 1-9
DOI: 10.12691/jnh-2-1-1
Open AccessArticle

The Role of Family/Friend Social Support in Diabetes Self-Management for Minorities with Type 2 Diabetes

Joan A. Vaccaro1, Joel C. Exebio1, Gustavo G. Zarini1 and Fatma G. Huffman1,

1Florida International University, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Department of Dietetics and Nutrition

Pub. Date: February 11, 2014

Cite this paper:
Joan A. Vaccaro, Joel C. Exebio, Gustavo G. Zarini and Fatma G. Huffman. The Role of Family/Friend Social Support in Diabetes Self-Management for Minorities with Type 2 Diabetes. World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2014; 2(1):1-9. doi: 10.12691/jnh-2-1-1

Abstract

This study investigated how ethnicity, perceived family/friend social support (FSS), and health behaviors are associated with diabetes self-management (DSM) in minorities. The participants were recruited by community outreach methods and included 174 Cuban-, 121 Haitian- and 110 African-Americans with type 2 diabetes. The results indicated that ethnicity and FSS were associated with DSM. Higher FSS scores were associated with higher DSM scores, independent of ethnicity. There were ethnic differences in several elements of FSS. DSM was highest in Haitian- as compared to African-Americans; yet Haitian Americans had poorer glycemic control. The findings suggest FSS together with ethnicity may influence critical health practices. Studies are needed that further investigate the relationships among minorities with diabetes, their intimate network (family and friends) and the diabetes care process.

Keywords:
family and friend social support diabetes self-management ethnicity minorities type 2 diabetes

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: General information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf. [Accessed December, 12, 2013].
 
[2]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Division of Health Interview Statistics, Health United States. “Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: 2007”. May, 2009. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_240.pdf. [Accessed December 12, 2013].
 
[3]  Narayan, K. M., Boyle, J. P., Thompson, T. J., Sorensen S. W., and Williamson, D. F. “Lifetime risk for diabetes mellitus in the United States”. JAMA. 290 (14). 1884-1890. 2003.
 
[4]  Narayan, K. M., Boyle, J. P., Geiss, L. S., Saaddine J. B., and Thompson, T. J. “Impact of recent increase in incidence on future diabetes burden: U.S., 2005-2050”. Diabetes Care. 29 (9). 2114-2116. 2006.
 
[5]  American Diabetes Association. “Standards of medical care in diabetes-2013”. Diabetes Care. 36 (Suppl 1). S1-S66. 2013.
 
[6]  Stolar, M. W., Hoogwerf, B. J., Gorshow, S. M., Boyle, P. J., and Wales, D. O. “Managing type 2 diabetes: Going beyond glycemic control. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy. 14 (5). (Suppl.) S2-S19. 2008.
 
[7]  Albright, T. L., Parchman, M., and Burge, S. K. “Predictors of self-care behavior in adults with type 2 diabetes: An RRNeST study”. Family Medicine. 33. 354-360. 2001.
 
[8]  Bai, Y. L., Chiou, C. P., and Chang, Y. Y. Self-care behaviour and related factors in older people with Type 2 diabetes”. J Clin Nurs. 18. 3308-3315. 2009.
 
[9]  Ciechanowski, P., Russo, J., Katon, W. J., Lin, E. H. Ludman, E., Heckbert, S., Von Korff, M., Williams, L. H., and Young, B. A. “Relationship styles and mortality in patients with diabetes.” Diabetes Care. 33 (3). 539-544. 2010.
 
[10]  Gallant, M. P. “The influence of social support on chronic illness and self-management: A review and directions for research”. Health Educ and Behav. 30. 170-195. 2003.
 
[11]  Anderson, D., and Christison-Lagay, J. “Diabetes self-management in a community health center: Improving health behaviors and clinical outcomes for underserved patients”. Clin Diabetes. 26. 22-27. 2008.
 
[12]  Tucker, K. L, Bermúdez, O., and Castañeda, C. “Type 2 diabetes is prevalent and poorly controlled among Caribbean origin Hispanic elders”. Am J Public Health. 90. 1288-1293. 2000.
 
[13]  Broadhead, W.E., Gehlback, S.H., de Gruy, F.V., and Kaplan, B.H. “Functional versus structural social support and health care utilization in a family medicine outpatient practice”. Med Care. 27 (3). 221-231. 1989.
 
[14]  Gamarra, C. J., Paz, E. P. A., and Griep, R. H. “Social support and cervical and breast cancer screening in Argentinean women from a rural population”. Public Health Nurs. 26 (3). 269-276. 2009.
 
[15]  Hanna, K. M. “Existing measures of diabetes-specific support for use with adolescents with diabetes”. Diabetes Educ. 32. 741-750. 2006.
 
[16]  DiMatteo, M. R. “Social support and patient adherence to medical treatment: A meta-analysis”. Health Psychol. 23. 207-218. 2004.
 
[17]  Gleeson-Kreig, J. “Social support and physical activity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 34.1037-1043. 2008.
 
[18]  Glasgow, R. D., Strycker, L. A., Toobert, D. J., and Eakin, E. “A social-ecological approach to assessing support for disease self-management: The Chronic Illness Resources Survey”. J Behav Med. 23. 559-583. 2000.
 
[19]  Webel, A.R., Okonsky, J., Trompeta, J., and Holzemer, W. L. “A systematic review of the effectiveness of peer-based interventions on health-related behaviors in adults. Am J Public Health.” 100. 247-253. 2010.
 
[20]  Funnell, M. M. “Peer-based behavioural strategies to improve chronic disease self-management and clinical outcomes: evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations and needs for future research”. Fam Pract. 27. i17-i22. 2010.
 
[21]  Oster, N. V., Welch, V., Schil, L. Gazmararian, J. A., Rask, K., and Spettell, C. “Differences in self-management behaviors and use of preventive services among diabetes management enrollees by race and ethnicity.” Disease Management. 9. 167-175. 2006.
 
[22]  Kemp, C. Baylor School of Nursing, Texas Department of Health, US Office of Refugee Resettlement, Vietnamese MAA-Dallas Refugee and Immigrant Health. “Haitian refugees.” 2006. Available: https://bearspace.baylor.edu/Charles_Kemp/www/haitian_refugees.htm [Accessed November 20, 2013].
 
[23]  Metellus, G., St. Hilaire, S., Hermantin, L., and Lacroix, S. Risk and Protective Factors in Little-Haiti and the Haitian/Haitian-American Community in Miami Dade County Working paper Series: SL WPS 02. 2004.
 
[24]  Varela, L. “Cubans”. In: Lipson, J. G., Dibble, S. L., & Minarik, P. A (Eds.) Culture & Clinical Care. San Francisco, CA: UCSF Nursing Press, pp. 154-166. 2005.
 
[25]  Brown, C. M., and Segal, R. “The effects of health and treatment perceptions on the use of prescribed medication and home remedies among African American and White hypertensives”. Soc Sci Med, 43 (6). 903-917. 1996.
 
[26]  Wilson, R. “Lay beliefs about high blood pressure in a low-to middle-income urban African-American community: an opportunity for improving hypertension control”. Am J Med. 112 (1), 26-30. 2002.
 
[27]  Lewis, L. M., and Ogedegbe, G. “Understanding the nature and role of spirituality in relation to medication adherence: a proposed conceptual model”. Holist Nurs Pract. 22 (5). 261-271. 2008.
 
[28]  Middleton, J. L. “A proposed new model of hypertensive treatment behavior in African Americans”. J Natl Med Assoc. 101. 12-17. 2009.
 
[29]  Levin, J., Chatters, L. M., and Taylor, R. J. “Religion, health and medicine in African Americans: Implications for physicians”. J Natl Med Assoc. 97 (2). 237-249. 2005.
 
[30]  Nwasuruba, C., Khan, M., and Egede, L. E. “Racial/ethnic differences in multiple self-care behaviors in adults with diabetes.” Society of General Internal Medicine. 22. 115-120. 2007.
 
[31]  Fisher, E. B., Brownson, C.A., O’Toole, M. L., Shetty, G., Anwuri, R. R., and Glasgow, R. E. “Ecological approaches to self-management: The case of diabetes.” Am J Public Health. 95 (9). 1523-1535. 2005.
 
[32]  Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center (MDRTC). “Survey Instruments for Health Professionals: Diabetes Care Profile”. 2011. Available: http://www.med.umich.edu/mdrtc/profs/survey.html#dcp [Accessed November 14, 2013].
 
[33]  Selvin, E., Marinopoulos, S., Berkenblit G., Rami, T., Brancati, F. L., Powe, N.R., and Hill-Golden, S. “Meta-analysis: glycosylated hemoglobin and cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus”. Ann Intern Med. 141. 421-431.2004.
 
[34]  World Health Organization. World Health Survey 2002: individual questionnaire. Geneva: author. 2002. Available: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/whslongindividuala.pdf [Accessed November 9, 2013].
 
[35]  Chandola, T. and Jenkinson, C. “Validating Self-rated Health in Different Ethnic Groups”. Ethn Health. 5 (2).151-159. 2000.
 
[36]  Breidablik, H-J., Meland, E., and Lydersen, S. “Self-rated health in adolescence: A multifactorial composite”. Scand J Public Health. 36 (12).
 
[37]  Manor, O., Matthews, S., and Power, C. “Dichotomous or Categorical Response? Analyzing self-rated health and lifetime social class”. Int J Epidemiol. 29. 149-157. 2000.
 
[38]  Keogh, K. M. Smith, S. M., White, P., McGilloway, S., Kelly, A., Gibney, J., and O’Dowd, T. “Psychological family intervention for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes”. Am J Manag Care. 17 (2). 105-113. 2011.
 
[39]  Denham, S. A., Manoogian, M. M., and Schuster, L. “Managing family support and dietary routines: Type 2 diabetes in rural Appalachian families”. Families, Systems, & Health. 25 (1), 36-52. 2007.
 
[40]  Paddison, C. A. M. “Family support and conflict among adults with type 2 diabetes”. European Diabetes Nursing. 7 (1), 29-33. 2010.
 
[41]  Almeida, J., Molnar, G. E., Kawachi, I., and Subramanian, S. V. “Ethnicity and native status as determinants of perceived social support: Testing the concept of familism”. Soc Sci Med. 68. 1852-1858. 2009.
 
[42]  Misraa, R. and Lagerb, J. “Ethnic and gender differences in psychosocial factors, glycemic control, and quality of life among adult type 2 diabetic patients”. Journal of Diabetes Complications. 23 (1). 54-64. 2009.
 
[43]  McCann, D. P., and Blossom, J. “The physician as a patient educator: From theory to practice”. West J Med. 153. 44-49. 1990.
 
[44]  Toljamo, M., and Hentinene, M. “Adherence to self-care and glycemic control among people with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus”. J Adv Nurs. 34. 780-786. 2001.
 
[45]  van Dam, H. A., van der Horst, F. G., Knoops, L., Rychman, R. M., Crebolder, H. F., and van den Borne, B. H. “Social support in diabetes: a systematic review of controlled intervention studies”. Patient Education and Counseling, 59 (1). 2005. [online], PMID: 16198213.
 
[46]  Lin, E. H., Katon, W., von Korff, M., Rutter, C., Simon, G. E., Oliver, M., Ciechanowski, P., Ludman, E. J., Bush T., and Young, B. “Relationship of depression and diabetes self-care, medication adherence, and preventive care”. Diabetes Care. 27 (9). 2154-2160. 2004.
 
[47]  Warren-Findlow, J. and Thomas R. Prohaska, T. R. “Families, social support, and self-care among older African-American women with chronic illness.” Am J Health Promt. 22 (5), 342-349. 2008.
 
[48]  Courtenay, W. H., McCreary, D. R., and Merighi, J. R. “Gender and ethnic differences in health beliefs and behaviors.” J Health Psychol. 7 (3). 219-231. 2002.
 
[49]  Li, W. W., Wallhagen, M. I., and Froelicher, E. S. “Hypertension control, predictors for medication adherence and gender differences in older Chinese immigrants”. Advances in Nursing. 6 (3). 326-335. 2008.
 
[50]  Palmer, T., and Rogers, T. “Religion and Health: Holistic Wellness from the Perspective of Two African American Church Denominations”. Counseling and Values, 42 (1), 55-67. 1997.