World Journal of Nutrition and Health
ISSN (Print): 2379-7819 ISSN (Online): 2379-7827 Website: Editor-in-chief: Srinivas NAMMI
Open Access
Journal Browser
World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2019, 7(2), 30-34
DOI: 10.12691/jnh-7-2-1
Open AccessReview Article

Nutrient-Adipokine Interaction in NAFLD: A Review

Bhanvi Grover1, , Seema Puri1 and Nikhil Tandon2

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Institution of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Pub. Date: August 15, 2019

Cite this paper:
Bhanvi Grover, Seema Puri and Nikhil Tandon. Nutrient-Adipokine Interaction in NAFLD: A Review. World Journal of Nutrition and Health. 2019; 7(2):30-34. doi: 10.12691/jnh-7-2-1


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a non-communicable and a most common form of liver disease, and has strong ties with obesity epidemic. The pathophysiology of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is complex and multifactorial, which makes the diagnosis difficult. On the basis of previous and recent published data, key characters could be proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines that are products of adipose tissue, namely inflammatory cells infiltrating the adipose tissue. In this review we will be discussing the role of adipokines in NAFLD and their interaction with the nutrients in the diet.

NAFLD adipokines N-3 PUFA NASH

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE, Diehl AM, Brunt EM, Cusi K, et al. The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice Guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association. Hepatology. 2012; 55[6]: 2005-23.
[2]  Hassan K, Bhalla V, Ezz M, Regal E, Hesham H, Hassan A-KK, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A comprehensive review of a growing epidemic. World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20[34]: 12082-101.
[3]  Kleiner DE, Brunt EM, Van Natta M, Behling C, Contos MJ, Cummings OW, et al. Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2005 Jun; 41[6]: 1313-21.
[4]  Buzzetti E, Pinzani M, Tsochatzis EA. The multiple-hit pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]. Metabolism. 2016;65[8]:1038-48.
[5]  Alisi A, Cianfarani S, Manco M, Agostoni C, Nobili V. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome in adolescents: pathogenetic role of genetic background and intrauterine environment. Ann Med. 2012 Feb; 44[1]: 29-40.
[6]  Sun X, Zemel MB. Calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulation of adipokine expression. Obesity [Silver Spring]. 2007 Feb; 15[2]: 340-8.
[7]  Polyzos SA, Kountouras J, Mantzoros CS. Leptin in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a narrative review. Metabolism. 2015 Jan; 64[1]: 60-78.
[8]  Fasshauer M, Blüher M. Adipokines in health and disease. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Jul; 36[7]: 461-70.
[9]  Grant RW, Dixit VD. Adipose tissue as an immunological organ. Obesity [Silver Spring]. 2015 Mar; 23[3]: 512-8.
[10]  Braunersreuther V, Viviani GL, Mach F, Montecucco F. Role of cytokines and chemokines in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Feb 28; 18[8]: 727-35.
[11]  Marra F, Bertolani C. Adipokines in Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2009 Sep; 50[3]: 957-69.
[12]  Polyzos SA, Kountouras J, Mantzoros CS. Adipokines in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metabolism. 2016; 65[8]: 1062-79.
[13]  Wang Z, Nakayama T. Inflammation, a Link between Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease. Mediators Inflamm. 2010; 2010: 17.
[14]  Havel PJ. Update on Adipocyte Hormones. Diabetes. 2004; 53[Suppl 1]: 143-51.
[15]  Weyer C, Funahashi T, Tanaka S, Hotta K, Matsuzawa Y, Pratley RE, et al. Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 May;86[5]:1930-5.
[16]  Karbowska J, Kochan Z. Role of adiponectin in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Nov;57 Suppl 6: 103-13.
[17]  Combs TP, Pajvani UB, Berg AH, Lin Y, Jelicks LA, Laplante M, et al. A transgenic mouse with a deletion in the collagenous domain of adiponectin displays elevated circulating adiponectin and improved insulin sensitivity. Endocrinology. 2004 Jan; 145[1]: 367-83.
[18]  Havel PJ, Callahan HS, Swarbrick MM, Weigle DS, Matthys CC, Kratz M. Effect of dietary n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin concentrations in overweight to moderately obese men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87[2]: 347-53.
[19]  Kovacova Z, Vitkova M, Kovacikova M, Klimcakova E, Bajzova M, Hnevkovska Z, et al. Secretion of adiponectin multimeric complexes from adipose tissue explants is not modified by very low-calorie diet. 2009 Apr; 160[4]: 585-92.
[20]  G M, Cassader M RF, R G. Impact of current treatments on liver disease, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Diabetologia. 2012; 55[4]: 885-904.
[21]  Elias MC, Parise ER, de Carvalho L, Szejnfeld D, Netto JP. Effect of 6-month nutritional intervention on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutrition. 26[11-12]: 1094-9.
[22]  Izadi V, Azadbakht L. Specific dietary patterns and concentrations of adiponectin. J Res Med Sci. 2015 Feb; 20[2]: 178-84.
[23]  Fargnoli JL, Fung TT, Olenczuk DM, Chamberland JP, Hu FB, Mantzoros CS. Adherence to healthy eating patterns is associated with higher circulating total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin and lower resistin concentrations in women from the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Nov; 88[5]: 1213-24.
[24]  Ye R, Holland WL, Gordillo R, Wang M, Wang QA, Shao M, et al. Adiponectin is essential for lipid homeostasis and survival under insulin deficiency and promotes β-cell regeneration. Elife. 2014; 23[3].
[25]  Xia JY, Sun K, Hepler C, Ghaben AL, Gupta RK, An YA, et al. Acute loss of adipose tissue-derived adiponectin triggers immediate metabolic deterioration in mice HHS Public Access. Diabetologia. 2017; 61[4]: 932-41.
[26]  Fruebis J, Javorschi S, Ebbets-Reed D, Erickson MRS, Yen FT, Bihain BE, et al. Proteolytic cleavage product of 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein increases fatty acid oxidation in muscle and causes weight loss in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001; 98[4]: 2005-10.
[27]  Mostowik M, Gajos G, Zalewski J, Nessler J, Undas A. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase plasma adiponectin to leptin ratio in stable coronary artery disease. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2013; 27[4]: 289-95.
[28]  Gray B, Steyn F, Davies PSW, Vitetta L. Omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the effects on adiponectin and leptin and potential implications for obesity management. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Dec; 67[12]: 1234-42.
[29]  E. M, M. R, L. F, M. A-J, S. S. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on serum adiponectin levels and some metabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2012; 21[4]: 511-8.
[30]  Kondo K, Morino K, Nishio Y, Kondo M, Fuke T, Ugi S, et al. Effects of a fish-based diet on the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese subjects. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010 Jun 30; 17[6]: 628-37.
[31]  Rossi AS, Lombardo YB, Lacorte J-M, Chicco AG, Rouault C, Slama G, et al. Dietary fish oil positively regulates plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in sucrose-fed, insulin-resistant rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Aug; 289[2]: R486-94.
[32]  Wu JHY, Cahill LE, Mozaffarian D. Effect of fish oil on circulating adiponectin: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2013. p. 98[6]: 2451-9.
[33]  Neschen S, Morino K, Rg J, Rossbacher C, Pongratz RL, Cline GW, et al. Fish Oil Regulates Adiponectin Secretion by a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Dependent Mechanism in Mice. 2006; 55[4]: 924-8.
[34]  Astapova O, Leff T. Adiponectin and PPARγ: Cooperative and Interdependent Actions of Two Key Regulators of Metabolism. In: Vitamins and Hormones. Academic Press Inc.; 2012. p. 143-62.
[35]  La Cava A. Leptin in inflammation and autoimmunity. Cytokine. 2017; 98: 51-8.
[36]  Sarraf P, Frederich RC, Turner EM, Ma G, Jaskowiak NT, Rivet Iii DJ, et al. Multiple Cytokines and Acute Inflammation Raise Mouse Leptin Levels: Potential Role in Inflammatory Anorexia. J Exp Med •. 1997; 185[1]: 171-5.
[37]  Lee M-J, Fried SK. Integration of hormonal and nutrient signals that regulate leptin synthesis and secretion. Am J Physiol Metab. 2009; 296[6]: E1230-8.
[38]  Romon M, Lebel P, Velly C, Marecaux N, Fruchart JC, Dallongeville J. Leptin response to carbohydrate or fat meal and association with subsequent satiety and energy intake. Am J Physiol Metab. 1999; 277[5]: E855-61.
[39]  Koutsari C, Karpe F, Humphreys SM, Frayn KN, Hardman AE. Plasma leptin is influenced by diet composition and exercise. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Aug; 27[8]: 901-6.
[40]  Valtueña S, Pellegrini N, Ardigò D, Del Rio D, Numeroso F, Scazzina F, et al. Dietary glycemic index and liver steatosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul; 84[1]: 136-42; quiz 268-9.
[41]  Bawden S, Stephenson M, Falcone Y, Lingaya M, Ciampi E, Hunter K, et al. Increased liver fat and glycogen stores after consumption of high versus low glycaemic index food: A randomized crossover study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017; 19[1]: 70-7.
[42]  Raben A, Astrup A. Leptin is influenced both by predisposition to obesity and diet composition. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Apr; 24[4]: 450–9.
[43]  Havel PJ. Role of adipose tissue in body-weight regulation: mechanisms regulating leptin production and energy balance. Proc Nutr Soc. 2000 Aug; 59[3]: 359-71.
[44]  de Castro GS, Calder PC. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Clin Nutr. 2018; 37[1]: 37-55.
[45]  Salem N. Introduction to polyunsaturated fatty acids. Backgrounder. 1999; 3[1]: 1-8.
[46]  Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease New Recommendations From the American Heart Association. 2003; 23[2]: 151-2.
[47]  Moreno-Aliaga M, Alfredo M. Sesion 3: Fatty acids and the immune system. Regulation of adipokine secretion by n-3 fatty acids Portion size estimation View project EVASYON View project. 2010; 69[3]: 324-32.
[48]  Mueller WM, Gregoire FM, Stanhope KL, Mobbs C V, Mizuno TM, Warden CH, et al. Evidence That Glucose Metabolism Regulates Leptin Secretion from Cultured Rat Adipocytes*. 1998; 139[2]: 551-8.
[49]  Mueller WM, Stanhope KL, Gregoire F, Evans JL, Havel PJ. Effects of metformin and vanadium on leptin secretion from cultured rat adipocytes. Obes Res. 2000; 8[7]: 530-9.
[50]  Pérez-Matute P, Marti A, Martínez JA, Fernández-Otero MP, Stanhope KL, Havel PJ, et al. Eicosapentaenoic fatty acid increases leptin secretion from primary cultured rat adipocytes: role of glucose metabolism. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Jun; 288[6]: R1682-8.
[51]  Ramel A, Martinez JA, Kiely M, Bandarra NM, Thorsdottir I. Effects of weight loss and seafood consumption on inflammation parameters in young, overweight and obese European men and women during 8 weeks of energy restriction. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep; 64[9]: 987-93.
[52]  Dahl TB, Holm S, Aukrust P, Halvorsen B. Visfatin/NAMPT: a multifaceted molecule with diverse roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Annu Rev Nutr. 2012 Aug 21; 32[1]: 229-43.
[53]  WEN Y, WANG H, WU J, LU H, HU X, Katherine C. Effects of fatty acid regulation on visfatin gene expression in adipocytes. Chin Med J [Engl]. 2006 Oct; 119[20]: 1701-8.
[54]  Chang Y-C, Chang T-J, Lee W-J, Chuang L-M. The relationship of visfatin/pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor/nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase in adipose tissue with inflammation, insulin resistance, and plasma lipids. Metabolism. 2010 Jan; 59[1]: 93-9.
[55]  Pérez-Echarri N, Pérez-Matute P, Marcos-Gómez B, Martínez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester on visfatin and apelin in lean and overweight [cafeteria diet-fed] rats. Br J Nutr. 2009 Apr; 101[7]: 1059-67.
[56]  Jamaluddin MS, Weakley SM, Yao Q, Chen C, DeBakey ME. Themed Section: Fat and Vascular Responsiveness Resistin: functional roles and therapeutic considerations for cardiovascular disease Correspondence. 2011; 165[3]: 622-32.
[57]  Bajaj M, Suraamornkul S, Hardies LJ, Pratipanawatr T, DeFronzo RA. Plasma resistin concentration, hepatic fat content, and hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance in pioglitazone-treated type II diabetic patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Jun; 28[6]: 783-9.
[58]  Shen C, Zhao C-YY, Wang W, Wang Y-DD, Sun H, Cao W, et al. The relationship between hepatic resistin overexpression and inflammation in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. BMC Gastroenterology 2014 p. 1-9.
[59]  Musso G, Bo S, Cassader M, De Michieli F, Gambino R. Impact of sterol regulatory element-binding factor-1c polymorphism on incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and on the severity of liver disease and of glucose and lipid dysmetabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013; 98[4]: 895-906.