You are here:

Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry

ISSN (Print): 2333-4436

ISSN (Online): 2333-4444


Content: Volume 1, Issue 4


Conductometric and Thermodynamic Study of Copper and Nickel Sulfate in Aqueous Methanol Systems

1Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

2Department of Chemistry, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2013, 1(4), 69-75
DOI: 10.12691/jmpc-1-4-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Summyia Masood, Rehana Saeed, Sameera Razi Khan. Conductometric and Thermodynamic Study of Copper and Nickel Sulfate in Aqueous Methanol Systems. Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2013; 1(4):69-75. doi: 10.12691/jmpc-1-4-3.

Correspondence to: Summyia  Masood, Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. Email:




[1]  Ashwini, K. S., Rajesh, A. S. and Snehal, D. P, “Ionic Conductivity in Binary Solvent Mixtures. 2. Ethylene Carbonate + Water at 25°C”, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 41, 431-435 (1996).
[2]  EI-Dossoki, F. I, “Conductomrtric and thermodynamic studies on the ionic association of HCOONH4, phCOONH4, HCOONa and phCOONa in aqueous-organic solvents”, J. Mol. Liqs. 142, 72-77 (2008).
[3]  Borun, A. and Bald, A, “Conductometric Studies of 1-Ethyl-3 methylimidazolium Tetrafluoro-borate and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoro-borate in N,N-Dimethyl formamide at Temperatures from (283.15 to 318.15) K”, J. Chem. Eng.Dat., 57, 475-481 (2012).
[4]  Diego, A. D., Usobiaga, A., Fernandez, L. A. and Madariaga, J. M, “Application of the electrical conductivity of concentrated electrolyte solutions to industrial process control and design: from experimental measurement towards prediction through modelling”, Trac-Trends Anal. Chem. 20, 65-78 (2001).
[5]  Goma, E. A, and Galal, R. M, “Molar Solubility, Solvation and Conductivity Association Parameters of Sodium Fluoride in Mixed Aqueous-Ethanol Solvents at Different Temperatures”, Basic Sciences of Medicine, , 1(2), 1-5 (2012).
Show More References
6]  Saeed, R, Masood, S. and Abdeen, Z, “Ionic Interaction of Transition Metal Salts with Polyvinyl Alcohol-Borax- Ethyl Acetate Mixtures”, Int. J. Sci Technol., 3(2), 132-142 (2013).
7]  Fuoss, R. M. and Shedlovsky, T, “Extrapolation of Conductance Data for Weak Electrolytes”, J. Am. Chem Soc. 71(4) 1496-1498 (1949).
8]  Saeed, R., Masood, S. and Uddin, F, “Ionic interaction of electrolyte with dilute solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) at different temperatures”, Phys. Chem. Liqs, 46(1), 9-17 (2008).
9]  Saeed, R., Uddin, F., and Sultan, H, “Thermodynamic study of monovalent and divalent cations in mixed solvent system by conductance method”, Phys. Chem. Liqs., 45 (2007) 313-321.
10]  Glasstone, S, Text book of Physical Chemistry, 2nd edition, St. Martin’s Press Inc. NewYork, 1960, 896-899.
11]  Mehrotra, K. N, Chauhan, M., and Shukla, R. K, “Effect of Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes on the Micellization of Samarium Soaps in Water Methanol Mixture”, Phys. Chem. Liqs, 25 (1) (1992) 7-13.
12]  Dewan, R., and Roy, M. N, “Ion-pair and triple-ion formation in low permittivity solvent: a conductometric study”, Phys. Chem. Liqs., 49 (2), 145-154 (2011).
13]  Gregorowicz, J., Szejgis, A. and Bald, A, “Gibbs Energy and Conductivity Properties of NaCl Solutions in Water + ISO-Propanol Mixtures at 298.15 K”, Phys. Chem. Liqs., 32 (3), 133-142 (1996).
14]  Tsierkezos, N. G. and Molinou, I. E, “An investigation on ion association and ion solvation of potassium acetate in alcohol solutions”, Phys. Chem. Liqs., 47 (5) 505-514 (2009).
15]  Rmadan, M. S., Hafez, A. M., Sadek, H. and El-Zyadi, A, “Electric conductivities of S-alkylisothiouronium salts in nitrobenzene and methanol at 25, 35 and 45 °C”, J. Soln. Chem., 25 (8), 797-799 (1996).
16]  Hafez, A. M., Sadek, H. and Rmadan, M. S, “Ion association of (1:1) electrolytes in pure alcohols at 25°C”, Electrochim.. Acta, 24 (9), 957-967 (1979).
17]  Chmielewska, A., Żurada, M., Klimaszewski, K. and Bald, A, “Dielectric Properties of Methanol Mixtures with Ethanol, Isomers of Propanol, and Butanol”, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 54, 801-806 (2009).
18]  Mohan, T. M., and Krishna, T. V, “Molecular interaction studies in hydrogen bonded polar binary mixtures, Phys. Chem. Liqs., 51(4), 480-493(2013).
19]  Stephenson, S.K., Offeman, R.D., Robertson, G.H. and Orts, W.J, “Hydrogen-bond networks in linear, branched and tertiary alcohols”, Chem. Eng. Sci., 62 (11) 3019-3031 (2007).
20]  Akerlof G.J, “The dielectric constant of water at a high temperature”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 54, 4125-4139 (1932).
21]  Ageno, M, “On the nature of the hydrogen bond and the structure of water”, Proc Natl Acad Sci., U S A. Mar; 57(3), 567-572(1967).
22]  Ageno, M., and Frontali, C, “Viscosity measurements of alcohol-water mixtures and the structure of water”, Proc Natl Acad Sci., U S A., 57(4), 856-860 (1967).
23]  Tsierkezos N.G. and Molinou, I.E, “ Limiting Molar Conductances and Thermodynamic Association Constants for Nickel(II), Cadmium(II), Magnesium(II), and Copper(II) Sulfates in Mixtures of Methanol and Water at 293.15 K.”, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 45, 819-822 (2000).
24]  Molinou, I.E. and Tsierkezos N.G, “Conductance Studies on Manganese(II), Cobalt(II), Nickel(II), and Cadmium(II) Sulfates in Water + N,N-Dimethylformamide Mixtures at 293.15 K”. J. Chem. Eng. Data, 46, 1399-1403 (2001).
Show Less References


Microstructural Transformations of Dissimilar Austenite-Ferrite Stainless Steels Welded Joints

1Materials Engineering Department, University of Antioquia, Pyrometallurgical and Materials Research Group GIPIMME, Medellín, Colombia

Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2013, 1(4), 65-68
DOI: 10.12691/jmpc-1-4-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sara Aguilar, Ramón Tabares, Claudia Serna. Microstructural Transformations of Dissimilar Austenite-Ferrite Stainless Steels Welded Joints. Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2013; 1(4):65-68. doi: 10.12691/jmpc-1-4-2.

Correspondence to: Sara  Aguilar, Materials Engineering Department, University of Antioquia, Pyrometallurgical and Materials Research Group GIPIMME, Medellín, Colombia. Email:


This research studies the metallurgical transformations happening during the SMAW welding of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel with AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel. Two different electrodes, AWS E309L austenitic and AWS E2209-16 duplex stainless steels 3.2 mm diameter, were used to perform the study. The joining was made with a single pass welding and keeping a low heat input ranging from 700 - 1000 J/mm. The influence of the type of electrode and the heat input on the microstructural evolution of the heat affected and the fusion zone was evaluated. Differences between δ ferrite morphology were found for both weld metals. The heat affected zone of the ferritic side showed grain coarsening and grain refinement with martensite at the grain boundaries. Tensile strength was similar for both welding conditions. Microhardness and δ ferrite percent were measured as well.



[1]  Khan, M.M.A., Romolia, L., Fiaschib, M., Dinia, G. and Sarri F., “Laser beam welding of dissimilar stainless steels in a fillet joint configuration”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 28. 856-867. Nov. 2011.
[2]  Celik, A. and Alsaran, A., “Mechanical and Structural Properties of Similar and Dissimilar Steel Joints”, Materials Characterization, 43. 311-318. July 1999.
[3]  Lakshminarayanan, A.K., “Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile and Impact Properties, Hardness and Microstructure of AISI 409M Ferritic Stainless Joints Fabricated by Duplex Stainless Steel Filler Metal”, Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International, 16. 66-72. April 2009.
[4]  Rajaković-Ognjanović, V., “Corrosion of an austenite and ferrite stainless steel weld”, Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 76. 1027-1035. Dec. 2011.
[5]  Reddy, G. M., Rao, K. S. and Sekhar, T., “Microstructure and pitting corrosion of similar and dissimilar stainless steel welds” Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 13 (4). 363-377. Jan. 2008.
Show More References
6]  Folkhard, E. Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels; Springer- Verlag Wien, New York, 1996.
7]  Lippold, J. and Kotecki, D., Welding metallurgy and weldability of stainless steel, John Wiley and Sons, USA, 2005.
8]  ASTM E8 - 13a Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials. ASTM International.
9]  Kaçar, R., “Effect of solidification mode and morphology of microstructure on the hydrogen content of duplex stainless steel weld metal”, Materials and Design, 25. 1–9. Aug. 2003.
10]  Easterling, K., Introduction to the physical metallurgy of welding, Butterworks Monographs in Materials, UK, 1983.
11]  Granjon, H., Fundamentals of welding metallurgy, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, UK, 1991, 123-130.
12]  Duarte, P., “Mechanical and Microstrutural Characterization of Weldments of Ferritic Stainless Steel AISI 444 Using Austenitic Stainless Steels Filler Metals”. Journal of ASTM International, 9 (2). 1-9. Jan. 2012.
13]  Kaςar, R., “An investigation of microstructure/property relationships in dissimilar welds between martensitic and austenitic stainless steels” Materials and design, 25. 317-329. Oct. 2003.
Show Less References


Time-evolution of Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of Friction Stir Welds of AA7075-T651

1Sabato Institute, UNSAM/CNEA, San Martín, Argentina

2Materials and Structures Laboratory, INTECIN, Faculty of Engineering, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2013, 1(4), 58-64
DOI: 10.12691/jmpc-1-4-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A. Pastor, H. G. Svoboda. Time-evolution of Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of Friction Stir Welds of AA7075-T651. Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2013; 1(4):58-64. doi: 10.12691/jmpc-1-4-1.

Correspondence to: H.  G. Svoboda, Materials and Structures Laboratory, INTECIN, Faculty of Engineering, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Email:


Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a novel solid-phase welding process, which has proved to have a great potential for the realization of welded joints in materials with poor weldability such as heat-treatable aluminum alloys. However, the thermal cycles generated during FSW change the mechanical properties in heat affected zone (HAZ) due to two effects: over-age and re-dissolution of hardening precipitates. In other hand, the re-dissolved precipitates produce a evolution of both the microstructure and mechanical properties due to the natural aging phenomenon. The aim of this paper was to analyze the microstructural evolution in the HAZ of FSW joints in AA7075-T651 alloy. For this purpose samples FSW welded butt plate 4 mm in thickness. On the welded joint microstructural characterization was performed by light microscopy (LM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Vickers microhardness profiles (HV) after different elapsed times post welding. It was observed that the hardness increases with time after welding, due to the evolution of the phases present.



[1]  American Society for Metals (ASM). Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials (Vol. 2). 10 ma ed. Ohio: ASM International. 2005.
[2]  J. Gilbert Kaufman “Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers”, 2000, ASM International.
[3]  J. R. Kissell and R. L. Ferry, “Aluminum Structures: A guide to their specifications and design”, 2002, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
[4]  D.A. Porther, K.E. Easterling. “Phase transformation in metals and alloys”, 1992, Chapman & Hall.
[5]  R.S. Mishra and Z.Y. Ma, “Friction stir welding and processing”. Materials Science and Engineering R, Vol. 50 (2005), p. 1-78.
Show More References
6]  R. Nandan, T. DebRoy, H.K.D.H Bhadeshia. “Recent advances in friction-stir welding – Process, weldment structure and properties”, Progress in Materials Science, Vol 53 (2008), p. 980-1023.
7]  W. Xu, J. Liu, G. Luan, C. Dong, “Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints in 2219-T6 aluminum alloy”, Materials and Design, Vol. 30 (2009), p. 3460-3467.
8]  J.Q. Su, T.W. Nelson, R.S. Mishra, M.W. Mahoney. “Microstructural investigation of friction stir welded 7050-T651 aluminum”, Acta Materialia, Vol 51 (2005), p. 713-718.
9]  K.V. Jata, K.K. Sankaran, J.J. Ruschau. “Friction stir welding effects on microstructure and fatigue of aluminum alloy 7050-T7451”, Metallic Materials Transaction. A. Vol. 31 (2000), p. 2181-2187.
10]  C. B. Fuller, M. W. Mahoney, M. Calabrese, L. Micona. “Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties in naturally aged 7050 and 7075 Al friction stir welds”, Materials Science and Engineering A. Vol 527 (2010), p. 2233-2240.
11]  J.K. Park, A.J. Ardell. “Correlation between Microstructure and Calorimetric Behavior of Aluminum Alloy 7075 and AI-Zn-Mg Alloys in Various Tempers”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 114 (1989), p. 197-203.
12]  L. N. Tufaro. “Tensiones Residuales y Propiedades Mecánicas de uniones Soldadas por Fricción-Agitación (FSW) de AA 7075-T651”, Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ingeniería UBA, 2012.
13]  F. Viana, A.M.P. Pinto, H.M.C. Santos, A.B. Lopes. “Retrogression and re-ageing of 7075 aluminum alloy: microstructural characterization”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol 92-93 (1999), p. 54-59
14]  A. Baldantoni. “On the microstructural changes during the retrogression and re-aging of 7075 type aluminum alloys”. Materials Science Engineering. Vol 72: L5- L8. 527 (1985), p. 2233-2240.
15]  J.M. Papazian. “Differential Scanning Calorimetry Evaluation of Retrogressed and Re-aged Microstructures in Aluminum Alloy 7075”. Materials Science Engineering 79 (1986), p. 97-104.
16]  A. E. Pastor. “Efecto de las variables del proceso de Soldadura por Fricción Agitación (FSW) de aleaciones de aluminio de alta resistencia sobre la microestructura y las propiedades mecánicas”, Buenos Aires, Instituto de Tecnología Jorge Sabato, 2012.
17]  M. Ku, F. Hung, T. Lui and L. Chen, “Embrittlement Mechanism on Tensile Fracture of 7075 Al Alloy with Friction Stir Process (FSP)”, Materials Transactions, Vol. 52, No. 1 (2011), pp. 112 to 117.
Show Less References

Someone is Doing on SciEP

Statistics of This Journal

Article Downloads: 54528

Article Views: 157161

Sponsors, Associates, and Links