Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics
ISSN (Print): 2373-6690 ISSN (Online): 2373-6704 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jgg Editor-in-chief: Maria TSAKIRI
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2015, 3(5), 128-132
DOI: 10.12691/jgg-3-5-3
Open AccessArticle

Assessing Chloride Distribution and Concentrations in the Aquifer Systems of the Niger Delta

H.O Nwankwoala1 and S.A Ngah2,

1Department of Geology, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, PMB 5080, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Pub. Date: November 03, 2015

Cite this paper:
H.O Nwankwoala and S.A Ngah. Assessing Chloride Distribution and Concentrations in the Aquifer Systems of the Niger Delta. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2015; 3(5):128-132. doi: 10.12691/jgg-3-5-3

Abstract

This study aims at assessing the distribution of chloride in the aquifer systems and evaluating its occurrence in the different geomorphologic zones of the Niger Delta. The chloride values range from 3mg/l – 810mg/l. 68% of the samples have chloride concentration less than 48mg/l, 24% with chloride concentration between 48mg/l and 250 mg/l while 8% with chloride concentration greater than 250mg/l. The highest concentration of 801mg/l was obtained from a borehole at Oloma. The chloride content in groundwater appears generally to decrease from north to south i.e. from the hinterland to the coast. The localized chloride enrichment around the Old GRA, Borokiri, Moscow road and Central Police Station in Port Harcourt could be as a result of brackish water invasion from nearby creeks and tidal channels. The study revealed that chloride is a major quality issue especially in groundwater in these areas as well as in the mangrove swamps and the coastal beaches and ridges.

Keywords:
chloride aquifer borehole groundwater Niger Delta

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 3

References:

[1]  Abam TKS (2001).Regional hydrological research perspectives in the Niger Delta.Hydrological Sciences-,)'ouriwl-des Sciences Hydrologiques, 46(1): 13-25.
 
[2]  Agagu OK (1979). ”Potential geo-pressured geothermal reservoirs in the Niger Delta subsurface” Nig. J. Sci. 13: 201-215.
 
[3]  Avbovbo AA (1978). Geologic Notes: Tertiary lithostratigraphy of the Niger Delta. AAPG Bull. 62 (2): 295-306.
 
[4]  Awosika LF (1995). Impacts of global climate change and sea level rise on coastal resources and energy development in Nigeria. (ed. J.C Umolu) Global Climate Change: Impact on Energy Development DAM TECH Nigeria Limited, Nigeria
 
[5]  Doust H, Omatsola E (1990). ”Niger Delta” (ed. J. D.Edwards and P.A Santogrossi), Divergent/Passive Margin Basins. AAPG Memoir 48:201-238.
 
[6]  Etu – Efeotor, J.O and Odigi, M.I (1983).Water supply problems in the eastern Niger Delta.Journal of Mining and Geology, Vol.20, pp183-193
 
[7]  Etu-Efeotor, J.O &Akpokodje, E.G (1990).Aquifer systems of the Niger Delta.Journal of Mining and Geology, Vol. 26 (2): 279-284.
 
[8]  Etu-Efeotor, J.O (1981). Preliminary hydrogeochemical investigation of subsurface waters in parts of the Niger Delta.Journal of Mining and Geology, Vol. 18 (1): 103-328.
 
[9]  Frank- Briggs, I.N (2003). Hydrogeology of some island towns in the eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria.UnpublishedPh.D Thesis, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 283p
 
[10]  Koledoye BA., Aydin A, May E (2000).”3-D visualization of fault segmentation and shale smearing in the Niger Delta” Leading Edge, 19:692-701.
 
[11]  Merki P (1972). ”Structural geology of the Cenozoic Niger Delta”. (ed. T.F.J. Dessauvagie& A.J. Whiteman), African Geology, Ibadan Univ. Press, 635-646.
 
[12]  NDES (Niger Delta Environmental Survey) (1995) Phase I Report Vol. 4 NDES Lagos Nigeria.
 
[13]  NEDECO Netherland Engineering Consultant (1961).The Waters of the Niger Delta.NEDECO, the Haque the Netherland.
 
[14]  Ngah, S.A (2009). Deep aquifer systems of eastern Niger Delta: Their hydrogeological properties, groundwater chemistry and vulnerability to degradation. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 247pp.
 
[15]  Niger Delta Environmental Survey (NDES) (1998). Niger Delta Environmental Survey, Phase 2 Report. Hydrology and Hydrodynamics, Vol. 1 Hydrological characteristics and Resources.
 
[16]  Nwankwoala, H.O and Udom, G.J (2011). Investigation of hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria: Implications for use and vulnerability. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 15(3):479-488. Available online @www.bioline.org.br/ja.
 
[17]  Nwankwoala, HO (2013). Evaluation of Hydrochemical Characteristics of Groundwater in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. UnpublishedPh.D Thesis, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
 
[18]  Odigi, M.I (1989). Evaluating groundwater supply in the Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria.Journal of Mining Geology, Vol.25:159-164
 
[19]  Reyment, R.A. (1965). Aspects of Geology of Nigeria, University of Ibadan Press, Nigeria.Pp. 133.
 
[20]  Rivers State Water Board (RSWB) (1994). Feasibility Report for the Port Harcourt Metropolitan Water Project. February 1994.
 
[21]  Short, K.C and Stauble, A.J. (1967). Outline Geology of the Niger Delta. Bull Am. Ass Petrol Geol. Vol. 54, No. 5, pg. 761-779.
 
[22]  Tahal Consultant Engineers Ltd (1998). Final Report on Multi-State Water Supply Project, Feasibility Study of Rivers State Capital (Port Harcourt and Environs and Selected Urban Communities)., pp2-9.
 
[23]  Weber, K.J &Daukoro, E.M (1975).Petroleum Geological aspects of the Niger Delta. Proc. 9th World Petroleum Congress, 2: 209-222.
 
[24]  Weber, K.J (1971).Sedimentological aspects of oil fields in the Niger Delta.Environmental Geology, Minbouw, Vol.50, No.3, pp559-576.
 
[25]  Whiteman A (1982). “Nigeria: its petroleum geology, resources and potential” 1 and 2, Graham and Trotman Ltd., London, 349.
 
[26]  WHO (2008). International Standards for Drinking Water and Guidelines for water quality. World Health Organization, Geneva.
 
[27]  World Health Organization, WHO (1984). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, Vol.2, Recommendations, Geneva 67pp.