Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics
ISSN (Print): 2373-6690 ISSN (Online): 2373-6704 Website: Editor-in-chief: Maria TSAKIRI
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2015, 3(3), 68-78
DOI: 10.12691/jgg-3-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Some Aspects of Thunderstorm over India during Pre-Monsoon Season: A Preliminary Report-I

Yashvant Das1,

1Research and Modeling Division, AIR Worldwide /Verisk Analytics India Private Limited, Hyderabad, India

Pub. Date: July 20, 2015

Cite this paper:
Yashvant Das. Some Aspects of Thunderstorm over India during Pre-Monsoon Season: A Preliminary Report-I. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2015; 3(3):68-78. doi: 10.12691/jgg-3-3-3


Thunderstorm, resulting from vigorous convective activity, is one of the most magnificent weather phenomena in the earth’s atmosphere. The severe thunderstorms associated with thunder squall, hail storm, tornado, flash flood and lightning cause extensive damage and losses to lives and property. A common feature of the weather during the pre-monsoon season over the Indian region is the outburst of severe local convective storms. This paper presents on the aspects of the realized significant weather phenomena thunderstorm, which is supported through the analyses of thermodynamic instability indices based on the radiosonde and rawinsonde (RS/RW) ascent products from India Meteorological Department (IMD) for the pre-monsoon season for different identified cities of SAARC STORM project region of India. Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) images and Skew-T diagrams are also analyzed which support the thunderstorm activities in different locations of India. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN) energy show the favorable conditions for the thunderstorm to occur in some of the identified stations; however, due to physiographic uniqueness of Indian subcontinent, the values of CAPE, CIN and other thermodynamic parameters show different values in different stations. Moreover, the variation in threshold values of CAPE in different regions makes thunderstorm forecasting difficult which may add uncertainty to loss estimation for risk assessment. A simple outline on thunderstorm risk assessment model development steps are also highlighted as a future work for the quantification of losses, so that the likely probability of occurrences of events with their frequency, location, severity and extent of losses can be modeled and accessed ahead of time for the betterment of the society.

thunderstorms (Thunder squall hailstorm tornado) thermodynamic instability parameters/indices modeling risk

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 3


[1]  AMS:
[2]  Barnes, G. (2001): Severe Convective Storms, edited by Charles Doswell, III, AMS, 2001, Pp.527.
[3]  Braham, R. R. and Wilson, D. (1978): Effects of St. Louis on Convective Cloud Heights, J. Appl. Meteor., 17, 587-592.
[4]  Browning, K. A. (1977): The structure and mechanism of hailstorms; Hail: A Review of Hail Science and Hail Suppression; Meteor. Monogr., American Meteorological Society , 16 1-43.
[5]  Browning, K. A. (1986): General circulation of middle latitude thunderstorms; In: Thunderstorm morphology and dynamics; (ed.) Kessler E; Univ. Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, 133-152.
[6]  Byers, H. R. and Braham, R. R. (1949): The thunderstorms, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington D.C., USA, 287 pp.
[7]  Chakrabarti, D., Biswas H.R. Das, G.K. and Kore, P.A. (2008): Observational aspects and analysis of events of severe thunderstorms during April and May 2006 for Assam and adjoining states –A case study on ‘Pilot Storm Project’, Mausam, 59, 461-478.
[8]  Chan et al. (2009): Performance and application of a muliti-wavelength ground based microwave radiometer in intense convective weather, Meteol. Z, vol-18, 3, 253-265.
[9]  Chatterjee, P., Pradhan, D. and De, U. K. (2008): Simulation of hailstorm event using mesoscale model MM5 with modified cloud microphysics scheme, Ann. Geophy., 26, 3545-3555.
[10]  Chaudhari, H.S., Sawaisarje, G. K., Ranalkar, M. R., and Sen, P. N. (2010): Thunderstorms over a tropical Indian station, Minicoy: Role of vertical wind shear, J. Earth Syst. Sci. 119 (5), 603-615.
[11]  Chaudhury, S. (2006): Ampliative reasoning to view the prevalence of severe thunderstorm, Mausam, 57, 523-526.
[12]  Das, S. (1999): Suggested observational network for simulation of cloud processes during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX); Curr. Sci., 76, 7, 912-915.
[13]  Das, S., and coauthors (2014): The SAARC STORM: A Coordinated Field Experiment on Severe Thunderstorm Observations and Regional Modeling over the South Asian Region, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 603-617.
[14]  De, U. S. and Dutta, S. (2005): West coast rainfall and convective instability, J. Indian Geophysics Union 9 71-82.
[15]  Dudhia, J. (1996): Back to basics: thunderstorms: part I. Weather, 51 (11); 371-376.
[16]  Eliot, J. (1899): Hailstorm in India during the period 1883–1897 with a discussion on their distribution. Indian Meteor. Mem., 6, 237-315.
[17]  Encyclopedia of world climatology; John E. Oliver.
[18]  Goliger, A. M., and Milford, R. V.(1998): A review of worldwide occurrence of tornadoes. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 74, 111-121.
[20]  IMD:
[21]  Koteswaram, P. and Srinivasan, V. (1958): Thunderstorms over Gangetic West Bengal in the pre-monsoon season and synoptic factors favorable of their formation, Indian J. Met. & Geophys., 9, 301-312.
[22]  Kumar, G. and Mohapatra, M. (2006): Some climatological aspects of thunderstorms and squalls over Guwahati airport, Mausam, 57, 2, 231-240.
[23]  Litta, A. J., Mohanty, U. C. and Idicula, S. M. (2012): The diagnosis of severe thunderstorms with high-resolution WRF model, J. Earth Syst. Sci. 121 (2) 2, 297-316.
[24]  Lorenz, E. N. (1969): Three approaches to atmospheric predictability. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 50, 345-349.
[25]  Miller, R. C. (1972): Notes on analysis and severe storm forecasting procedures of the Air Force Global Weather Central. Tech. Rept. 200(R). Headquarters, Air Weather Service, USAF, 190 pp.
[26]  Moncrieff, M. W. and Miller, M. J. (1976): The dynamics and simulation of tropical cumulus and squall lines; Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 102 373-394.
[27]  Mukherjee, A.K. (1964): Study of thunderstorm around Guwahati airport, Indian J. Met. & Geophys., 15,425-430.
[28]  Niyogi, D., Holt, T., Zhong, S., Pyle, P. C., and Basara, J. (2006): Urban and land surface effects on the 30 July 2003 mesoscale convective system event observed in the Southern Great Plains, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D19107.
[29]  Nizamuddin, S. (1993): Hail occurrences in India,Weather, 48 (3):90-92.
[30]  Peterson, R.W. and Mehta K.C. (1981): Climatology of tornadoes in India and Bangladesh, Archiv fur Meteorologie, Geophysik, una Bioclimatologie, Ser. B. 29, 345-356.
[31]  Rajeevan, M., Kesarkar, A., Thampi, S. .B, Rao, T. N., Radhakrishna, B. and Rajasekhar, M.(2010): Sensitivity of WRF cloud microphysics to simulations of severe thunderstorm event over Southeast India, Ann. Geophys., 28, 603-619.
[32]  Schneider, D. and Sharp, S. (2007): Radar signatures of tropical cyclone tornadoes in central north Carolina, Wea. Forecasting, 22 278-286.
[33]  Sen Roy, S., Lakshmanan, V., Roy Bhowmik, S. K. and Thampi, S. B. (2010): Doppler weather radar based nowcasting of cyclone Ogni, J. Earth Syst. Sci., 119, 183-199.
[34]  Sen, P. N. (2005): Thermodynamics of the atmosphere; Lecture notes of the second SERC school on aviation meteorology, AFAC, Coimbatore, India.
[35]  Shepherd, J. M. and Burian, S. J. (2003): Detection of Urban-Induced Rainfall Anomalies in a Major Coastal City, Earth Interactions, 7, 1-17.
[36]  Srivastava, A. K. and SinhaRay, K. C. (1999): Role of CAPE and CINE in modulating the convective activities during April over India; Mausam, 50, 257-262.
[37]  Srivastava, K., Roy Bhowmik, S. K., Sen Roy, S., Thampi, S. B. and Reddy, Y. K.(2010): Simulation of high impact convective events over Indian region by ARPS model with assimilation of Doppler weather radar radial velocity and reflectivity, Atmosfera, 23, 53-73.
[38]  STORM (2005): STORM science plan. India Department of Science and Technology Rep., 118 pp.
[39]  Suresh, R. (2012): Forecasting and nowcasting convective weather phenomena over southern peninsular India-Part I-Thunderstorms, Ind. Jour. of Radio & Space Physics, 41, 421-434.
[40]  Tyagi, A. (2007): Thunderstorm climatology over Indian region. Mausam, 58(2), 189-212.
[41]  Tyagi, B., Naresh Krishna, V. and Satyanarayana, A. N. V. (2011):Study of thermodynamic indices in forecasting pre-monsoon thunderstorm over Kolkata during STORM pilot phase 2006-2008, Nat. Hazards,. 56, 681-698.
[42]  Vaidya, S. S. (2007): Simulation of weather systems over Indian region using mesoscale models, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 95, 15–26.
[43]  Williams, E. and Renno, N. (1993): An analysis of the conditional instability of the Tropical atmosphere, Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 21-36.
[44]  WMO (1953): World distribution of thunderstorm days, Part I: Tables, WMO TP 6. N0. 021.
[45]  WMO:
[46]  Yamane, Y. and Hayashi, T. (2006): Evaluation of environmental conditions for the formation of severe local storms across the Indian subcontinent. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L17806.