Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics
ISSN (Print): 2373-6690 ISSN (Online): 2373-6704 Website: Editor-in-chief: Maria TSAKIRI
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2014, 2(5), 186-195
DOI: 10.12691/jgg-2-5-2
Open AccessArticle

Bacteriological Contamination of Groundwater from Zango Local Government Area, Katsina State, Northwestern Nigeria

Aminu Tukur1 and Amadi Akobundu N.2,

1Katsina State Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency, Nigeria

2Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

Pub. Date: September 09, 2014

Cite this paper:
Aminu Tukur and Amadi Akobundu N.. Bacteriological Contamination of Groundwater from Zango Local Government Area, Katsina State, Northwestern Nigeria. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2014; 2(5):186-195. doi: 10.12691/jgg-2-5-2


Bacteriological contamination of drinking water is responsible for the occurrence of waterborne diseases such as typhoid fever, dysentry, cholera, meningitis and diarrhea. Little is known about the microbiology of well water in Nigeria as most analyses focuses on physical and chemical parameters. Faecal contamination of the wells comes from the presence of human and animal faeces. Groundwater has been recognized as playing a very important role in the development of our rural populace as most dwellers depend solely on water from hand dug wells and boreholes for their daily needs. In this study bacteriological quality of groundwater from hand dug wells were analysed in Zango Local Government Area of Katsina State with the aim of evaluating their suitability for domestic purposes. A total of 87 groundwater samples from the wells were collected for both dry and rainy season and analysed at National Research Institute for Chemical Technology Laboratory Zaria, Nigeria. The results indicate faecal contamination of the hand dug wells. The poor sanitary condition in the area and the closeness of some hand dug wells to pit-latrines, soakaways and dumpsites were identified as the factors responsible for the microbial contamination of the groundwater from the shallow aquifers. Boiling of water is recommended and subsequent hand dug wells should be cited far away from pit-toilet and soakaways to avoid contamination by leachates.

Bacteriological contamination groundwater Zango Local Government Katsina State Northwestern Nigeria

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 8


[1]  Adetuyi, F. C., Adeleke, O. B. and Ogundare, A. O., (1997). The bacteriological examination of well water supplies in Akure Metropolis. Water Resources, 8 (1), 6-10.
[2]  Allen, M.J. (1979). Microbiology of ground water. Journal of the Water Pollution and Control. 51: 1743-1746.
[3]  Amadi, A.N. (2009). Evaluation of Surface and Groundwater Quality in Owerri Metropolis Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Chemical Sciences, 2 (2), 212-219.
[4]  Amadi, A. N., Olasehinde, P. I., Okosun, E. A. and Yisa, J., (2010). Assessment of the water quality index of Otamiri and Oramiriukwa Rivers. Physics International, 1 (2), 116-123.
[5]  Amadi, A.N., Olasehinde, P.I., Okosun, E.A., & Yisa, J. (2011). Assessment of the Water Quality Index of Otamiri and Oraminukwa Rivers. Physics International, 1 (2), 116-123.
[6]  Amadi, A. N., Olasehinde, P.I., Okosun, E. A., Okoye, N.O., Okunlola, I.A., Alkali, Y.B.& Dan-Hassan, M. A. (2012). A Comparative Study on the Impact of Avu and Ihie Dumpsites on Soil Quality in Southeastern Nigeria. American Journal of Chemistry, 2 (1): 17-23.
[7]  Amadi, A. N., Olasehinde, P.I., Yisa, J., Okosun, E.A., Nwankwoala, H.O. & Alkali, Y. B. (2013). Geostatistical Assessment of Groundwater Quality from Coastal Aquifers of Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria. Geosciences, 2 (3); 51-59.
[8]  Amadi, A. N., Okoye, N. O., Alabi, A. D., Aminu Tukur and Angwa, E. M., (2014a). Quality assessment of soil and groundwater near Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company, Northwest Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports, 3 (6), 884-893.
[9]  Amadi, A. N., Ameh, I. M., Ezeagu, G. G., Angwa, E. M. and Omanayin, Y. A., (2014b). Bacteriological and Physico-chemical Analysis of Well Water from Villages in Edati, Niger State, North-central Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, 10 (3), 10-16.
[10]  APHA, (1998). Standard methods for examination of water and waste water (20th Ed.). Washington DC: American Public Health Association.
[11]  Ciravolo, T.C., Martens, D.C., Hallock, D.L., Collins, E.R., Kornegay, E.T. and Thomas, H.R. (1979). Pollutant movement of shallow ground water tables from anaerobic swine lagoons. Journal of Environment Quality 8: 126-130.
[12]  Cowan, S.T., (1974). Cowanand Steels manual for the identification of Medical Bacteria. (2nd ed.) Camb. Univ. Press. England.
[13]  Dan-Hassan, M.A., Olasehinde, P.I., Amadi, A.N., Yisa, J. & Jacob, J.O., (2012). Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Nitrate Pollution in Groundwater of Abuja, Nigeria. International Journal of Chemistry 4 (3), 39-48.
[14]  Eden, K.V. Rosenburg, M.L., Stoopler, M., Wood, B.T., Highsmith, A.K. SKaliy, P., Wells, J.G. and Feely, L.C. (1977). Waterborne gastrointestinal illness at ski resort. Isolation of Yesina enterocolitica from drinking water. Public Health report, 92, 245-250.
[15]  Egharevba, N. A., Amadi, A. N., Olasehinde, P. I. and Okoye, N. O., (2010). Seasonal variation in the physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of perched aquifer water from Zaria, North-Central Nigeria. International Journal of Chemical Sciences, 3 (1), 100-107.
[16]  Ijostem, J.L., Young, J., Hollien, C and Elson, I.R., (1977). Bacteria and nitrate contamination of well water in North East lowa. Proceeding of lowa Academy of Science. 84, 14-32.
[17]  Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality, (2007). Published by Nigerian Industrial Standard, 554, 1-14.
[18]  Okuofu, A. C., Echafona, N. O. and Ayeni, O. G., (1990). Bacteriological and physico-chemical examination of well waters in Ahmadu Bello University (Main Campus) Zaria, Nigeria. Water Resources, 2 (1), 111- 115.
[19]  Spore, D., (1995). Bimonthly Bulletin of the Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Cooperation, No 57, June 1995.
[20]  Tacket, C.O., Ballard, J., Harrison, N., Allard, J., Nolan, C., Quan, T. and Cohen, M.L. (1985). An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica infection caused by contaminated tofu. American Journal of Epidemiology 12, 705-711.
[21]  World Health Organization, (2008). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Third Edition Incorporating the First and Second Addenda. Vol. 1. Recommendations.