Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics
ISSN (Print): 2373-6690 ISSN (Online): 2373-6704 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jgg Editor-in-chief: Maria TSAKIRI
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2020, 8(2), 83-93
DOI: 10.12691/jgg-8-2-4
Open AccessArticle

Detection of Neotectonic Signatures by Morphometric Analysis of Inkisi Group on Both Banks of the Congo River

Nicy Carmel Bazebizonza Tchiguina1, 2, , Timothée Miyouna1, Hardy Medry Dieu-Veill Nkodia1 and Florent Boudzoumou1, 3

1Laboratory of Geosciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, Marien NGOUABI University, B.P.: 69, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

2Geographic Research and Cartographic Production Center (CERGEC), B.P.: 125, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

33National Research Institute in Exact and Natural Sciences (IRSEN), B.P.: 2400, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

Pub. Date: October 11, 2020

Cite this paper:
Nicy Carmel Bazebizonza Tchiguina, Timothée Miyouna, Hardy Medry Dieu-Veill Nkodia and Florent Boudzoumou. Detection of Neotectonic Signatures by Morphometric Analysis of Inkisi Group on Both Banks of the Congo River. Journal of Geosciences and Geomatics. 2020; 8(2):83-93. doi: 10.12691/jgg-8-2-4

Abstract

Several studies have stated the possibility of seismic hazards in the Congo Basin area. This study aims to conduct a morphometric analysis of the Inkisi Group which constitutes a part of the subsoil of the south-eastern Republic of Congo (RC) and the south-western part of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), to detect neotectonic signatures. GIS and ASTER GDEM images have enabled the automatic extraction of morphometric indices, in particular the Hypsometric Integral (HI), the Relative Declivity Extension (RDE) index, along with the hydrographic network and its frequency density. Analysis of the hypsometric distribution of watersheds in the Congo Basin highlights two relief trends. The first relief trend is high (HI>0.5) and is represented by young and abrupt-type basins suggesting rejuvenated relief by neotectonics. The impact of neotectonics in this rejuvenation is evidenced by the RDE index, which reveals that the first order knickpoints in the drainage gradient are mainly located in these watersheds at HI>0.5. The second relief trend is low (HI<0.5) and encompasses the basins tending towards the "equilibrium" stage in which neotectonics is less active. The young basins constitute a NE-SW oriented strip that borders on both sides of the Congo River, thus revealing elevated seismic risk on these two banks. In the Republic of Congo, these young basins perfectly overlap the high lineament density network of the Inkisi group. Moreover, the densest areas of knickpoints in the drainage gradient are located along the course of the Congo River. Thus, the course of the Congo River corresponds with a tectonically active feature; the installation of seismographs along its borders is strongly recommended to better assess the seismic risk associated within it.

Keywords:
Neotectonics Morphotectonics Knickpoint Inkisi Congo

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Sedrette, S. Extraction semi-automatique des linéaments et des indicateurs morphométriques dans un environnement SIG pour la caractérisation morphostructurale et néotectonique de la région de Nefza dans le Nord-Ouest de la Tunisie. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Tunis EL MANAR, Tunisie. 223p. 2017.
 
[2]  Keller E. A., Pinter N. Active tectonics: Earthquakes, Uplift and Landscapes. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1996, 338p.
 
[3]  Laabidi A., El Hmaidi A., El Abassi M. Apports du modele numerique de terrain mnt à la modelisation du relief et des caracteristiques physiques du bassin versant du Moyen Beht en amont du barrage El Kanser.... European Scientific Journal, 12 (29): 258-288. 2016.
 
[4]  Argyriou A. A Methodology for the Rapid Identification of Neotectonic Features using Geographical Information Systems and Remote Sensing: A Case Study from Western Crete, Greece. Thesis, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom, 269p. 2012.
 
[5]  Hurtrez J.E., Sol C., Lucazeau F. Effect of Drainage Area on the Hypsometry from an Analysis of Small-Scale Drainage Basins in the Siwalik Hills (Central Nepal). Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 24: 799-808. 1999.
 
[6]  Kale V.S., Sengupta S., Achyuthan H., Jaiswal M.K. Tectonic Controls upon Kaveri River Drainage, Cratonic Peninsular India: Inferences from Longitudinal Profiles, Morphotectonic Indices, Hanging Valleys and Fluvial Records. Geomorphology, 227: 153-165. 2014.
 
[7]  Sedrette S., Rebai N., Mastere M. Evaluation of neotectonic signature using morphometric indicators: Case study in Nefza, North-West of Tunisia. Journal of Geographic Information System, 08: 338-350. 2016.
 
[8]  Willgoose G., Hancock G. Revisiting the Hypsometric Curve as an Indicator of Form and Process in Transport-Limited Catchment. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 23: 611-623. 1998.
 
[9]  Queiroz G.L., Salamuni E., Nascimento E.R. Knickpoint finder: a software tool that improves neotectonic analysis, Computer Geosciences, 76: 80-87.
 
[10]  Hack J.T. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. J. Res. U.S. Geol. Survey, 1 (4): 421-429. 1973.
 
[11]  Etchebehere M.L.C., Saad A.R., Perinotto J.A.J., Fulfaro V.J. Aplicação do Índice « Relação Declividade-Extensão - RDE » na Bacia do Rio do Peixe (SP) para Detecção de Deformações Neotectônicas. Revista do Instituto de Geociências USP - Série Científica, São Paulo, 4(2): 43-56. 2004.
 
[12]  Delvaux D., Ganza G., Kongota E., Fukiabuntu G., Mbokola D., Boudzoumou F. …. Nkodia H.M.D. The “fault of the Pool” along the Congo River between Kinshasa and Brazzaville is no more a myth: Paleostress from small-scale brittle structures. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 19 (1): EGU2017-15143-1. 2017.
 
[13]  Miyouna T., Nkodia H.M.D., Essouli O.F., Dabo M., Boudzoumou F., Delvaux D. Strike-slip deformation in the Inkisi Formation, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Cogent Geosci. 4: 1542762. 2018.
 
[14]  Nkodia H.M.D. Style structural et tectonique de la Formation de l’Inkisi, à Brazzaville, Republique du Congo. Mémoire de Master, Université MARIEN NGOUABI, République du Congo. 93p. 2017.
 
[15]  Sounga J. D., Affaton P., Noack Y., Mialoundama F. Albitization in the Inkisi sandstones, Republic of Congo: Characterization and interpretation. Global journal geological Sciences, 10(2), 175-186. 2012. 2012.
 
[16]  Boudzoumou F. La chaîne Ouest-Congolienne et son avant-pays au Congo : relations avec le Mayombien ; sédimentation des séquences d’âge Protérozoïque supérieur. Thèse de doctorat, Université Aix-Marseille, France, 220p. 1986.
 
[17]  Scolari G., Van Daalhoff H. Le Précambrien de la chaîne congolaise du Mayombe; état des connaissances géologiques, le problème des orogenèses. Bull. Bur. Rech. Géologiques Minières, (3): 163-181. 1965.
 
[18]  Delvaux D., Ganza G., Mees F. & Lahogue P. Use of hybrid fractures in paleostress determinations: Palygorskite-bearing fractures in Kinshasa, DR Congo. Session TS2 (PICO) EGU2014-8917, (pp. 1-31). Kinshasa. 2014.
 
[19]  Affaton P., Kalsbeek F., Boudzoumou F., Trompette R., Thrane K., Frei R. The Pan-African West Congo belt in the Republic of Congo (Congo Brazzavile): Stratigraphy of the Mayombe and West Congo. Precambrian Research, 272: 185-202. 2016.
 
[20]  Frimmel H. E., Tack L., Basei M.S., Nutman A. P., A. P., Boven A. Provenance and chemostratigraphy of the Neoproterozoïc West congolian Group in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 46: 221-239. 2006.
 
[21]  Straathof G. B. Neoproterozoic low latitude glaciations: An African perspective. PhD, thesis, University of Edinburgh, U.K, Edinburgh, 263p. 2011.
 
[22]  Tack L., Wingate M., Liégeois J.-P., Fernandez-Alonso M., Deblond A. Early Neoproterozoic magmatism (1000-910 MA) of the Zadinian and Mayumbian Groups (BasCongo): onset of Rodinian rifting at western edge of the Congo craton. Precambrian Research, 110: 277-306. 2001.
 
[23]  Keller E.A., Pinter N. Active Tectonics: Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Prentice Hall Earth Science Series. 2nd edition. Prentice Hall Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 2002.
 
[24]  Pike R.J., Wilson S.E. Elevation-relief ratio, hypsometric integral and geomorphic area - altitude analysis. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 82: 1079-1084. 1971.
 
[25]  Etchebehere M.L.C., Saad A.R., Santoni G., Casado F.C., Fulfaro, V.J. Detecção de prováveis deformações neotectônicas no vale do rio do Peixe, Região Ocidental Paulista, mediante aplicação de índices RDE (Relação Declividade-Extensão) em segmentos de drenagem. Revista UNESP Geociências, 25(3): 271-287. 2006.
 
[26]  Seeber L., Gornitz V. River profiles along the Himalayan arc as indicators of active tectonics, Tectonophysics, 92: 335-367. 1983.
 
[27]  Strahler A. N. Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis of erosional topography, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 63: 1117-1142. 1952.
 
[28]  Miyouna T., Bazebizonza N. C., Essouli F. O., Kempena A., Nkodia H.M.D., Boudzoumou F. Cartographie par traitement d’image satellitaire des linéaments du groupe de l’Inkisi en République du Congo: implications hydrogéologique et minière. Afrique Science, 16(4): 68-84. 2020.
 
[29]  Schumm S.A. The evolution of drainage systems and slopes in bad lands at Perth, Amboi, New Jersey. Geol. Soc. Ame. Bull. 67 (5), 597-646. 1956.
 
[30]  Bhat M.A., Dar T. A., Kaboo, B. A. Morphotectonic and Morphometric analysis for Neotectonic activity of Kehmil basin, Kashmir Himalayas: Using Geospatial techniques. International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Engineering. 7(04): 918-929. 2018.
 
[31]  Carozza J.-M., Delcaillau, B. Réponse des bassins versants à l’activité tectonique: l’exemple de la terminaison orientale de la chaîne pyrénéenne. Approche morphotectonique. Géomorphologie: relief, processus, environnement. Groupe français de géomorphologie (GFG), pp.45-60. 2000.