Journal of Food Security
ISSN (Print): 2372-0115 ISSN (Online): 2372-0107 Website: Editor-in-chief: Monideepa Becerra
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food Security. 2017, 5(6), 259-272
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-5-6-6
Open AccessArticle

Food Security Status of Peri-Urban Modern Small Scale Irrigation Project Beneficiary Female Headed Households in Kobo Town, Ethiopia

Goitom Sisay Mengesha1,

1University College of Science, Department of Geography, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India

Pub. Date: December 01, 2017

Cite this paper:
Goitom Sisay Mengesha. Food Security Status of Peri-Urban Modern Small Scale Irrigation Project Beneficiary Female Headed Households in Kobo Town, Ethiopia. Journal of Food Security. 2017; 5(6):259-272. doi: 10.12691/jfs-5-6-6


This study has attempted to evaluate the household food security status of peri-urban modern small scale irrigation project beneficiaries. To attain this objective, a cross sectional survey method using structured questionnaire was employed on randomly selected 333 households. Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS), Food Consumption Score (FCS) and Per Capita Net Food Availability (NAF) were employed to evaluate the household food security status of the sample households. Furthermore, FGT family of indices were also computed. The HDDS result of this survey revealed that seven food groups were reported to be consumed with the mean HDDS value of 3.42, 3.84 and 3.21 for total samples, participants and non-participants respectively. The calculated FCS value for total samples, participants and non-participants was 42.74, 44.89 and 41.64 respectively. Furthermore, the computed NAF value revealed that of the total samples, 198 and 135 households were found to be food secure and food insecure respectively. This study illustrated household food insecurity, low dietary diversity and food consumption to be far more noticeable in non-participants than participants.

food consumption score food security/insecurity female headed household household dietary diversity per capita food availability

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Maxwell D., Jennifer C. and Bapu V. (2013.) How Do Different Indicators of Household Food Security Compare? Empirical Evidence from Tigray, Feinstein International Centre, Tufts University; Medford, USA.
[2]  Pangaribowo E. H., Gerber N. and Torero M. (2013). Food and Nutrition Security Indicators; A Review, FOODSECURE working paper 04.
[3]  Meskerem Ali and Degefa Tolossa (2015). Household Food security status and its determinants in Girar Jarso Woreda, North Shewa Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 17 (7), 118-137, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, Pennsylvania.
[4]  FAO (2008). Water for the rural poor; Interventions for improving livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa. In; Faures, J. M. and Santini, G. (eds). Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
[5]  Babu S. and Sanyal P. (2009). Food security, poverty and nutrition policy analysis; statistical methods and applications, Elsevier Inc.
[6]  Rosen S, Meade B, Murray A. (2015). International food security assessment, 2015-2025. GFA-26, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, June 2015.
[7]  FAO, IFAD and WFP (2015). The state of Food insecurity in the world 2015. Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progress. Rome, FAO
[8]  Degefa Tolossa (2005). Rural livelihoods, poverty and food insecurity in Ethiopia, A case study at Erenssa and Garbi communities in Oromiya Zone, Amhara National Regional State. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Department of Geography, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim.
[9]  UNDP (2009). Human development report 2009, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
[10]  Guyu Ferede (2015). Household Vulnerability to Green Famine; Component Based Analysis of Indicators in Belo-jiganfoy District, Benishangul-Gumuz Region, Ethiopia. Applied Science Reports, 9(3), 139-156.
[11]  UNICEF (2017). Ethiopian Humanitarian Situation report.
[12]  UNDP (2016). Human Development Report 2016. New York, USA.
[13]  UNDESA (2015). World Urbanization prospects: The 2014 Revision, (ST/ESA/SER.A/366), United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York, USA.
[14]  WFP (2009). Summary of food security and Vulnerability in selected urban centres of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[15]  Samson Kassahun and Alok Tiwari (2012). Urban Development in Ethiopia: Challenges and Policy Responses. The IUP journal of Governance and public policy, Vol. 7 no.1.
[16]  MoFED (2012). Ethiopia’s progress towards eradicating poverty: an interim report on poverty analysis study (2010/11). Development planning and research directorate, FDRE, Addis Ababa.
[17]  Degefa Tolossa (2010). Some realities of the urban poor and their food security situations: a case study of Berta Gibi and Gemechu Safar in the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Environment and Urbanization, 22(1), 179-198, IIED.
[18]  Dessalegn Rahmato (2013). Food security and safety Nets: Assessment and challenges, in Dessalegn Rahmato, Alula Pankhurst and Jan-Gerrit Van Uffelen (eds), Food Security, Safety Nets and Social Protection in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: FSS.
[19]  MoFED (2002). Poverty profile of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[20]  FAO (2001). Urban And Peri-Urban Agriculture; A briefing guide for the successful implementation of Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture in Developing Countries and Countries of Transition, Rome, Italy.
[21]  Veenhuizen R. V. and Danso G. (2007). Profitability and Sustainability of Urban and Peri- urban agriculture, Agricultural Management, marketing and finance occasional paper, FAO, Rome.
[22]  Awulachew, S. B., Merrey, D.J., Kamara, A. B., Van Koopen, B., Penning de Vries, F and Boelee, E., and Makombe, G. (2005). Experiences and Opportunities for Promoting Small Scale/Micro Irrigation and Rainwater Harvesting For Food Security in Ethiopia. Colombo, Sri Lanka: IWMI. V.86p. (Working paper 98).
[23]  Awlachew, S. B., Erkosa, T. and Namara, R. E. (2010). Irrigation Potential in Ethiopia: Constraints and Opportunities for Enhancing the System, International Water Management Institute.
[24]  Nugusse Zeweld (2013). Food Security through Small Scale Irrigation; Case Study from Northern Ethiopia, Masters unpublished thesis Ghent University, Belgium.
[25]  Solomon Cherre (2006). Irrigation policies, strategies and institutional support conditions in Ethiopia in Awulachew S. B., Menker M., Abesha D., Atnafe T., Wondimkun Y. (eds) (2006). Best Practices and Technologies for Small Scale Agricultural Water Management in Ethiopia. Proceeding of a MoARD/MoWR/USAID/IWMI symposium and exhibition held at Ghion Hotel, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 7-9 March 2006. Colombo, Sri Lanka; International Water Management Institute, .190 pp.
[26]  KGVDP (2015). Modern small scale Irrigation project beneficiary households up to 2015, unpublished report, Kobo, Ethiopia.
[27]  Goitom Sisay (2009). Rural-urban marketing linkages and its implication for integrated development, the case of Kobo town and its surrounding Kebeles, unpublished M.A thesis, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
[28]  CSA (2010). The 2007 population and Housing census of Ethiopia: results from country level statistical report. FDRE, Population Census Commission
[29]  Kothari C.R. (2004). Research methodology; methods and techniques, Second revised edition, new age international (P) limited publishers.
[30]  Creswell J. (2012). Educational research; planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research, fourth edition, Pearson.
[31]  Babbie E. (1990). Survey Research Methods. Belmont; Wadsworth Publishing.
[32]  Creative Research Systems (CRS) (2012). Sample Size Formulas for our Sample Size Calculator accessed on January 25, 2015.
[33]  Hoddinott J. (ed) (2001). Methods for Rural Development Projects. Food security in practice, Vol 1, IFRI, Washington D.C.
[34]  Wiesmann D., J. Hoddinott, N.-L. Aberman and M. Ruel. (2006). Review and Validation of Dietary Diversity, food frequency and other proxy indicators of household Food security, report submitted to World Food Programme, Rome, by IFPRI.
[35]  Maxwell D. (2008). The coping strategy Index: a tool for rapid Measurement of Household Foods and the impact of food aid programs in Humanitarian Agencies, Field method manual, 2nd , TANGO, USAID, WFP and CARE.
[36]  CSA (2005). The 2005 National statistics, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[37]  Hoddinott J. and Yohannes Y. (2002). Dietary diversity as a food security indicator. Food consumption and Nutrition division discussion paper. Washington D.C IFPR.
[38]  Arimond M. and M. T. Ruel (2004). Dietary Diversity, dietary quality and child Nutritional status: Evidence from eleven demographic and health surveys. Washington D.C. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) project, Academy for Educational Development (AED).
[39]  Hatloy A., Halland J., Diarra M., and Oshaug A. (2000). Food Variety, Socio-Economic Status and Nutritional Status in Urban and Rural Areas In Koutiala (Mali). Public. Health Nutr.3:57-65.
[40]  Degeye Goshu, Belay Kassa and Mengistu Ketema (2013). Measuring Diet Quantity and Quality Dimensions of Food Security in Rural Ethiopia, Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 5 (5), 174-185.
[41]  WHO/FAO (1998). Preparation and use of Food based dietary Guidelines. Report of a joint WHO/FAO consultation. WHO/FAO technical report series No.880 Geneva.
[42]  Ruel M. (2006). Operationalizing Dietary Diversity: A review of Measurement Issues and Research Priorities. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division, International Food Policy research institute (IFPRI), Washington D.C.
[43]  FAO (2011). Women in Agriculture; Closing the gender gap for development. Rome, Italy; FAO and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
[44]  Kassie G.T., Asfaw W., Zeleke G., and Scott D. (2008). The Nexus of Migration, HIV/AIDS and Food Security in Ethiopia, Global Mountain Programme of the CGIAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[45]  Arega Bazezew (2012). Determining Food security Indicators at Household level in Drought prone areas of the Amhara Region of Ethiopia: the case of Lay Gaint District, Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management (EJESM), Vol.5 No.4.
[46]  Girma Nega, Melkie Endris, Degnet Teferi, Amanuel Nana and Rigbe W/Michael (2015). Dietary Diversity and Associated factors among Rural Households in South Gonder Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, feed the future- Research award, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
[47]  Getnet Mekuria, Yalewsew Wubneh and Tilahun Tewabe (2017). Household Dietary Diversity and Associated Factors among residents of Finote Selam town, North West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study, BMC Nutrition (2017) 3; 28.
[48]  WFP (2008). Food consumption analysis Calculation and use of the food consumption score in food security analysis, Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping Branch, Rome, Italy.
[49]  Ephrem Tegegne (2015). Livelihoods and Food Security In The Small Urban Centres Of Ethiopia; The Case Of Durame, Wolenchiti And Debre Sina Towns, a PhD unpublished thesis, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[50]  Messay Mulugeta (2010). Food Security Attainment Role of Urban Agriculture; a Case Study from Adama Town, Central Ethiopia. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa Vol 12, No.3, pp. 223-249, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, Pennsylvania.
[51]  Getinet Kebede (2011). Linking Small-Scale Irrigation and Household Food Security in Drought Prone Area of North East Ethiopia; A Case Study of Alawuha Irrigation Scheme in Gubalafto Wereda, North Wollo Zone, unpublished M.Sc thesis, Institute Of Development Studies, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
[52]  Gutu Tesso (2015). Why the urban households remain Food insecure in Developing countries? Empirical Evidence from Nekemte Town of Ethiopia, International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (IJMSR), 3(10), 108-117.
[53]  Foster J., J. Greer and E. Thorbecke (1984). A class of Decomposable Poverty Measures. Econometrica, Vol.52 ,No.3 (May,1984) pp 761-766.
[54]  FAO (2003). Trade reforms and food security – conceptualizing the linkages. FAO, Rome.
[55]  FAO (2013). The state of food insecurity in the world: the multiple dimensions of food security. FAO, Rome accessed on 24/01/2015.
[56]  Ruel M., James L. Garrett, Saul S.Morris, Daniel Maxwell, Arne Oshaug, Patrice Engle, Purnima Menon, Alison Slack, and Lawrence Haddad. (1998). urban challenges to Food and Nutrition security: a review of Food security, Health and Caregiving in the cities. FCND Discussion paper No.51, Food Consumption and Nutrition Division, International Food Policy research institute (IFPRI), Washington D.C.
[57]  CSA and World Bank (2017). LSMS-Integrated Survey on Agriculture Ethiopia Socio Economic Survey (ESS) 2015/16, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[58]  CSA and WFP (2014). Comprehensive Food security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA), Ethiopia.
[59]  Haile Tesfay (2008). Impact of Irrigation Development on Poverty Reduction in Northern Ethiopia, a PhD unpublished Thesis, Department of Food Business and Development, National University of Ireland, Cork.
[60]  World Bank (2006). Ethiopia: Managing Water Resources to maximize Sustainable growth, A World Bank Water Resource Assistance Strategy for Ethiopia, Washington, D.C.
[61]  Rose D., S. Chotard, L. Oliveira, N. Mock and M. Libombo (2008). Comparative evaluation of dietary indicators used in food consumption assessment of at risk populations, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol, 29, No 2, pp 113-122.
[62]  Kennedy G., Berardo A., Papavero C., Horjus P., Ballard T., Dop MC., Delbaere J. and Brouwer ID. (2010). Proxy measures of household food consumption for food security assessment and surveillance: comparison of the household dietary diversity and food consumption scores, Public Health Nutrition: 13(12), pp. 2010-2018.