Journal of Food Security
ISSN (Print): 2372-0115 ISSN (Online): 2372-0107 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfs Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food Security. 2017, 5(6), 248-258
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-5-6-5
Open AccessArticle

Malnutrition in Developing Countries: Role of Agriculture and Trading

Luís A. Cardoso1, , Jorge Ferrão2 and Tito H. Fernandes3

1CIISA, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University, Lisboa, Portugal

2The Vice Chancellor’s Office, Universidade Pedagógica, Rua João Carlos Raposo Beirão 135, Maputo, Moçambique

3ACIVET, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University, Lisboa, Portugal

Pub. Date: December 01, 2017

Cite this paper:
Luís A. Cardoso, Jorge Ferrão and Tito H. Fernandes. Malnutrition in Developing Countries: Role of Agriculture and Trading. Journal of Food Security. 2017; 5(6):248-258. doi: 10.12691/jfs-5-6-5

Abstract

The changeable history of the fight against hunger is as old as humanity whose populations had to adapt again and again to changing environmental conditions, epidemics and other adversities. For the first time since the beginnings of agriculture, humanity now has the means at its disposal to overcome world hunger. Malnutrition remains one of Sub-Saharan Africa's most fundamental challenges for improved human development. It is important to recognize the links between malnutrition, poverty and, at the aggregate level, broad economic growth and national development, namely agrarian production. Presently one person in four goes hungry. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the modest progress achieved in recent years up to 2007 was reversed, with hunger rising 2% per year since then. Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals 1 (MDG 1) target, is assessed not only by measuring undernourishment, or hunger, but also by a second indicator – the prevalence of underweight children under five years of age. A vast amount of International Organizations deal with this subject and publish comprehensive reports not only on estimates on the progress already achieved, but also identifying remaining problems, providing guidance on which policies should be emphasized in the future. However, their targets remain almost unchanged. The aim of the present short review is to enhance the need for improved agriculture productivity and trading systems closely related with persistent malnutrition.

Keywords:
malnutrition undernourishment food insecurity trading systems

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 9

References:

[1]  FAO, WFP, and IFAD (2012). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012. Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i3027e/i3027e.pdf.
 
[2]  World Bank (2015). Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population)..http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SN.ITK.DEFC.ZS.
 
[3]  FAO (2016). World Food Situation. FAO Cereal Supply and Demand Brief. http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/csdb/en/.
 
[4]  FAO (2009). Declaration of the World Summit on Food Security. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/wsfs/Summit/Docs/Final_Declaration/WSFS09_Declaration.pdf.
 
[5]  FAO (2010). The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Addressing food insecurity in protracted crises. ISBN 978-92-5-106610-2. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1683e/i1683e.pdf.
 
[6]  FAO (2014). FAO Statistics Division Working Paper Series ESS / 14-05. Refinements to the FAO methodology for estimating the prevalence of undernourishment indicator. www.fao.org/economics/ess/ess-publications/workingpapers.
 
[7]  FAO, IFAD and WFP. (2015).The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015. Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progress. Rome. FAO. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4646e.pdf.
 
[8]  FAO (2015). Regional overview of food insecurity: African food security prospects brighter than ever. Accra. FAO. ISBN 978-92-5-108781-7. http://www.fao.org/hunger/en/.
 
[9]  WHO (2015). Children: reducing mortality. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs178/en/.
 
[10]  Clay E. (2002). Food Security: Concepts and Measurement, Paper for FAO Expert Consultation on Trade and Food Security: Conceptualizing the Linkages Rome, 11-12 July 2002. Published as Chapter 2 of Trade Reforms and Food Security: conceptualizing the linkages. Rome: FAO, 2003. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4671e/y4671e06.htm.
 
[11]  Heidhues F, Atsain A, Nyangito H, Padilla M, Ghersi G, and Le Valle JC. (2004). Development Strategies and Food and Nutrition Security in Africa: An Assessment. International Food Policy Research Institute. http://www.ifpri.org/category/publication-type/discussion-papers.
 
[12]  UN (1974). Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition, United Nations. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/EradicationOfHungerAndMalnutrition.aspx.
 
[13]  IFPRI (2004). Assuring Food and Nutrition Security in Africa by 2020. IFPRI, Washington DC. Proceedings of an All-Africa Conference April 1-3, 2004, Kampala, Uganda. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadb908.pdf.
 
[14]  ODI-Overseas Development Institute (2009). Poverty and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa: An overview of the issues. https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/860.pdf.
 
[15]  Mbola B. (2008). "NEPAD summit to discuss global challenges facing Africa", BuaNews (SA Government), 15 April 2008. http://www.sabinetlaw.co.za/search/node.
 
[16]  FAO (2002). Mobilizing the political will and resources to banish world hunger. Food and Agriculture Organization oh the United Nations, Rome. The World Food Summit - five years later. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y1780e/Y1780e00.htm.
 
[17]  World Bank (2003). World development indicators 2003. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/973231468331252903/World-development-indicators.
 
[18]  FAO, IFAD, and WFP (2002). Reducing poverty and hunger: The critical role of financing for food, agriculture, and rural development. Rome. Paper Prepared for the International Conference on Financing for Development Monterrey, Mexico, 18-22 March 2002. https://www.wfp.org/sites/default/files/JointPaper.pdf.
 
[19]  Bell V, Ferrão J and Fernandes TH (2017). “Nutrition, Food Safety and Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa”. EC Nutrition 9.6 (2017): 243-255.
 
[20]  FAO (2013). FAO Statistical Yearbook: World food and agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3107e/i3107e00.htm.
 
[21]  WHO (2014). Regional Office for Africa. http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-programmes/frh/child-and-adolescent-health/programme-components/child-health.htmldeaths.
 
[22]  FAO (2009a). How to Feed the World in 2050 - Food and Agriculture organization. www.fao.org/.../wsfs/.../How_to_Feed_the_World_in_2050.pdf.
 
[23]  WHO (2011). Child mortality. Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4. http://www.who.int/pmnch/media/press_materials/fs/fs_mdg4_childmortality/en/.
 
[24]  FAO and IFAD (2013). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013. The multiple dimensions of food security. FAO. http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3434e/i3434e.pdf.
 
[25]  WFP (2015). The Hunger Map. https://www.wfp.org/content/hunger-map-2015.
 
[26]  FAO (2015a). The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015. http://www.fao.org/hunger/en/.
 
[27]  FAO (2010). Food Security in Africa. Market and Trade Policy for Staple Foods in Eastern and Southern Africa. Edt. By Alexander Sarris and Jamie Morrison. http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i0714e/i0714e.pdf
 
[28]  IAASTD (2009). Agriculture at a Crossroads. International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) Report. ISBN 978-1-59726-538-6. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/est/Investment/Agriculture_at_a_Crossroads_Global_Report_IAASTD.pdf.
 
[29]  Agriculture for Impact (A4I) (2010). European Donor Review Background and Rational. Imperial College, London, UK. http://ag4impact.org/publications/european-donor-review-background-and-rationale/.
 
[30]  African Development Bank Group (2012). Briefing Notes for AfDB's Long-Term Strategy Briefing Note 4: Africa Demographic Trends. https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Policy-Documents/FINALTrends.pdf.
 
[31]  WTO (2014) Understanding the WTO: The Uruguay Round, World Trade Organization. http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact5_e.htm.
 
[32]  WTO (2014) The Doha Round, World Trade Organization. http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dda_e/dda_e.htm
 
[33]  Hanrahan C and Schnepf R. (2006) 'WTO Doha Round: the agricultural negotiations', Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. http://digitalcommons.law.msu.edu/facpubs.
 
[34]  WTO (2013). 9th Bali ministerial declarations and decisions, https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/minist_e/mc9_e/mc9_e.htm.
 
[35]  Walker A (2011). The WTO has failed developing nations. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/nov/14/wto-fails-developing-countries.
 
[36]  ACP (2011). Study of Development from an ACP perspective in the WTO Doha Development Agenda Negotiations. ACP. http://www.acp.int/content/study-development-acp-perspective-wto-doha-development-agenda-negotiations.