Journal of Food Security
ISSN (Print): 2372-0115 ISSN (Online): 2372-0107 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfs Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food Security. 2017, 5(6), 212-222
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-5-6-2
Open AccessArticle

Neglected and Underutilized Legumes (NULs) Hazards and Probabilistic Risks Associated with Some Selected Dietary Lectins

Isaac W. Ofosu1, , William O. Ellis1, Kwabena Nsiah2 and Ibok N. Oduro1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana West Africa

2Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana West Africa

Pub. Date: November 01, 2017

Cite this paper:
Isaac W. Ofosu, William O. Ellis, Kwabena Nsiah and Ibok N. Oduro. Neglected and Underutilized Legumes (NULs) Hazards and Probabilistic Risks Associated with Some Selected Dietary Lectins. Journal of Food Security. 2017; 5(6):212-222. doi: 10.12691/jfs-5-6-2

Abstract

NULs are increasingly becoming food security crop but consumers complain about their safety after consumption. This is a serious matter that must be investigated so that the exposure and risks associated with their usage are evaluated and any uncertainties quantified. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data on NULs familiarity and consumption and the perception of consumers regarding their potential hazards. Also, time-temperature inactivation of the agglutinins of NULs flours, together with the NULs’ model dishes were studied, from which the risk assessment of lectin’s systemic toxicity was evaluated using the hazard-based approach. It was observed that, majority of the respondents who were over 40 years (67.6%) were also familiar (59.4%) with NULs and consumed NULs dishes (59.4%). The most popular dishes were obtained from the seeds of Vigna sp. (15.9%) and Phaseolus sp. (14.95%). The majority (66%) perceived the presence of hazards in NULs, citing pesticide residues (58.7%) but not intrinsic hazard as threat. A few also considered pesticide residues to be interactive with food additives (16.6 %) as dangerous. Majority (66.1%) considered NULs dishes as safe, while at the same time complained of discomfort (97.2%) after consumption. Yet, they would still recommend their use to others. Significantly high quantities of agglutinins remained in Vigna sp. flours even after cooking for 1 h relative to others. The hazard quotients of all the NULs dishes were above 1, meaning consumers are at risk of systemic toxicity. Respondents were somewhat confused about their perception of NULs safety, especially towards intrinsic hazards. Since extrinsic toxicity can be controlled, consumers must be made aware of the potential inherent threats that are associated with NULs consumption.

Keywords:
neglected legume dishes intrinsic hazard agglutinins hazard quotient lectin risk

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 8

References:

[1]  Messina MJ. Legumes and Soybeans: Overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70(suppl):439S-450S.
 
[2]  Kalogeropoulos N, Chiou A, Ioannou M, Karathanos V, Hassapidou M, Nikolaos K, et al. Nutritional evaluation and bioactive microconstituents (phytosterols, tocopherols, polyphenols, triterpenic acids) in cooked dry legumes usually consumed in the Mediterranean countries. Food Chem 2010;121:682-90.
 
[3]  FAO. The state of food insecurity in the world. FAO: Rome, Italy. 2004.
 
[4]  Habib H, Fazili K. Plant protease inhibitors: a defense strategy in plants. Biotechnol Mol Biol Rev 2007; 2: 68-85.
 
[5]  Roebuck BD, Kaplita P V., MacMillan DL. Interaction of dietary fat and soybean isolate (SBI) on azaserine induced pancreatic carcinogenesis. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 1985; 35: 323-9.
 
[6]  De Geyter E, Lambert E, Geelen D, Smagghe G. Novel Advances with Plant Saponins as Natural Insecticides to Control Pest Insects. Pest Technol (Global Sci Books) 2007; 1: 96-105.
 
[7]  Podolak I, Galanty A, Sobolewska D. Saponins as cytotoxic agents: A review. Phytochem Rev 2010; 9: 425-74.
 
[8]  Maentz DD, Irish GG, Classen HL. Carbohydrate binding and agglutinating lectins in raw and processed soybean meals. Anim Food Sci Technol 1999; 76: 335-43.
 
[9]  Pusztai A, Ewen SWB, Grant G, Peumans WJ, van Damme EJM, Rubio L, et al. Relationship between survival and binding of plant lectins during small intestinal passage and their effectiveness as growth factors. Digestion 1990; 46: 308-16.
 
[10]  Uygun U, Senoz B, Öztürk S, Koksel H. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in wheat during cookie processing. Food Chem 2009;117:261-4.
 
[11]  Song P, Lei Wu L, Guan W. Dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines intake and the risk of gastric cancer: A meta-analysis. Nutrients 2015; 12: 9872-95.
 
[12]  Chivenge P, Mabhaudhi T, Modi AT, Mafongoya P. The potential role of neglected and underutilized crop species as future crops under water scarce conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015; 12: 5685-5711.
 
[13]  Ade-Omowaye BIO, Tucker GA, Smetanska I. Nutritional potential of nine underexploited legumes in Southwest Nigeria. Int Food Res J 2015; 22: 798-806.
 
[14]  U.S.EPA. Toxicological Review of Benzene (Noncancer Effects). Available Online at: Www.epa.gov/iris 2002.
 
[15]  EFSA. Guidance on the use of probabilistic methodology for modelling dietary exposure to pesticide residues. EFSA J 2012; 10: 1-95.
 
[16]  Trautmann N. The dose makes the poison--or does it? http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/trautmann.html 2005.
 
[17]  Gerba CP. Risk assessment. In: Haas CN, Rose JB, Gerba CP, editors. Quant. Microb. risk Assess., John Wiley & Sons; 1999, p. 213-34.
 
[18]  Tennant D. Food chemical risk analysis, Springer Science & Business Media; 2012, p. 372-373.
 
[19]  Foyer CH, Lam H-M, Nguyen HT, Siddique KHM, Varshney RK, Colmer TD, et al. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production. Nat Plants 2016; 2: 16112.
 
[20]  Dolan LC, Matulka RA, Burdock GA. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins. Toxins (Basel) 2010; 2: 2289-2332.
 
[21]  Nciri N, Cho N, El Mhamdi F, Ben Mansour A, Haj Sassi F, Ben Aissa-Fennira F. Identification and characterization of phytohemagglutinins from white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. Beldia) in the rat small intestine. J Med Food 2016; 19: 85-97.
 
[22]  AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th ed. Gaithersburg, Maryland 2000.
 
[23]  Boniglia, C., Fedele, E. and Sanzini, E. E. (2003). Measurement by ELISA of active lectin in dietary supplements containing Kidney bean protein. Journal of Food Science, 68(4), 1283-1286.
 
[24]  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Risk assessment guidance for Superfund: Volume III–Part A, Process for conducting probabilistic risk assessment; EPA 540-R-02-002; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA, 2001.
 
[25]  Ofosu IW, Ellis WO, Nsiah K, Oduro IN. Neglected and Underutilized Legumes (NULs): Exposure assessment, habitual cooking and eating habits and consumers’ Characteristics. J Food Secur 2017;5:169-75.
 
[26]  Palisade. @Risk software, version 6.3. @Risk Software, Version 63 2014.
 
[27]  Microsoft. Microsoft Office Excel 2014.
 
[28]  Ferriz-Martínez R, García-García K, Torres-Arteaga I, Rodriguez-Mendez AJ, Guerrero-Carrillo MJ, Moreno-Celis U, et al. Tolerability assessment of a lectin fraction from tepary bean seeds (Phaseolus acutifolius) orally administered to rats. Toxicol Reports 2015; 2: 63-69.
 
[29]  Barnes DG, Dourson M, Preuss P, Bellin J, Derosa C, Engler R, et al. Reference dose (RfD): description and use in health risk assessments. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1988; 8: 471-86.
 
[30]  Loris R, Hamelryck T, Broekaert J, Wyns L. Review: Legume lectin structure. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998; 1383: 9-36.
 
[31]  Plahar WA, Annan NT, Larweh PM, Golob P, Swetman T, Greenhaulgh P, et al. Marketing and Processing of Bambara Groundnuts (W. Africa) R7581 (ZB0232/233). 2002.
 
[32]  Osei-Bonsu P, Buckles D, Sozo FR, Asibuo JY. Traditional food uses of Mucuna pruriens and Canavalia ensiformis in Ghana. ILEIA Newsl 1995; 12: 30-1.
 
[33]  Phillips RD, McWatters KH. Contribution of cowpeas to nutrition and health. Food Technol 1991; 45: 127-30.
 
[34]  Donkor A, Osei-Fosu P, Nyarko S, Kingsford-Adaboh R, Abrefi Okyere J. Health risk assessment of pesticide residues via dietary intake of Cowpea and Bambara beans among adults in Accra Metropolis, Ghana. Res J Chem Environ Sci 2015; 3:10-8.
 
[35]  Menard C, Heraud F, Volatier J-L, Leblanc J-C. Assessment of dietary exposure of nitrate and nitrite in France. Food Addit Contam Part A 2008; 25: 971-88.
 
[36]  Hadley C. Food allergies on the rise? Determining the prevalence of food allergies, and how quickly it is increasing, is the first step in tackling the problem. Eur Mol Biol Organ Rep 2006; 7: 1080-1083.
 
[37]  Pusztai A, Bardocz S. Biological Effects of Plant Lectins on the Gastrointestinal Tract: Metabolic Consequences and Applications. Trends Glycosci Glycotechnol 1996; 8: 149-65.
 
[38]  USFDA (United States Food and DrugAdministration). Bad bug book. Foodborne pathogenic microorganism and natural toxins handbook. Phytohaemagglutinin, Compiled by Agriculture-Led Export Businesses, 12 Dokki Street, 6th Floor, Giza, Egypt, USAID Project No. 263-0264 2000.
 
[39]  Barampama Z, Simard RE. Nutrient composition, protein quality and antinutritional factors of some varieties of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in Burundi. J Food Chem 1993; 47: 159-167.
 
[40]  Lannoo N, Van Damme EJM. Lectin domains at the frontiers of plant defense. Front Plant Sci 2014; 5: 397.
 
[41]  Pusztai A, Grant G. Assessment of lectin inactivation by heat and digestion. Methods Mol Med 1998; 9: 505-14.
 
[42]  Sinha S, Surolia A. Oligomerization endows enormous stability to soybean agglutinin: a comparison of the stability of monomer and tetramer of soybean agglutinin. Biophys J 2005; 88: 4243-51.
 
[43]  Weis WI, Drickamer K. Structural basis of lectin-carbohydrate recognition. Annu Rev Biochem 1996; 65: 441-73.
 
[44]  Henne L, Armed EM, George DE, Kao KJ, Harry S. Sitren. Tolerance to Long-Term Feeding of Isolated Peanut Lectin in the Rat: Evidence for a Trophic Effect on the Small Intestines. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1990; 36: 599-607.