Journal of Food Security
ISSN (Print): 2372-0115 ISSN (Online): 2372-0107 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food Security. 2017, 5(1), 1-8
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-5-1-1
Open AccessArticle

The Promises and Challenges of the Sustainable Development Goals for Caricom Caribbean Countries

Tigerjeet Ballayram1,

1International Consultant, Loxahatchee, Florida, USA

Pub. Date: February 05, 2017

Cite this paper:
Tigerjeet Ballayram. The Promises and Challenges of the Sustainable Development Goals for Caricom Caribbean Countries. Journal of Food Security. 2017; 5(1):1-8. doi: 10.12691/jfs-5-1-1


The objective of this paper is to show that the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), present a timely opportunity for CARICOM Caribbean countries to successfully advance along a sustainable and transformative developmental path. Country-relevant SDGs can be designed to address the root causes of the current developmental challenges, and reactivate economic growth along a development trajectory to end hunger, poverty, unemployment, food and nutrition insecurity, and appreciably enhance the general living standards of the population in these countries. Despite making much social and economic progress since independence, CARICOM Caribbean countries still face enduring developmental challenges, including achieving sustainable development and genuine economic transformation. The SDGs promise a truly transformative development agenda that is both universal and adaptable to country-specific conditions. But financing will be a huge challenge, and countries are cautioned about the need for good governance for the SDGs. Countries will require large and sustained amounts of investment funds. Governments cannot, and should not do this alone. Much of this financing will have to be sourced from domestic resource mobilization (DRM), including public-private-partnerships, in addition to traditional Overseas Development Assistance (ODAs), Multilateral Development Bank Funding, and Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs). But the process of development must involve a paradigm change, by both the public and private sectors, on the type of transformation that is required to transition these economies to sustainable development. The methodology adopted in the paper is a rigorous analysis of the economic and social statistics, and the development experiences of these countries, through the lens of the growth and development literature.

sustainable development goals sustainable development economic transformation domestic resource mobilization

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  United Nations. Global Sustainable Development Report 2016. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York, 2016.
[2]  Ambersely, F., and R. Cohen (Ed). Crisis in the Caribbean. Monthly Review Press. New York. 1983.
[3]  Levitt, K. and L. Best. “Character of Caribbean Economy”, in G. Beckford (ed.), Caribbean economy: dependence and backwardness. University of the West Indies Press. Kingston, Jamaica. 1978.
[4]  Beckford, G, “Persistent poverty: underdevelopment in plantation economies of the third world”. Oxford University Press. London. 1972.
[5]  Thomas, C. Dependence and transformation: the economics of the transition to socialism. Monthly Review Press. New York and London. 1976.
[6]  Ballayram, T. and F. Henry. “Public policies for health and nutrition”. In Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (Ed). Food and agriculture policies and obesity: Prevention of non-communicable diseases in the Caribbean. Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute. Jamaica. 2009: 2-4.
[7]  Hayle, Carolyn. “Re-focusing agri-tourism in healthy lifestyles”. In Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (Ed). Food and agriculture policies and obesity: Prevention of non-communicable diseases in the Caribbean. Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute. Jamaica. 2009: 41-50.
[8]  Ruprah, I, K. Melgarejo, and R. Sierra. Stagnating Economic Growth in the Caribbean. Inter-American Development Bank. Washington, D.C. USA. 2014.
[9]  Ostry, J., P. Loungani, and D. Furceri. “Neoliberalism: Oversold?” Finance and Development. June. IMF. 2016.
[10]  Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). State of Food Insecurity in CARICOM Caribbean. Sub-regional Office for the Caribbean, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bridgetown, Barbados, 2015.
[11]  Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). “The Caribbean and the Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals”. Report for Symposium on Sustainable Development Goals for Caribbean within Post-2015 Development Agenda. 24-25 June, 2015. ECLAC Sub-regional Office, Port of Spain. Trinidad and Tobago. 2015.
[12]  Greenidge, K., R. Craigwell, C. Thomas, and L. Drakes. “Threshold Effects of Sovereign Debt: Evidence from the Caribbean”. IMF Working Paper No. 12/157 (Washington: International Monetary Fund). 2012.
[13]  Ballayram, T., B. Lawrence and F. Henry. “Food security and health in the Caribbean Imperatives for policy implementation”. Journal of Food Security, 2015, Vol. 3, No. 6, 137-144.
[14]  United Nations. “The Sustainable Development Goals”. [Online]. Available: 2015. [Accessed: June, 2, 2016].
[15]  World Bank/International Monetary Fund (WB/IMF) (2015). “From Billions to Trillions. Transforming Development Finance. Post-2015 Financing for Development: Multilateral Development Finance”. [Online]. Available: 2015. [Accessed: June, 12, 2016].
[16]  World Bank. Financing for Development Post-2015. [Online]. Available: Poverty%20documents/ 2013. [Accessed: June, 26, 2016].
[17]  Development Initiatives. “Investments to End Poverty 2015”. [Online]. Available:!/post/investments-to-end-poverty. 2015. [Accessed: July 12, 2016].
[18]  Rajkumar, A.S., and V. Swaroop. “Public spending and outcomes: Does governance matter?” Journal of Development Economics 86 (2008) 96-111.
[19]  Makuta, I. and B. O’Hare. “Quality of governance, public spending on health and health status in Sub Saharan Africa: a panel data regression analysis”. BMC Public Health. 2015; 15: 932.
[20]  FAO. “Governance for Food and Nutrition Security in the Caribbean”. Issue Brief # 17. FAO Sub-regional Office for the Caribbean. Barbados. 2015.
[21]  Grenade, W. C., “Governance in the Caribbean: challenges and prospects”. [Online]. Available: 2012. [Accessed October 1, 2016].
[22]  United Nations General Assembly. Report of the Secretary-General “Lessons learned from the Commission on Sustainable Development”. [Online]. Available: 2013. [Accessed September 12, 2016].
[23]  Halle, M. “Overseeing agenda 2030—how to avoid a repeat of the Commission on Sustainable Development”. [Online]. Available: 2016. [Accessed October 8, 2016].