Journal of Food Security
ISSN (Print): 2372-0115 ISSN (Online): 2372-0107 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfs Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food Security. 2016, 4(3), 68-75
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-4-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Contribution of Rangelands to Household Food Basket and Income in a Pastoral Area in Uganda

Betty Mbolanyi1, , Anthony Egeru1, 2 and David Mfitumukiza3

1Department of Environment Management, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

2Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture, Kampala, Uganda

3Department of Geography, Geo-informatics and Climatic Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Pub. Date: July 16, 2016

Cite this paper:
Betty Mbolanyi, Anthony Egeru and David Mfitumukiza. Contribution of Rangelands to Household Food Basket and Income in a Pastoral Area in Uganda. Journal of Food Security. 2016; 4(3):68-75. doi: 10.12691/jfs-4-3-3

Abstract

Rangelands are important ecosystems as they offer livelihood options and food security to many people in Uganda. There is barely any study that has analyzed the intricate relationship between household food basket, income and rangelands in Uganda. This study determined the contribution of rangelands to household food basket and income in Nakaseke district, Uganda. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires was conducted among 180 randomly selected households. The survey was aimed at determining the relationship between rangeland resources, food basket and income. Results showed that rangeland resources contribute significantly (p<0.05) to household food basket and income during both dry and wet seasons. Water, grass and shrubs were the most important rangeland resources in the area. On average, a household expended US$ 4.29 and US$ 4.04 daily on milk during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This accounted for the largest household expenditure on household food items. The household food basket is constituted by milk, meat from cattle and goats, posho, cassava, beans, vegetables, fruits, honey, sugar and oil. Four months; January-March and July-August were observed to have the lowest resource availability during the year. On average, households earned US$ 20.07 per month translating to US$ 240.84 annually. This average is lower than the US$571.9 national estimated per capita income. The average monthly income of the households during the wet and dry seasons was US$ 22.4 and US$ 17.7 respectively. Seasonal differences in income were however non-significant (p>0.05). The logistic regression results showed that size of land owned significantly influences cattle numbers and income at household level but does not influence the number and type of crops cultivated and available food reserves. Seventy three percent (73%) of the households attributed their livestock herd sizes to the presence of vast expanses of the rangeland. These findings show that rangelands are the most important contributors to household food basket as well as household assets such as livestock that have influence on household food security.

Keywords:
food reserves food security land ownership dry and wet seasons Uganda

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 3

References:

[1]  Abel, N. O. J. and Blaikie, P. M. (2006).Land degradation, stocking rates and conservation policies in the communal rangelands of Botswana and Zimbabwe. Land Degradation & Development. Volume 1 Issue 2, Pages 101-123. Published Online: 31 Jul 2006.
 
[2]  Angassa, A. and Oba, G. (2007).Relating long-term rainfall variability to cattle population dynamics in communal rangelands and a government ranch in southern Ethiopia. Agricultural systems, 94(3), 715-725.
 
[3]  Asmelash, M. (2014). Rural household food security status and its determinants: The case of Laelamychew Woreda central zone of Tigrai, Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural development, Vol. 6(5), pp. 162-167.
 
[4]  Bollig, M., & Schulte, A. (1999). Environmental change and pastoral perceptions: degradation and indigenous knowledge in two African pastoral communities. Human ecology, 27(3), 493-514.
 
[5]  Butz, R. J. (2009). Traditional fire management: historical fire regimes and land use change in pastoral East Africa. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 18(4), 442-450.
 
[6]  Cheche, W. W., Githae, E. W., Omondi, S. F. and Magana, A. M. (2015). An inventory and assessment of exotic and native plant species diversity in the Kenyan rangelands: Case study of Narok North Sub-County. Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment, 7(8), 238-246.
 
[7]  Chikamai, N. and Eriksen, S. (2011). Gums and resins: The potential for supporting sustainable adaptation in Kenya's dry lands. Climate and Development, 3 (1), 59-70.
 
[8]  Egeru, A., Okia, C., & de Leeuw, J. (2014).Trees and livelihoods in Karamoja .ICRAF, Nairobi pp39.
 
[9]  Egeru, A., Wasonga, O., Kyagulanyi, J., Majaliwa, G. M., MacOpiyo, L. and Mburu, J. (2014).Spatio-temporal dynamics of forage and land cover changes in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Pastoralism, 4(1), 1-21.
 
[10]  Egeru, A., Wasonga, O., MacOpiyo, L., Mburu, J., Tabuti, J. R., and Majaliwa, M. G. (2015).Piospheric influence on forage species composition and abundance in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Pastoralism, 5(1), 1-17.
 
[11]  Gina Ziervegol, Balgis Osman, Cecelia Conde, Sergio Cortes and Tom Downing (2006) Climate variability and change: Implications for household food security. Available at www.aiaccproject.org.
 
[12]  Grace, K., Brown, M. and McNally A. (2013).Examining the link between food prices and food insecurity: A multi-level analysis of maize price and birth-weight in Kenya. Food Policy, 46(2), 56-65.
 
[13]  Gradé, J. T., Tabuti, J. R., and Van Damme, P. (2009). Ethnoveterinary knowledge in pastoral Karamoja, Uganda. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 122(2), 273-293.
 
[14]  Havlík, P., Valin, H., Herrero, M., Obersteiner, M., Schmid, E., Rufino, M. C., Thornton, P.K., Bottcher, H., Conant, R.T., Frank, S., Fritz, S., Fuss, S., Kraxner, F., and Frank, S. (2014). Climate change mitigation through livestock system transitions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(10), 3709-3714.
 
[15]  Hosier, R. H. (1993). Charcoal production and environmental degradation: environmental history, selective harvesting, and post-harvest management. Energy Policy, 21(5), 491-509.
 
[16]  Inselman, A. D. (2003). Environmental degradation and conflict in Karamoja, Uganda: the decline of a pastoral society. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues Issue: Volume 3, Number 2 / 2003 Pages: 168-187
 
[17]  Kagunyu., A., Wandibba, S., and Wanjohi, J.G. (2016). The use of indigenous climate forecasting methods by the pastoralists of Northern Kenya.Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice (2016) 6:7.
 
[18]  Kratli, S. Huelsebusch, C. Brooks, S. and Kaufmann, B. (2013). Pastoralism: A critical asset for food security under global climate change. Animal Frontiers, 3 (1), 42-50.
 
[19]  Levine, S. (2010). What to do about Karamoja: Why pastoralism is not the problem but the solution. A food security analysis of Karamoja. A report for FAO/ECHO, Kampala Uganda. A availble from: https://www.google.com/#q=What+to+do+about+Karamoja:+Why+pastoralism+is+not+the+problem+but+ the+solution.
 
[20]  Lund, H.G (2007) Accounting for the world’s rangelands. Rangelands,29(1), 3-10.
 
[21]  McGranahan, D. A. and Kirkman, K. P. (2013). Multifunctional rangeland in Southern Africa: Managing for production, conservation, and resilience with fire and grazing. Land, 2(2), 176-193.
 
[22]  Mfitumukiza, D. (2012). Spatial and seasonal dynamics of rangeland herbage: An integration of proxy and direct monitoring approaches (Doctoral dissertation, Makerere University). Available from: http://www.dspace.mak.ac.ug/handle/10570/3408.
 
[23]  Nalule, S.A. (2010). Social management of rangelands and settlement in Karamoja. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala – Uganda.
 
[24]  Nancy Cochrane and Anna D’Souza (2015) Measuring access to food in Tanzania. A food basket approach; EIB-135: US Department of agriculture Economic Research Service. Available at: www.ers.usda.gov/publications/eib-economic-information-bullentin/eib135.
 
[25]  National Environment Management Authority. (2010). State Of The Environment Report For Uganda. Kampala Uganda.
 
[26]  Neely, C., Bunning, S., & Wilkes, A. (2009). Review of evidence on drylands pastoral systems and climate change. Rome: FAO.
 
[27]  Nimusiima, A. L. E. X., Basalirwa, C. P. K., Majaliwa, J. G. M., Mbogga, S. M., Mwavu, E. N., Namaalwa, J., & Okello-Onen, J. (2014). Analysis of Future Climate Scenarios over Central Uganda Cattle Corridor. Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change, 5(10): 237-250.
 
[28]  Oba, G. (2012). Harnessing pastoralists’ indigenous knowledge for rangeland management: three African case studies. Pastoralism Research, Policy and Practice 2:1.
 
[29]  Oba, G., and Kaitira, L.M. (2006). Herder knowledge of landscape assessments in arid rangelands in northern Tanzania. Journal of Arid Environments 66(1): 168-186.
 
[30]  Riginos, C., and Herrick, J. E. (2010). Monitoring rangeland health: A guide for pastoralists and other land managers in Eastern Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: ELMT-USAID/East Africa, 28. Available from: http://mpala.org/Monitoring_Guide.pdf.
 
[31]  Rija, A., Kideghesho, J., Mwamende, K. and Selemani, I. (2013). Emerging issues and challenges in conservation of biodiversity in the rangelands of Tanzania. Nature Conservation, 6, 1.
 
[32]  Shumsky, S. A., Hickey, G. M., Pelletier, B. and Johns, T. (2014). Understanding the contribution of wild edible plants to rural social-ecological resilience in semi-arid Kenya. Ecology and Society, 19(4), 34.
 
[33]  Solomon, T. B., Snyman, H. A., & Smit, G. N. (2007). Cattle-rangeland management practices and perceptions of pastoralists towards rangeland degradation in the Borana zone of southern Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental Management, 82(4), 481-494.
 
[34]  Susanne, H.A. (2009). Gender, Pastoralism, and Intensification: Changing Environmental Resource Use in Morocco. Clark University.
 
[35]  Thébaud, B., & Batterbury, S. (2001). Sahel pastoralists: opportunism, struggle, conflict and negotiation. A case study from eastern Niger. Global environmental change, 11(1), 69-78.
 
[36]  United Nations Development Program (UNDP), (2005). Uganda Human Development Report: Linking Environment to Human Development: A Deliberate Choice. 114pgs.
 
[37]  United States Agency for International Development (USAID), (2010). Karamoja Region Food security assessment: Uganda. A special report by Famine Early warning system Network (FEWS NET). January 2010.
 
[38]  Vetter, S. (2009).Drought, change and resilience in South Africa's arid and semi-arid rangelands. South African Journal of Science, 105(1-2), 29-33
 
[39]  Yazan, A. M. E. (2014). Assessing the contribution of camel milk as a livelihood strategy for building pastoral household resilience in the dry lands of Kenya. PhD Thesis University of Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology.