Journal of Food Security
ISSN (Print): 2372-0115 ISSN (Online): 2372-0107 Website: Editor-in-chief: Monideepa Becerra
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food Security. 2015, 3(4), 107-114
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-3-4-3
Open AccessCase Study

Issues and Options of Food Security and Poverty: An Empirical Study of Mizoram, the Eastern Extension of the Himalaya

Vishwambhar Prasad Sati1,

1Department of Geography and Resource Management, School of Earth Sciences, Mizoram University, Aizawl, India

Pub. Date: November 25, 2015

Cite this paper:
Vishwambhar Prasad Sati. Issues and Options of Food Security and Poverty: An Empirical Study of Mizoram, the Eastern Extension of the Himalaya. Journal of Food Security. 2015; 3(4):107-114. doi: 10.12691/jfs-3-4-3


This paper examines issues and options of food security and poverty in Mizoram, northeast India. The area, we have studied suffers from acute food insecurity and chronic poverty as about 33% people live below poverty line and 17% people live under chronic poverty. Rice is the main food staple with limited availability. Agriculture dominates in economic practices as about 80% people depend on practicing agriculture to carry their livelihoods. Moreover, shifting cultivation characterises agriculture as about 50% people practice it. It is carried out in the fragile hilly slopes mainly in the forest areas with low yield. Although, forest products and livestock farming constitute agriculture in a greater scale yet, their contribution in food security is inadequate. We studied 16 villages from eight districts of Mizoram (two villages from each districts). A survey of 1527 households (76% of the total households) was conducted through random sampling methods and structured questionnaire on agriculture, occupation, income, food security and poverty was framed Further, participatory approach was adapted after rapid field visits of the studied villages. Correlation, regression and descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. We observed that poverty and malnutrition in the study area is high in comparison to the state and national level. The study suggests that livelihood options are required to be enhanced and diversified for poverty reduction and attainment of food security. At government level, public distribution system for proper food supply should be made regular and most responsible.

food security poverty livelihoods shifting cultivation Mizoram

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Arora, C, (2009) Child health, A.B.D. Publisher, Jaipur, India, pp. 2-4.
[2]  Chappell, M.J., LaValle, L.A., (2011). Food security and biodiversity: can we have both? Agric. Hum. Values 28, 3-26.
[3]  FAO, (2011) The State of Food Insecurity of the World: How Does International Price Volatility Affect Domestic Economies and Food Security? FAO, WFP, IFAD, Rome, Italy.
[4]  FAO, (2003) “World agriculture: towards 2015/2030 – An FAO perspective”. EarthScan. Retrieved online, April 2012:
[5]  FAO, (2003) “World agriculture: towards 2015/2030 – An FAO perspective”. EarthScan. Retrieved online, April 2012:
[6]  FAO, (2008) The state of food insecurity in the world. Available at
[7]  Horlings, L.G., Marsden, T.K., (2011) Towards the real green revolution? Exploring the conceptual dimensions of a new ecological modernization of agriculture that could ‘feed the world’. Global Environ. Change (published online).
[8]  ICAR, (2009). Annual Report, ICAR-RC NEHR, New Delhi.
[9]  ICAR, (2005). Annual Report, ICAR-RC NEHR, New Delhi.
[10]  ICIMOD, (1996). Background Note for Regional Meeting of Experts on Development of Micro Enterprises in Mountain Area. Unpublished Text (25-26 July).
[11]  Kabra, K.C. (2008) Economic growth of Mizoram: role of business and Industry, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, p. 361.
[12]  Kumar, J. and Tripathi, R.S. (1989) Study of Yield Gap and Constraint Analysis in Major Crops at Farm Level in Tehri District of UP, GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology Hill Campus Rani Chauri (Tehri Garhwal).
[13]  OECD-FAO, (2011) Agricultural Outlook 2011. Retrieved online, April 2012: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy. (OFS/2003/5), available at
[14]  Pant, B.R. (1996) The Geographical study of scheduled castes population in Uttarakhand Himalaya (India). The Indonesian Journal of Geography 28(7): 25-30.
[15]  Planning Commission, (2013) Poverty estimates for 2011-12, Planning Commission of India, New Delhi.
[16]  Sahn, David E. (1998) A conceptual framework for examining the seasonal aspects of household food security” in Sahn, David E. (ed.) Seasonal variability in third world agriculture: The consequences for food security, Johns Hopkins University Press for the International Food Policy Research Institute, Baltimore and London, pp. 3-18.
[17]  Sati, V. P. (2009) Traditional Farming Systems and Sustainability Issues: a Case for the Garhwal Himalaya, India. Peer Reviewed Proceedings of the Fourth International Scientific Conference ‘Rural Development 2009’ Transitions Towards Sustainability 15-17 of Oct 2009, Lithuanian University of Agriculture. Pp. 399-407.
[18]  Srinivasan K, Saxena P.C and Kanitkartara, (1992) Demographic and Socio-Economic Aspects of the Child in India, (ed), Himalaya Publishing House, Girgaon, Bombay, p. 97.
[19]  The Hindu, (2014) Daily newspaper published, 28 Dec, 2014 Chennai.
[20]  The Telegraph, (2012) Daily newspaper published, 20 March, 2012 Guwahati.
[21]  Tscharntke, T., Yann Clough, Thomas C. Wanger , Louise Jackson, Iris Motzke, Ivette Perfecto, John Vandermeer, Anthony Whitbread. (2012) Global food security, biodiversity conservation and the future of agricultural intensification. Biol. Conserv.
[22]  UNEP-UNCTAD, (2008) Organic Agriculture and Food Security in Africa (UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2007/15), available at
[23]  Von Braun, J., Bos, M.S., Brown, M.A., Cline, S.A., Cohen, M.J., Pandya-Lorch, R. and Rosegrant,M.W. (2003) Overview of the world food situation-Food security: New risk and new opportunities. IFPRI, Available online (November 2004 at:
[24]  World Bank, (2007) World Development Report 2008. Agriculture for Development, Washington, DC.
[25]  World Bank, (1986) The World Development Report, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.