Journal of Food Security
ISSN (Print): 2372-0115 ISSN (Online): 2372-0107 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food Security. 2015, 3(1), 11-24
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-3-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Spatial Distribution of Food Poverty Incidence in Juba Town: A geo-statistical Assessment

David Lomeling1, and Rita Nyoka Wani2

1Department of Agricultural Sciences, CNRES, University of Juba, P.O. Box 82 Juba, South Sudan

2Graduate Student, Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Juba, P.O Box 82 Juba, South Sudan

Pub. Date: February 27, 2015

Cite this paper:
David Lomeling and Rita Nyoka Wani. Spatial Distribution of Food Poverty Incidence in Juba Town: A geo-statistical Assessment. Journal of Food Security. 2015; 3(1):11-24. doi: 10.12691/jfs-3-1-3


Food and nutrition security survey based on a representative sample of the population of Juba Town was conducted from October to November 2010. The survey covered four localities: Gudele, Juba na Bari, Kator and Munuki. Daily calorie intake using a one day 24-hour diet recall varied between 500 to 3,500 Kcal as a function of monthly income. Spatial distribution of food poverty incidence as well as daily calorific values were geo-statistically analyzed using a GS+TM Version 9 software. Results showed that about 13.2% of the households with incomes less than 500 SDG/month were severely food insecure with constant hunger,41.5% of the households with incomes between 350-800 SDG/month were food insecure with moderate hunger; 35.8% of the households with incomes between 850-1850 SDG/month were food insecure but without hunger; and 9.4% of the households with incomes between 1,850 and 4,000 SDG/month were food secure. Isotropic variogram of food poverty incidence showed a 46.6% moderate spatial dependency with a relatively low correlation coefficient of r2=0.15 and a range A0 of 8.8 km suggesting a wide radius of even food poverty levels across much of Juba Town. Meanwhile the estimated daily per capita calorific values also showed moderate spatial dependency of 60.3% and a small range A0at 2.3 km. Food poverty incidence at low correlation coefficient r2=0.02 positively correlated with family size and negatively correlated at r2=0.17 with the per capita food consumption. Monetary indicator was used to assess food poverty with the Gini coefficient at 0.32. This unequal income distribution suggested the vulnerability of most households to food insecurity. However, most low income households with less freedom of choice easily compensated their dietary diversity and calorific values through appropriate food preparation methods.

daily calorie intake dietary diversity food security food poverty mapping Gini coefficient isotropic variogram

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 12


[1]  E. Dowler, “Food Poverty and Food Policy”. IDS Bulletin 29(1), 58-65.
[2]  S. Friel and Conlon, C. (2004), Food Poverty and Policy. Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency, available at dPolicy_2004.pdf, accessed on 09/06/12.
[3]  G. Ágnes, “Mimimum of Subsistence, 2011”. Hungarian Central Statistical Office, June 2012 pp7,online available at
[4]  S. Friel, O. Walsh and D. McCarthy, “The Financial Cost of Healthy Eating in Ireland. Combat Poverty Agency Working Paper, 04/01, available at neral_Staff_Publications/2004_rep_friel_cost_of_healthy_ eating_cpa_working_paper.pdf, accessed on 01/08/12.
[5]  D. Headeyand O. Ecker, “Improving the measurement of Food Security”. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Discussion Paper 01225. Nov. 2012.
[6]  A. Deaton and J. Drèze, “Poverty and Inequality in India: A Re-Examination.” Economic and Political Weekly. Special articles, 3729-3748, 2002.
[7]  L. Weingärtner, “The Concept of Food and Nutrition Security”, in K. Klennert (ed.), Achieving Food and Nutrition Security: actions to meet the global challenge – A training course reader (3rd Edition), Inwent, Bonn, 2010.
[8]  M. Padilla, “Dietary patterns and trends in consumption. In Mediterra - The future of agriculture and food in Mediterranean countries,” International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies – Paris; Presses de Sciences Po., 149-170, 2008.
[9]  World Food Program. A VAM Analysis. South Sudan Food Security Monitoring.Round 7, July 2012
[10]  H. Bouis, “Food consumption surveys: How random are measurement errors? In Data needs for food policy in developing countries: New directions for household surveys, ed. J. von Braun and D. Puetz, 219-231. International Food Policy Research Institute. Washington, D.C, 1993.
[11]  S. Maxwell and T. Frankenberger, Household food security: Concepts, indicators, measurements: A technical review. Rome: International Fund for Agricultural Development/United Nations Children's Fund, 1992.
[12]  L. Haddad, E. Kennedy and J. Sullivan, “Choice of indicators for food security and nutrition monitoring”. Food Policy vol. 19, no. 3. pp 329-343, 1994.
[13]  G. Bickel, M. Nord, C. Price, W. Hamilton and J. Cook. “Measuring Food Security in the United States. Guide to Measuring Household Food Security Revised 2000”. United States Department of Agriculture, also online available at:
[14]  BetelsmannStiftung´s Transformation Index (BTI). South Sudan Country Report, Gütersloh: BetelsmannStifung 2014. Available online at].
[15]  M. Ravallion and M. Lokshin, “On the Utility Consistency of Poverty Lines”. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3157, 2003.
[16]  I. P. David and S. M. Dalisay, “Issues in Estimating the Poverty Line”. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, vol.3, no. 3, 2002.
[17]  N. Kakwani, “On Specifying Poverty Lines. Paper delivered at the ADB Asia and Pacific Forum on Poverty”: Reforming Policies and Institutions for Poverty Reduction, Manila, 5-9, Feb.2001.
[18]  D. Makoka and M. Kaplan, “Poverty and Vulnerability”, Term Paper. Interdisciplinary Course. International Doctoral Studies Programme. Centre for Development Research. University of Bonn, Germany. pp. 31, 2005.
[19]  S. V. Kiruba, K. S. Thomas and A. V. Kurpad, “Poverty and the state of nutrition in India”. Asia Pac J ClinNutr, vol. 22,no. 3, pp.326-339. 2013.
[20]  K. Beegle, J. De Weerdt, J. Friedman and J. Gibson, “Methods of Household Consumption Measurement through Surveys: Experimental Results from Tanzania.” Journal of Development Economics, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 3-18, 2012.
[21]  C. A. Cambardella,T. B. Moorman, J. M. Novak, T. B. Parkin, D. L. Karlen, R. F. Turco and A. E. Konopka, “Field-scale variability of soil properties in central Iowa soils. Soil Science Society of American Journal, vol.58, pp. 1501-1511, 1994.
[22]  L. Malte, “TRAVAIL Policy Brief No. 3: Inequality, income shares and poverty: The practical meaning of Gini coefficients. International Labour Office, Geneva, online availableat, 2010.
[23]  A. W. Warrickand D. R. Nielsen,„Spatial variability of soil physical properties in the field”. In: D Hillel (Ed.), Applications of soil physics, Academic, New York., 1980.
[24]  W. James and E. Schofield. 1990. Human energy requirements: A manual for planners and nutritionists.Oxford University”V. Smil, V. 1994. How many people can the earth feed?”Population and Development Review, viol. 20, pp. 255-292, 1990.
[25]  H. K. Choi, K. Atkinson, E. Karlson, W. Willett andG. Curhan, “Purine-rich foods, dairy intake, and protein intake, and risk of gout in men”. New Eng J Me, vol. 345, pp. 981-986, 2004.
[26]  H. K. Choi, D. B. Mount, A. Reginato, “Pathogenesis of Gout”. Ann Intern Med. vol. 14, no. 3(7), pp. 499-516, 2005a.
[27]  H. K. Choi, S. Liu and G. Curhan, “Intake of Purine-Rich Foods, Protein, Dairy Product, and Serum Uric Acid Level”. The Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey Arthritis Rheum, vol. 52, pp. 283-289, 2005b.
[28]  H. K. Choi, K. Atkinson, E. Karlson E and G. Curhan G,”Obesity, weight change, hypertension, diuretic use, and risk of gout in men – the health Professionals follow-up study”. Arch Intern Med, vol. 165, pp. 1-7, 2005c.
[29]  J. Schmidhuber, and P. Shetty, “The nutrition transition to 2030: Why developing countries are likely to bear the major burden. 97th Seminar of the European Association of Agricultural Economists, University of Reading, April 21- 22, 2005.
[30]  J. Kearney, “Food consumption trends and drivers,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc., B 27, vol. 365, no. 1554, pp. 2793-2807, 2010.
[31]  M. Mazzocchi, B. Shankar, and B. Traill, “The development of global diets since ICN 1992: influences of agri-food sector trends and policies. Rome, FAO, 2012.
[32]  WHO and FAO, Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. WHO Technical Report Series 916. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. World Health Organization, WHO & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO, 2003.
[33]  J. R. Albert and W.Molano, “Estimation of the Food Poverty Line”. DISCUSSIONPAPER SERIES NO. 2009-14. Philippine Institute for Development Studies, pp. 48, 2009.
[34]  M. Y. Savy, P. Martin-Prevel, S. Traissac, S, E. Duvernay, and F. Delpeuch, “Dietary Diversity Scores and Nutritional Status of Women Change during the Seasonal Food Shortage in Rural Burkina Faso.” Journal of Nutrition, vol.136, pp. 2625-2632, 2006.
[35]  D. Ali, K.K. Saha, P. Nguyen, M. Tedla, P. Menon, R. Rawat and M.T. Ruel, “Is household food insecurity associated with child undernutrition?” A multi-country study using data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Vietnam. IFPRI Discussion Paper, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington DC, 2012.
[36]  H. M. Mehedi, M. Sayemand M. A. H. Chowdhury, “Food Insecurity and Child Undernutrition: Evidence from BDHS 2011. Journal of Food Security. vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 52-27, Dec. 2013.
[37]  M. Arimond and M. Ruel, “Dietary Diversity Is Associated with Child Nutritional Status: Evidence from 11 Demographic and Health Surveys.” Journal of Nutrition, vol.134, pp. 2579-2585, 2006.
[38]  K. Siefert, C. M. Heflin, M. E. Corcoran and R. D. Williams, “Food Insufficiency and Physical and Mental Health in a Longitudinal Survey of Welfare Recipients.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol.45, pp. 171‐186, 2004.
[39]  K. Alaimo, C. M. Olson, E. A. Frongillo Jr and R. R. Briefel. 2001. “Food Insufficiency, Family Income, and Health in US Preschool and School‐Aged Children.” American Journal of Public Health 91:781‐786;
[40]  Dunifon and Kowaleski‐Jones, 2003:Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski‐Jones. 2003. “The Influences of Participation in the National School Lunch Program and Food Insecurity on Child Well‐Being.” Social ServiceReview77:72‐92
[41]  Slack and Yoo, 2005 Slack, Kristen S and Joan Yoo. 2005. “Food Hardship and Child Behavior Problems among Low‐Income Children.” Social Service Review 79:511‐36.
[42]  D. W. Belsky, E. M. Terrie, L.Arseneault, M. Melchior and C. Avshalom, “Context and Sequelae Of Food Insecurity In Children's Development.” American Journal of Epidemiology vol. 172, no. 7, pp. 809‐818, Oct. 2010.
[43]  M. S. Townsend, J.Peerson, L. Bradley, A.A. Cheryl and S. P. Murphy, “Food Insecurity is Positively Related to Overweight in Women.” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, pp. 1738‐1745, 2001.
[44]  L. M. Dinour, D. Bergen, and Y. Ming‐Chin Yeh. 2007. “The Food Insecurity–Obesity Paradox: A Review of the Literature and the Role Food Stamps may Play.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 107, no. 11, pp. 1952‐1961, 2007.
[45]  C. Gundersen, J. L. Brenda, S.Garasky, S. Stewart and J.Eisenmann.”Food Security, Maternal Stressors, and Overweight Among Low‐Income US Children: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002).” Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 529-540, Sept. 2008.
[46]  S.A Block, L. Kiess, P. Webb, S. Kosen, R. Moench-Pfanner, M. W. Bloem, and C. P. Timmer. 2004. “Macro Shocks and Micro Outcomes: Child Nutrition during Indonesia’s Crisis.” Economics and Human Biology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 21-44, 2004.
[47]  T. N. S. Hartini, A. Winkvist, L. Lindholm, H. Stenlund, and A. Surjono, “Food Patterns during an Economic Crisis among Pregnant Women in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia.” Food and Nutrition Bulletiin, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 256-267, 2003.
[48]  M. W. Bloem, S. de Pee and I. Darnton-Hill, “Micronutrient Deficiencies and Maternal Thinness: First Chain in the Sequence of Nutrition and Health Events in Economic Crises.” In Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals, 3rd ed., edited by A. Bendich and R. J. Deckelbaum. Totowa, NJ, US: Humana Press, 2005.
[49]  R. T. Jensen and N. H. Miller, “A Revealed Preference Approach to Measuring Undernutrition and Poverty Using Calorie Shares”. NBER Working Paper 16555. Cambridge, MA, US: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2010.
[50]  M. Ravallion, “Poverty Lines in Theory and Practice”, Washington, D.C., World Bank, LSMS Working Papers No 133, 1998.
[51]  J. O. Lanjouw, “Demystifying Poverty Lines”. Available online at:, 1999.
[52]  S. R. Osmani, “Poverty and Nutrition”, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1991.
[53]  A. Deaton and J. Drèze, “Poverty and Inequality in India: A Re-Examination.” Economic and Political Weekly. Special articles, 3729-3748, 2002.
[54]  D. L. Pelletier, K. Deneke, Y. Kidane, B. Haile and F. Negussie, “The Food-First Bias and Nutrition Policy: Lessons from Ethiopia.” Food Policy, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 279-298, 1995.