Journal of Food Security
ISSN (Print): 2372-0115 ISSN (Online): 2372-0107 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfs Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food Security. 2020, 8(2), 52-65
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-8-2-3
Open AccessArticle

Characterizing Biometrics and Nutrient Profiles of Fillet and Offal Components to Better Utilize Harvests of Invasive Carp in the U.S.

Clay S. Ferguson1, David D. Kuhn1, , Brian R. Murphy2, Sean F. O’Keefe1, Quinton E. Phelps3 and Stephen A. Smith4

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA

2Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA

3Department of Biology, Missouri State, Springfield, Missouri, USA

4Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA

Pub. Date: July 03, 2020

Cite this paper:
Clay S. Ferguson, David D. Kuhn, Brian R. Murphy, Sean F. O’Keefe, Quinton E. Phelps and Stephen A. Smith. Characterizing Biometrics and Nutrient Profiles of Fillet and Offal Components to Better Utilize Harvests of Invasive Carp in the U.S.. Journal of Food Security. 2020; 8(2):52-65. doi: 10.12691/jfs-8-2-3

Abstract

The successful establishment of fisheries for invasive Asian carp (AC) would help alleviate the ecological, societal, and economic bane they impose on natural U.S. waterways, all while supplementing domestic fisheries and addressing food insecurity in high-stress regions. However, fishers of AC and the post-harvest industries lack the economic resiliency needed to self-sustain operations. Providing detailed nutrient compositions and biometric yields of edible and inedible components would strengthen consumer demands and grow supplemental product-revenue streams, all supporting commercial fisheries removal of AC. To incentivize capture and utilization of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), the most abundant of the invasive AC, we addressed this dearth in the literature by characterizing yields and composition of silver carp fillets and offal components (edible portions: head, frame, and trimmings) (non-edible portion: viscera). Mature silver carp collected in late June from the Ohio River (Kentucky, U.S.) were separated into major components, characterized for yields, and then evaluated across length, gender, and body condition to identify trends in biometric data. Detailed nutrient parameters were then characterized for all components. Comparatively low fillet yields (< 20%) whole-weight (w/w) and high offal-component yields of heads (35.8%), frames (23.0%), and trimmings (17.1%) w/w obtained from this post-spawn sample signify ramifications of seasonal harvest and the importance of by-product utilization. Boneless fillets produced the highest proportions of crude protein (93% dry-matter basis), essential amino acids (lysine 8.0% and leucine 6.9% of crude protein), omega-3 fatty acids (18.2% of total lipids), and several important macro minerals. Still, all edible and offal components produced attractive omega-6:omega-3 (< 1.0), which is consistent with nutrient-rich marine finfish. Findings from this study provide information that can be used to increase domestic-consumptive demand and improve the economic resiliency of commercial fisheries charged with controlling the bio-invasion of AC.

Keywords:
silver carp commercial fisheries resource recovery food security

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Fuller, P.L., Nico, L.G., Williams, J.D., “Nonindigenous fishes introduced into inland waters of the United States”, American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 27, Bethesda, MD. 1999.
 
[2]  Kolar, C.S., Chapman, D.C., Courtenay, Jr. W.R., Housel, C.M., Williams, J.D., Jennings, D.P., “Bighead carps- a biological synopsis and environmental risk assessment”, American Fisheries Society. Special Publication 33. Bethesda, MD. August 2007.
 
[3]  Fagan, B., Fishing: How the sea fed civilization, Yale University Press, London, UK, 2017.
 
[4]  FAO, “The state of the world fisheries and aquaculture 2018-meeting the sustainable development goals”, The United Nations, Rome, Italy. 2018. [Online]. Available: http://www.fao.org/documents/card/en/c/I9540EN/.
 
[5]  Freeze, M., Henderson, S., “Distribution and status of bighead carp and silver carp in Arkansas”, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 2(2): 197-200. April 1982.
 
[6]  Shelton, W.L., Smitherman, R.O., Exotic fishes in warm-water aquaculture, Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 1984. 262-301.
 
[7]  Koel, T.M., Irons, K.S., Ratcliff, E., “Asian carp invasion of the upper Mississippi River system”, USGS, La Crosse, Wisconsin, November 2000. [Online]. Available: https://www.umesc.usgs.gov/reports_publications/psrs/psr_2000_05.html.
 
[8]  Williamson, C.J., Garvey, J.E., “Growth, fecundity, and diets of newly established silver carp in the middle Mississippi River”, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 134(6). 1423-1430. November 2005.
 
[9]  Chick, J.H., Gibson-Reinemer, D.K., Soeken-Gittinger, L., Casper, A.F., “Invasive silver carp is empirically linked to declines of native sport fish in the upper Mississippi river system”, Biological Invasions, 22. 723-734. November 2019.
 
[10]  Zhang et al., “Forecasting the impacts of silver and bighead carp on the Lake Erie food web”, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 145(1). 136-162. January 2016.
 
[11]  Irons, K.S., Sass, G.G., McClelland, M.A., Stafford, J.D., “Reduced condition factor of two native fish species coincident with invasion of non-native Asian carps in the Illinois River, U.S.A. Is this evidence for competition and reduced fitness?”, Journal of Fish Biology, 71.258-273. 2007.
 
[12]  ACRCC, “Asian carp action plan for fiscal year 2020”. 2020. [Online]. Available: http://www.asiancarp.us/Documents/2020-Action-Plan.pdf.
 
[13]  Conover, G., Simmonds, R., Whalen, M. (ed), “Management and control plan for bighead, black, grass, and silver carps in the United States”, Asian Carp Working Group, Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, Washington, D.C. November 2007. [Online]. Available: https://www.anstaskforce.gov/Documents/Carps_Management_Plan.pdf.
 
[14]  Charlebois, P., Parks, S., TePas, K., Peterson, M., “Asian carp marketing summit”, Lewis and Clark Community College, Grafton, Illinois. September 2010. [Online]. Available: https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/.
 
[15]  ACRCC, “Asian carp control strategy framework”, 2010. [Online]. Available: https://asiancarp.us/Documents/2010AsianCarpControlStrategyFramework.pdf.
 
[16]  USFWS, “Annual report to congress: annual summary of activities and expenditures to manage the threat of Asian carp in the upper Mississippi and Ohio river basins”, Water resource reform and development act of 2014, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.fws.gov/midwest/fisheries/asian-carp/WRRDA2016.pdf.
 
[17]  United Nations, “World population prospects 2019: highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/423)”, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. New York, U.S., 2019. [Online]. Available: https://population.un.org/wpp/.
 
[18]  FSIN, “2020 Global report on food crisis-joint analysis for better decisions”, The United Nations, Rome, Italy and Washington, D.C. [Online]. 2020. Available: http://fsinplatform.org/.
 
[19]  Richie, H., Rover, M., “Land use”, Our World in Data, September 2019. [Online]. Available: https://ourworldindata.org/land-use.
 
[20]  Foley et al., “Solutions for a cultivated planet”, Nature, 478. 337-342. October 2011.
 
[21]  Naylor, R., “Expanding the boundaries of agricultural development”, Food Security, 3. 233. April 2011.
 
[22]  Gomez et al., “Challenges and opportunities regarding the use of alternative protein sources: Aquaculture and insects”, Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 89. 259-295. 2019.
 
[23]  World Bank, “Fish to 2030-prospects for fisheries and aquaculture”, Agriculture and Environmental Services Discussion Paper 03, Washington, D.C., 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.fao.org/3/i3640e/i3640e.pdf.
 
[24]  Troell et al., “Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(37). 13257-13263. September 2014.
 
[25]  ACRCC, “Asian carp action plan for fiscal year 2019”, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.asiancarp.us/Documents/2019ActionPlan.pdf.
 
[26]  Morgan, M., Ho, Y., “Perception of Asian carp as a possible food source among Missouri anglers”, Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 23(5). 491-498. June 2018.
 
[27]  Varble, S., Secchi, S., "Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US”, Appetite, 65. 58-67. June 2013.
 
[28]  Bowzer, J., Trushenski, J., Glover, D.C., “Potential of Asian carp from the Illinois River as a source of raw materials for fish meal production”, North American Journal of Aquaculture, 75(3). 404-415. June 2013.
 
[29]  Bowzer, J., Trushenski, J., “Growth performance of hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout, and cobia utilizing Asian carp meal‐based aquafeeds”, North American Journal of Aquaculture, 77(1). 59-67. December 2014.
 
[30]  Bowzer, J., Trushenski, J., Rawles, S., Gaylord, T.G., Barrows, F.T., “Apparent digestibility of Asian carp- and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis ♀ × M. chrysops ♂ and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss”, Aquaculture Nutrition, 21(1). 43-53. April 2014.
 
[31]  Okanović et al., “Investigation of grass carp by-products from a fish farm in Vojvodina”, Earth and Environmental Science, 85. 1-4. September 2017.
 
[32]  Buchtová, H., Ježek, F., “A new look at the assessment of the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) as a food fish”, Czech Journal of Food Science, 29. 487-497. 2011.
 
[33]  Ashraf, M., Zafar, A., Rauf, A., Mehboob, S., Qureshi, N.A., “Nutritional values of wild and cultivated silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)”, International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 13(2). 1560-8530. February 2011.
 
[34]  Irons, K., Behnfeldt, G., “Asian carp business process analysis final report and action plan”, Illinois Department of Natural Resources, January 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.ifishillinois.org/programs/AsianCARPReport.pdf.
 
[35]  Upholt, B., “Eating the most hated fish on the Mississippi”, Sierra, November 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/eating-most-hated-fish-mississippi-invasive-asian-carp.
 
[36]  E. Chen, “Intensive method to remove Asian carp finds early success at Creve Coeur Lake”, St. Louis Public Radio. March 2018. [Online]. Available: https://news.stlpublicradio.org/.
 
[37]  EPA, “Food recovery hierarchy”, Sustainable Management of Food, US Department of Interior. [Online]. November 2019. Available: https://www.epa.gov/sustainable-management-food/food-recovery-hierarchy.
 
[38]  Padulosi, S., Thompson, J., Rudebjer, P., “Fighting poverty, hunger and malnutrition with neglected and underutilized species: needs, challenges and the way forward”, Bioversity International, Rome, Italy. 2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.bioversityinternational.org/e- library/publications/detail/fighting-poverty-hunger-and- malnutrition-with-neglected-and-underutilized-species/.
 
[39]  Hunter et al., “The potential of neglected and underutilized species for improving diets and nutrition”, Planta, 250. 709-729. April 2019.
 
[40]  Padulosi, S., Heywood, V., Hunter, D., Jarvis, A., Underutilized species and climate change: current status and outlook: chaper 26, Crop Adaptation to Climate Change, Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, United Kingdom. 2011.
 
[41]  A. Brown, “Asian carp control: protecting our waterways: examining federal efforts to control Asian carp in Kentucky”, US Department of the Interior. Washington, D.C. July 2018.
 
[42]  Jaworski, B., Kohli, A.K., Sahay, A., “Market-driven versus driving markets”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28. 45-54. December 2000.
 
[43]  Snow, G.W., Development of under-utilized species in Atlantic Canada, Seafood Science and Technology, Canadian Institute of Fisheries Technology, Halifax, Canada. 1990.
 
[44]  Masagounder, K., Ramos, S., Reimann, I., Channarayaptna, G., Optimizing nutritional quality of aquafeeds, 1st edn. Academic Press, Waltham, MA. 2015.
 
[45]  Angel, S., Baker, R.C, “A study of the composition of three popular varieties of fish in Israel, with a view towards further processing”, Journal of Food Technology, 12(1). 27-35. June 2007.
 
[46]  Tangendjaja, B. Quality control of feed ingredients for aquaculture, Feed and feeding practices in aquaculture. Woodhead Publishing, Waltham, MA, 2015.
 
[47]  Wolf, M.C., Phelps, Q.E., Seibert, J.R., Tripp, S.J., “A rapid assessment approach for evaluating silver carp gender”, Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 42(6). 1208-1210. 2018.
 
[48]  Phelps, Q.E., Willis, D.W., “Development of an Asian carp size structure index and application through demonstration”, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 33(2). 338-343. March 2013.
 
[49]  Froese, R., “Cube law, condition factor and weight–length relationships: history, meta‐analysis and recommendations”, Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 22(4):241-253. July 2006.
 
[50]  Neumann, R.M., Guy, C.S., Willis, D.W., Length, weight, and associated indices, Fisheries Techniques, 3rd edn. The American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, 2013. 637-676.
 
[51]  Murphy, B.R., Willis, D.W., Springer, T.A., “The relative weight index in fisheries management: status and needs”, Fisheries, 16(2). 30-38. March 1991.
 
[52]  Lamar et al., “Bighead and silver carp hybridization in the Mississippi River Basin: Prevalence, distribution, and post-zygotic selection”. Doctoral dissertation. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 2015.
 
[53]  Hayer, C.A., Graeb, B.D.S., Bertrand, K.N., “Adult, juvenile and young-of-year bighead, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) and silver carp, H. molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) range expansion on the northwestern front of the invasion in North America.” BioInvasions Records, 3(4). 283-289. September 2014.
 
[54]  Folch, J., Lees, M., Sloane Stanley, G.H., “A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues”, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226. 497-509. 1957.
 
[55]  Schulte, E., Gas chromatography of acylglycerols and fatty acids with capillary columns, CRC Handbook of Chromatography, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1993. 139-148.
 
[56]  hristie, W.W., Lipid Analysis, 2nd edn. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1982. 25-38.
 
[57]  Solomon, S.G., Okomoda, V.T., Onah, R.E., “Nutritional profile of soaked Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp. and its utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings”, Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 33(3). 450-457. January 2017
 
[58]  Wright, R.A., “Relative weight: an easy-to-measure index of fish condition”, Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities Cooperative Extension System, September 2002. [Online]. Available: https://www.aces.edu/blog/topics/fisheries/relative-weight-an- easy-to-measure-index-of-fish-condition/.
 
[59]  ORVWSC, “Monthly average stream flows”, Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission. Wilmington, OH. July 2019. [Online]. Available: http://www.orsanco.org/data/flow/.
 
[60]  Bunnell, D.B., Thomas, S.E., Stein, S.E., “Prey resources before spawning influence gonadal investment of female, but not male, white crappie”, Journal of Fish Biology, 70(6). 1838-1854. May 2007.
 
[61]  FAO, “Yield and nutritional value of the commercially more important fish species”, Fisheries Technical Paper No. 309, The United Nations, Rome, Italy. [Online]. 1989.
 
[62]  Thurston, C.E., Stansby, M.E., Karrick, N.L., Miyauchi, D.T., Clegg, W.C., “Composition of certain species of fresh-water fish. II. Comparative data for 21 species of lake and river fish.” Journal of Food Science, 24(5). 493-502. September 1959.
 
[63]  Poulter, N.H., Nicolaides, L., Quality changes in Bolivian freshwater fish species during storage in ice, FAO Fisheries Report No. 317. Rome, Italy. 1985.
 
[64]  Okoniewska, Z., Okoniewski, Z., “Preliminary results of investigations on the weight of commercially useful body parts and chemical composition of plant-feeding fish and carp”, Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, 91:385-401. 1969.
 
[65]  Zugarramurdi, A., Parin, M.A., Lupin, H.M., “Economic engineering applied to the fishery industry”, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 351, Rome, Italy, 1995. [Online]. Available: http://www.fao.org/3/v8490e/V8490E00.HTM.
 
[66]  El-Greisy, Z.A., El-Gamal, A.E., “Monosex production of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus using different does of 17a-methyltestosterone with respect to the degree of sex stability after one year of treatment.” The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 38(1). 59-66. 2012.
 
[67]  Ikape, S.I., Solomon, S.G., “Filleting yield, body characteristics and length weight relationship of four fish species from the lower river Benue Makurdi Nigeria”, Aquatic Research, 1(3).115-126. March 2018.
 
[68]  Mion et al., “Effect of fish length and nutritional condition on the fecundity of distressed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua from the Baltic Sea”, Journal of Fish Biology, 92(4). 1016-1034. February 2018.
 
[69]  Congleton, J.L., Wagner, T., “Blood-chemistry indicators of nutritional status in juvenile salmonids”, Journal of Fish Biology 69(2). 473-490. July 2006.
 
[70]  Neumann, R.M., Murphy, B.R., “Seasonal relationship of relative weight to body composition in white crappie, Pomoxis annularis Rafinesque”, Aquaculture Research, 23(2). 243-251. March 1992.
 
[71]  Brown, M.L., Murphy, B.R., “Relationship of relative weight (Wr) to proximate composition of juvenile striped bass and hybrid striped bass”, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 120(4). 509-518. June 1991.
 
[72]  Shul'man, G.E., Life Cycles of Fish: Physiology and Biochemistry, New York, U.S. 1974.
 
[73]  Simopoulos, A., “The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids”, Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 56(8). 365-379. October 2002.
 
[74]  Wang, Y.J., Miller, L.A., Perren, M., Addis, P.B., “Omega‐3 fatty acids in Lake Superior fish”, Journal of Food Science, 55(1). 71-73. January 1990.
 
[75]  Stansby, M.E., Nutritional properties of fish oil for human consumption-early developments, Fish oils in nutrition, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, U.S., 1990.
 
[76]  Gabelhouse, D.W., “Seasonal changes in body condition of white crappies and relations to length and growth in Melvern Reservoir, Kansas”, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 11(1). 50-56. February 1991.
 
[77]  Liss, S.A., Sass, G.C., Suski, C.D., “Spatial and temporal influences on the physiological condition of invasive silver carp”, Conservation Physiology, 1(1). cot017. July 2013.
 
[78]  Cooper, G.M., The cell: a molecular approach, 2nd edn. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, 2000.
 
[79]  Romano et al., “Influence of diets with varying essential/nonessential amino acid ratios on mouse lifespan”, Nutrients, 11(6):1367. June 2019.
 
[80]  Cheung, P.J., Nigrelli, R.F., Ruggieri, G.D., Gold, K., Baiardi, J.C., “Fish as models for Hemosiderosis”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 344(1). 336-351. May 1980.
 
[81]  Rajkowska, M., Protasowicki, M., “Distribution of metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) in fish tissues in two lakes of different trophy in Northwestern Poland”, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185.3493-3502. August 2012.
 
[82]  Rogowski et al., “Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois rivers”, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 157. 211-222. October 2008.
 
[83]  Cui, L., Ge, J., Zhu, Y., Yang, Y., Wang, J., “Concentrations, bioaccumulation, and human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in edible fish from Wuhan, China”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research 22.15866-15879. June 2015.
 
[84]  Mohanty et al., “Amino acid compositions of 27 food fishes and their importance in clinical nutrition”, Journal of Amino Acids, October 2014.
 
[85]  Wang et al., “Glycine metabolism in animals and humans: implications for nutrition and health”, Amino Acids, 45. 463-477. April 2013.
 
[86]  Bentley, J., Kantor, L., “Food availability (per capita) data system”, United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-availability-per-capita-data-system/.
 
[87]  Bloomingdale et al., “A qualitative study of fish consumption during pregnancy”, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 92(5). 1234-1240. November 2010.