Journal of Food Security
ISSN (Print): 2372-0115 ISSN (Online): 2372-0107 Website: Editor-in-chief: Monideepa Becerra
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food Security. 2019, 7(1), 1-7
DOI: 10.12691/jfs-7-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Household Food Security among Different Wealth Groups within Uyo Metropolis in Southern Nigeria

Opara Dominica C1 and Johnson Ofonime E2,

1Department of Community Health, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

2Department of Community Health, University of Uyo/ University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria

Pub. Date: January 06, 2019

Cite this paper:
Opara Dominica C and Johnson Ofonime E. Household Food Security among Different Wealth Groups within Uyo Metropolis in Southern Nigeria. Journal of Food Security. 2019; 7(1):1-7. doi: 10.12691/jfs-7-1-1


Studies done in various states in Nigeria have shown alarming rates of food insecurity among the population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of household food insecurity among different wealth groups in Uyo metropolis, in southern Nigeria and to determine compensatory feeding patterns engaged in by studied food insecure households. This was a cross sectional descriptive study carried out among 249 households of different wealth groups based on the occupational status and educational attainment of the household heads. Data was collected using interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 20 with a 0.05 level of significance. The prevalence of food insecurity among surveyed households was 89.9% with food insecure 26.5% (without hunger), 30.5% (moderate hunger) and 32.9% (severe hunger). Marital status, socioeconomic class, household size and household income all had statistically significant relationships with food security status (p<0.05). Those in socioeconomic class-1 were the most food secure (23.8%), while 63.6%, and 36.4% of households in socioeconomic class-5 were food insecure with moderate hunger and severe hunger respectively. Up to 36.4% of those with a household size of >7 suffered food insecurity with severe hunger. Regarding household income, 48.9% of households with income less than 50,000 naira per month, were food insecure with severe hunger (p<0.05). Coping strategies engaged in by food insecure households included borrowing money from friends, 33.7%, collecting food from friends 26.1% and sending children to work, 8.8%. There was high prevalence of food insecurity among studied households. It is recommended that better educational opportunities be made available to those of the low socioeconomic class, so as to ensure gainful employment. Minimum wage in Nigeria should be increased to ensure increased household income.

household food security household food insecurity wealth groups household income coping strategies

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  FAO/WHO. Proceedings of the international conference on nutrition. Rome, 1992.
[2]  FAO. Rome declaration on food security and world food summit plan of action: the state of food insecurity in the world. Rome, 1996.
[3]  Adekoya A. E. Food insecurity and coping strategies among rural households in Oyo state, Nigeria. Journal of food agriculture and environment; 7(3 &4): 187-191, 2009.
[4]  Bickel, G., Nord, M., Price, C., Hamilton, W and Cook, J. Measuring food security in the United States: guide to measuring household food security, Alexandria, VA, US department of agriculture, 2000.
[5]  Max R. and Hannah R. Hunger and undernourishment. Published online at 2018. Retrieved from
[6]  Ubokudom O. O., Namso N. F., Egbe B. E., kesit k. N. Household food security status and its determinants among rural farmers in Akwa Ibom state Nigeria. Agricultural Science Research Journal ;7 (10): 297-303, 2017
[7]  Arene C. J. and Anyaeji R. C. Determinants of food security among households in Nsukka metropolis of Enugu state, Nigeria. Pakistan journal of social sciences; 30(1): 9-116, 2010.
[8]  The World Bank. Poverty. 2018. Retrieved from
[9]  Oyebanjo, O., Ambali, O. I and Akerele, E. O. Determinants of food security status and incidence of food insecurity among rural farming households in Ijebu division of Ogun state Nigeria. Journal of agricultural science and environment; 13: 92-103, 2013.
[10]  Adepoju, A. O. and Adejare, F. E. Food insecurity status of rural households during the post-planting season in Nigeria. Journal of agriculture and sustainability; 4 (1): 16-35, 2013.
[11]  Mensah E, Lal A, Guerrero B. L. and Lust D. G. Agriculture and the state of food insecurity in Western Africa. Selected paper presentation at Southern agricultural economics association 48th annual meeting, San Antonio Texas, 2016.
[12]  Akinyele, I. O. Ensuring food and nutrition security in rural Nigeria; an assessment of the challenges, information needs and analytical capacity. Nigeria strategy support program (NSSP) background paper no nssp 007. International research institute Washington DC, 2009.
[13]  Etim P. Towards achieving food security in Akwa Ibom state. Hyperstation. ,2015. Retrieved from
[14]  Fakayode, S. B., Rahji, M. A., Oni, O. A. and Adeyemi, M. O. An assessment of food security situations of farm households in Nigeria: a USDA approach. The social sciences; 4(1): 24-29, 2009.
[15]  Global hunger index. Global hunger index by severity, 2017. Retrieved from
[16]  Ajani, S. R., Badejo, C. A. and Yusuf, B. O.Measuring household food insecurity in selected local governmentareas of Lagos and Ibadan, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition; 5 (1): 62-67, 2006.
[17]  Omotesho, O. A. and Muhammad-Lawal, A. Optimal food plan for rural households’ food security in Kwara state, Nigeria: the goal programming approach. Journal of agricultural biotechnology and sustainable development; 2(1):7-14, 2010.
[18]  Jyoti, D. F., Frongillo, E. A. and Jones, S. J. Food insecurity affects school children’s academic performance, weight gain, and social skills. Journal of nutrition; 135(12): 2831-283, 2005.
[19]  Stuff, J. E., Casey, P. H., Szeto, K. L., Gossett, J. M., Robbins, J. M., and Simpson, P. M., et al. Household food insecurity is associated with adult health status. Journal of nutrition; 134(9): 2330-2335, 2004.
[20]  Matheson, D. M., Varady, J., Varady, A and Killen, J. D. Household food security and nutritional status of Hispanic children in the fifth grade. Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 76(1): 210-217, 2002.
[21]  Ibok O. W., Idiong C. I., Itoro N. B., Iniobong I. O., and Uwemedimo E. O. Analysis of food insecurity status of urban food crop farming households in cross river state Nigeria: a USDA approach. Journal of agricultural science; 6(2): 201-204, 2014.
[22]  Ekpenyong R. E. An assessment of the threats to food security in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria, 2016. Retrieved from
[23]  Opara D. C. and Madukosiri H. C. Food security and outlook on life by undergraduates and post graduate students of the University of Uyo. Journal of nursing and health science; 5(5) version 11: 71-80, 2016.
[24]  Brinkhoff, T. Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria. City population- statistics, maps and charts, 2017. Retrieved from
[25]  Nigeria galleria. Business economy of Akwa Ibom state, 2017. Retrieved from
[26]  Sekhampu, T. Determination of factors affecting the food security status of households in Bophelong, South Africa. International Business and Economics Research Journal (IBER; 12(5): 543-550. 2013.
[27]  Nyako, A.M. The relationship between educational attainment and food security in Nigeria. Digitalgeorgetown, 2013. Retrieved from
[28]  Ezeama N. N., Christian I., Adinma E., Emelumadu O., and Adogu P. Coping with household food insecurity: perspectives of mothers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Journal of food security; 3(6): 145-54, 2015.
[29]  Shuaibu H., Abdullahi A., Ango A. K., Yusuf H. A., Sulaiman R., and Bello M. (2015). Food security and coping strategies of selected villages along river Rima affected by flood in Sokoto state, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics and Sociology; 6(2):77-84, 2015.
[30]  Akerele, D., Momoh, S., Aromolaran A., and Shittu A.. Food insecurity and coping strategies in the South-west in Nigeria. Food Security; 5(3): 407-414, 2013.
[31]  Johnson O. E. and Ihesie C. A. Social implications and factors associated with street hawking among children in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioral Science. 11(2):1-9, 2015.
[32]  Bukoye R. O. Prevalence and consequences of street begging among adults and children in Nigeria, Suleja metropolis. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences; 171: 323-333, 2015.