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Article

Concurrent Accumulation of Myricetin and Gallic Acid Putatively Responsible for the Umami Taste of a Specialized Old Oolong Tea

1Department of Chemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C

2Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C

3Taichung Hospital Department of Health, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C

4Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan, R.O.C

5School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C

6School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C;Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013, 1(6), 164-173
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-8
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Feng-Yin Li, Wei-Hung Yang, Chi-I Chang, Sin-Jie Lee, Chih-Chien Hung, Ying-Jie Chen, Tzyy-Rong Jinn, Jason T.C. Tzen. Concurrent Accumulation of Myricetin and Gallic Acid Putatively Responsible for the Umami Taste of a Specialized Old Oolong Tea. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013; 1(6):164-173. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-8.

Correspondence to: Jason  T.C. Tzen, Department of Chemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C. Email: tctzen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; jinn@mail.cmu.edu.tw

Abstract

Strong umami taste was perceived in a specialized old oolong tea reproducibly converted from a fresh oolong tea by fierce baking biannually for five years. Phenolic compounds in this umami tea and those in an initial fresh oolong tea were analyzed and compared. The results implied that the abundant catechin derivatives and flavonol glycosides were significantly reduced while three compounds were evidently accumulated after the tea conversion. These three compounds were chemically identified as gallic acid and two correlated flavonols, myricetin and quercetin. Molecular modeling suggested that myricetin and gallic acid might serve as ligand and enhancer to activate the umami receptor synergistically. Binary docking of myricetin and gallic acid induced the gate closure of the binding cavity in the umami receptor, in a manner similar to that of glutamate and its enhancer, inosine 5′-monophosphate. Regardless the induced fitness, the detailed molecular interactions between these two sets of binary components and the receptor were drastically different. In this binary docking modeling for umami taste, myricetin could not be equivalently replaced with any of the major tea phenolic compounds.

Keywords

References

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Article

Shifts in Bacterial Community Compositions during in vitro Fermentation of Amylopectin and Resistant Starch by Colonic Inocula of Pigs

1Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, P. R. China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013, 1(6), 156-163
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-7
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xiaolin Jiang, Bo Li, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu. Shifts in Bacterial Community Compositions during in vitro Fermentation of Amylopectin and Resistant Starch by Colonic Inocula of Pigs. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013; 1(6):156-163. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-7.

Correspondence to: Yong  Su, Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, P. R. China. Email: yong.su@njau.edu.cn

Abstract

Starch, which escapes the digestion of the small intestine in humans and animals, may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation in the hindgut. This study aimed to compare the fermentation characteristics of amylopectin and resistant starch by the colonic microbiota of pigs, and also to reveal the shifts in bacterial community compositions during the fermentation. Two types of resistant starch (RS2 and RS4) and amylopectin were used as substances in an in vitro fermentation test. As compared with resistant starch, amylopectin was more fermentable by colonic microbiota, while RS4 used in this study showed very poor fermentation characteristics. Fermentation of amylopectin produced more short-chain fatty acids with a higher propionate proportion and a lower butyrate proportion. Lactate was produced in the early period of amylopectin and RS2 fermentation but consumed entirely at the end of fermentation. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the abundance of Firmicutes decreased significantly along with the increase of Bacteroidetes during the fermentation of amylopectin and RS2. In particular, Bacteroides spp. (such as Bacteroides vulgatus and B. uniformis) became predominant in the bacterial community. These results suggest that Bacteroides spp. may play important roles in the degradation of starch in the pig hindgut.

Keywords

References

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Article

Inter Annual and Seasonal Dynamics in Amino Acid, Vitamin and Mineral Composition of Sardinella longiceps

1Marine Biotechnology Division, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Ernakulam North P.O., Kerala, India


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013, 1(6), 145-155
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-6
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Kajal Chakraborty, Deepu Joseph, Selsa Jose Chakkalakal, Koyadan Kizhakedath Vijayan. Inter Annual and Seasonal Dynamics in Amino Acid, Vitamin and Mineral Composition of Sardinella longiceps. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013; 1(6):145-155. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-6.

Correspondence to: Kajal  Chakraborty, Marine Biotechnology Division, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Ernakulam North P.O., Kerala, India. Email: kajal_cmfri@yahoo.com

Abstract

Sardinella longiceps were studied for the spatial (south west (SW) and southeast (SE) coast of India), annual (2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011) and seasonal (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) variations of protein, amino acids, minerals and vitamins. The chlorophyll-a concentration and sea surface temperature of its habitats were taken into account to understand their effect on the nutrient signatures of oil sardine throughout the study period and locations. Mean protein content attained its maximum during pre-monsoon along both SW and SE coasts, with high proportions of essential amino acids. Essential to non-essential amino acid ratio, total aromatic (TArAA) and total sulfated amino acids (TSAA) recorded monsoon maxima along the study locations. Amino acid scores observed monsoon and post-monsoon maxima along the SW and SE coast, respectively. Minerals were significantly higher during monsoon along the SE coast (P<0.05). Significant seasonal variations in vitamin content were observed along the study locations with high vitamin A, D3 and C on SW coast and higher vitamin E and K in SE coast. The present study demonstrated Sardinella longiceps as a valuable source of the protein, amino acids, minerals and vitamins. A reasonably good ratio of essential to nonessential amino acids for oil sardines was recorded throughout different study period and locations, and therefore it can be concluded that this low-value species is an excellent source of good balanced proteins with high-biological value to be qualified as a preferred health food for human diet.

Keywords

Article

Comparison the Chemical and Functional Properties of Protein Hydrolysates from Different Mature Degree Hawk Teas

1College of Life and Basic Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya’an, China

2College of Resources and Environmental Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013, 1(6), 138-144
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-5
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xuejing Jia, Chunbang Ding, Lihua Dong, Shu Yuan, Zhongwei Zhang, Yanger Chen, Ming Yuan. Comparison the Chemical and Functional Properties of Protein Hydrolysates from Different Mature Degree Hawk Teas. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013; 1(6):138-144. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-5.

Correspondence to: Ming  Yuan, College of Life and Basic Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya’an, China. Email: yuanmingsicau@126.com

Abstract

Hawk tea is one of the most popular beverage in southwest of China. In the present study, the effects of alkaline protease on the formation and characteristics of protein hydrolysates from different mature degree Hawk teas were investigated. For antioxidant activity in vitro, Hawk mature leaf tea protein hydrolysates (MPH) had the strongest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power. And MPH also showed the highest iron chelating activity among the three samples. With regard to functional property, MPH and Hawk primary leaf tea protein hydrolysates (PPH) had higher solubility than that of Hawk bud tea protein hydrolysates (BPH). And the same trend was found in emulsifying property. The amino acid composition of MPH, PPH and BPH was very dissimilar. MPH and PPH mainly contained low molecular weight peptides, while BPH majorly included high molecular weight peptides. MPH may have potential applications in food industries as natural antioxidants.

Keywords

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Article

Changes in Antioxidant Activity and Antioxidative Compounds of Brown Rice after Pre-germination

1Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

2Bureau of Rice Research and Development, Rice Department, Bangkok, Thailand


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013, 1(6), 132-137
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-4
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Sittidet Yodpitak, Phumon Sookwong, Pakinee Akkaravessapong, Sugunya Wongpornchai. Changes in Antioxidant Activity and Antioxidative Compounds of Brown Rice after Pre-germination. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013; 1(6):132-137. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-4.

Correspondence to: Sugunya  Wongpornchai, Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Email: scismhth@chiangmai.ac.th

Abstract

Effect of pre-germination on antioxidant activity and quantity of some antioxidative compounds of a set of different types of brown rice was investigated. Quantification of these antioxidative compounds by GC-MS and LC-ESI-MS revealed that the contents of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanols, as well as some simple phenolic and heterocyclic compounds increased in all rice samples in the same range after the pre-germination process. Differences in variety, growing location, and amylose content of the rice samples had little effect on these chemical alterations. The findings in this work indicate that the pre-germination process is an effective economical procedure to improve nutritional benefits of rice grain as being a functional food product.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effect of Whey Protein Concentrate and Cornstarch on Chemical, Rheological and Sensorial Properties of White Feta Cheese

1Department of Food science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013, 1(6), 128-131
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
A. Tashakori, S.A. Yasini-Ardakani, M. Daneshi. Effect of Whey Protein Concentrate and Cornstarch on Chemical, Rheological and Sensorial Properties of White Feta Cheese. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013; 1(6):128-131. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-3.

Correspondence to: A.  Tashakori, Department of Food science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran. Email: amintashakori67@gmail.com

Abstract

This study examined the effect of whey protein concentrate and cornstarch on the chemical, rheological, and sensorial properties of feta cheese. Four combinations were tested: C (control; no additive), A (1.5% cornstarch), B (1.5% whey protein concentrate), AB (0.75% cornstarch and 0.75% whey protein concentrate).Sampling was done at 3, 7, 14, 28 days after production and sensory testing was performed 28 day after production. All treatments exhibited significant differences in sensory (flavor, appearance, overallacceptance), chemical (acidity, pH, dry matter, lactic and acetic acid content), and rheological properties (p< 0.05). Results showed positive effects from these two components on cheese properties. The addition of either cornstarch whey protein or a mixture of them increased dry matter in the cheese samples. The addition of whey protein increased lactic and acetic acid and softness. The mixture of whey protein concentrate and cornstarch scored the highest grade on the sensorial evaluation.

Keywords

References

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Article

Effect of Food Preparation Technique on Antioxidant Activity and Plant Pigment Content in Some Vegetables Species

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Nis Nis, Serbia


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013, 1(6), 121-127
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Violeta Mitic, Vesna Stankov Jovanovic, Marija Dimitrijevic, Jelena Cvetkovic, Gordana Stojanovic. Effect of Food Preparation Technique on Antioxidant Activity and Plant Pigment Content in Some Vegetables Species. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013; 1(6):121-127. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-2.

Correspondence to: Violeta  Mitic, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Nis Nis, Serbia. Email: violetamitic@yahoo.com

Abstract

Effect of food preparation technique on antioxidant activity and plant pigment content in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, white cabbage, kale, chard, spinach and garden patience were studied. The highest content of chlorophyll a was detected in garden patience (0.837 mg/g f.v.) and the lowest was in brussels sprout (0.047 mg/g f.v.), while chlorophyll b and carotenoid content was lower. Boiling had influence on pigment content in selected vegetables. Different food preparation technique showed influence on antioxidant activity of vegetables extracts. Boiled vegetables extracts showed highest antioxidant activity, which indicates that valuable phytochemicals remains in water during cooking process. Highest reducing power is detected for frozen garden patience extract (16.775 AAE/10 g f.v.), while DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays showed highest antioxidant activities for boiled and microwave cooked vegetables. Correlations among antioxidant activities based on ABTS, DPPH, FRAP and TRP assays were positively high and r ranged between 0.68 and 0.99.

Keywords

References

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Article

Relations between Psychographic and Descriptive Features Conditioning Nutritional Behaviours

1Economics Department, Information Technology and Management, Rzeszow, Poland

2Finance Department, Cracow University of Economics, Cracow, Poland


Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013, 1(6), 113-120
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Izabela Cichocka, Tadeusz Grabiński. Relations between Psychographic and Descriptive Features Conditioning Nutritional Behaviours. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013; 1(6):113-120. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-1.

Correspondence to: Izabela  Cichocka, Economics Department, Information Technology and Management, Rzeszow, Poland. Email: icichocka@wsiz.rzeszow.pl

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to draw up a description of the Polish consumer via psychographic variables determining his nutritional habits and to define the relationship between descriptive and psychographic determinants for consumer behaviours. Such psychographic features were chosen: personality (measured by susceptibility to marketing influences and nutritional knowledge); beliefs (as concern for one's health and the attitude towards the general health of one's diet); ability to identify risks (understood as a feeling of food risk and nutrition risk) and innovativeness (described with food neophobia).

Keywords

References

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