Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2018, 6(12), 760-766
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-6-12-6
Open AccessArticle

The Changes in Goat Milk during Heating and Storage after Milking

Damla Yanmış1, and Hayri Coşkun1

1Department of Food Engineering, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey

Pub. Date: December 25, 2018

Cite this paper:
Damla Yanmış and Hayri Coşkun. The Changes in Goat Milk during Heating and Storage after Milking. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2018; 6(12):760-766. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-6-12-6


In this study, it was aimed to investigate the changes in goat milk after heating at different temperatures and during storage in different packaging materials. For this purpose, milks obtained from a farm producing goat milk in Bolu in Turkey were divided into two groups, the first group was pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min and the second group at 95°C for 5 min. Each group of pasteurized milk samples was again divided into two groups and filled into transparent and brown bottles. Samples were taken before and after heat treatments to reveal the effect of heating, and also on 0th, 5th and 10th days of storage period (at +4°C) to determine storage effect. The results showed that heat treatment caused increases in dry matter values of goat milk samples (P<0.05). On the contrast, heat treatment had no effect on the values of fat, acidity, viscosity and vitamins significantly (P>0.05). Heating the milk samples by High Pasteurization method resulted with significantly high values of sedimentation. Besides hydroxymethylfurfural, nonenzymatic browning compounds and L* values increased as the heating value increased. The acidity values of the samples increased during storage (P<0.05). The hydroxymethylfurfural and nonenzymatic browning compounds values of the Low Pasteurized and High Pasteurized milk samples were differed from each other (P<0.05) while the packaging materials and the storage time were had no significant effect (P>0.05). Also, sedimentation and L* values were affected during storage (P<0.05).

goat milk heating storage

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Ataşoğlu, C., Uysal-Pala, Ç. and Karagül-Yüceer, Y., “Changes in milk fatty acid composition of goats during lactation in a semi-intensive production system”, Archiv Tierzucht, 6. 627-636. 2009.
[2]  Gomes, J.J.L., Duarte, A.M., Batista, A.S.M., Figueiredo, R.M.F., Sousa, E.P., Souza, E.L. and Queiroga, R.C.R., “Physicochemical and sensory properties of fermented dairy beverages made with goat’s milk, cow’s milk and a mixture of the two milks”, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 54. 18-24. 2013.
[3]  Domagala, J., “Instrumental texture, syneresis and microstructure of yoghurts prepared from goat, cow and sheep milk” International Journal of Food Properties, 12. 605-615. 2009.
[4]  Küçükçetin, A., Demir, M., Asçi, A. and Çomak, E.M., “Graininess and roughness of stirred yoghurt made with goat’s, cow’s or a mixture of goat’s and cow’s milk”, Small Ruminant Research, 96. 173-177. 2011.
[5]  Metin, M., Süt teknolojisi sütün bileşimi ve işlenmesi. Ege Üniversitesi Basımevi, Bornova, Türkiye, 2014.
[6]  Demirci, M., Şimşek, O., Süt İşleme Teknolojisi. Hasad Yayıncılık, İstanbul, Türkiye, 1997.
[7]  Lewis, M.J., Improvements in the Pasteurisation and Sterilisation of Milk, In: Dairy Processing Improving Quality, Smit G (chief ed), Woodhead Publishing, CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, 2003.
[8]  Vassila, E., Badekaa, A., Kondylib, E., Savvaidisa, I. and Kontominasa, M.G., “Chemical and microbiological changes in fluid milk as affected by packaging conditions”, International Dairy Journal, 12. 715-722. 2002.
[9]  Moyssiadi, T., Badekaa, A., Kondylib, E., Vakirtzic, T., Savvaidisa, I. and Kontominasa, M.G., “Effect of light transmittance and oxygen permeability of various packaging materials on keeping quality of low fat pasteurized milk: chemical and sensorial aspects” International Dairy Journal, 14. 429-436. 2004.
[10]  Khan, I.T., Nadeem, M., Imran, M., Ayaz, M., Ajmal, M., Ellahi, M.Y. and Khalique, A., “Antioxidant capacity and fatty acids characterization of heat treated cow and buffalo milk” Lipids in Health and Disease, 16. 163. 2017.
[11]  Akyüz, N., “İnek sütünde vitamin A seviyesine yemin, mevsim ve coğrafik bölgenin, ırkın, laktasyonunun elektromanyetik radyasyonun ısının ve depolamanın tesiri”, Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 4(7). 181-191. 1976.
[12]  Asadullah, K.N., Tarar, O.M., Ali, S.A., Jamil, K. and Begum, A., “Study to evaluate the impact of heat treatment on water soluble vitamins in milk”, J. Pak. Med. Assoc., 60. 909-912. 2010.
[13]  Bayoumi, E.S., Abbau von thiamin wahrend des ultrahocherhitzens von vollmich, dissertation christian. AlbrechtsUniversitgt, Kiel, 1981.
[14]  Bayoumi, E.S. and Reuter, H., “Destruction of vitamin B1 during uht treatment of milk”, Milchwissenschaft, 35(5). 278-279. 1980.
[15]  Görner, F. and Uherova, R., “Vitamin changes in ultra-high temperature sterilised milk during storage”, Nahrung, 24(4/5). 373-379. 1980.
[16]  Haddad, G.S. and Loewenstein, M., “Effect of several heat treatments and frozen storage on thiamine, riboflavin, and ascorbic acid content of milk”, Journal of Dairy Science, 66(8). 1601-1606. 1983.
[17]  Horak, F.P. and Kessler, H.G., “Die farbmessung ais ındikator hitzebehandelter lebensmittel am beispiel von milchprodukten”, Z Lebensm Technol Verfahrenstech, 32. 180-184. 1981.
[18]  Kisza, J., Batura, K., Kruk, A. (1966). Int. Milohw., Kongr., EIF, 91.
[19]  Kwok, K., Shiu, Y., Yeung, C.H. and Niranjan, K., “Effect of thermal processing on available lysine, thiamine and riboflavin content in soymilk” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 77. 478-478. 1998.
[20]  Lechner, E. and Kiermeier, F., “Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid content of milk”, Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung, 141. 23-29. 1969.
[21]  MacDonald, L.E., Brett, J., Kelton, D, Majowıcz, S.E, Snedeker, K. and Sargeant, J.M., “A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of pasteurization on milk vitamins, and evidence for raw milk consumption and other health-related outcomes”, Journal of Food Protection, 74(11). 1814-1832. 2011.
[22]  Michlová, T., Dragounová, H., Horníčková, S. and Hejtmánková, A., “Factors ınfluencing the content of vitamins a and e in sheep and goat milk”, Czech J. Food Science, 33(1). 58-65. 2015.
[23]  Moltó-Puigmartí, C., Permanyer, M., Castellote, A.I. and López-Sabater, M.C., “Effects of pasteurisation and high-pressure processing on vitamin c, tocopherols and fatty acids in mature human milk”, Food Chemistry, 124. 697-702. 2011.
[24]  Şahin, M. and Kurdal, E., “Farklı sıcaklıklarda pastörize edilen sütlerde thiamin ve riboflavin değişimi üzerine bir araştırma”, Gıda ve Yem Bilimi-Teknolojisi, 2. 27-30. 2002.
[25]  Scott, K.J., Bishop, D.R., Zechalko, A. and Edwards-Webb, J.D., “Nutrient content of liquid milk: II. content of vitamin C, riboflavin, folic acid, thiamin, vitamins B12 and B6 in pasteurized milk as delivered to the home and after storage in the domestic refrigerator”, Journal of Dairy Research, 51(1). 51-57. 1984.
[26]  Sierra, I. and Vidal-Valverde, C., “Vitamin B1 and B6 retention in milk after continuous-flow microwave and conventional heating at high temperatures”, Journal of Food Protection, 64(6). 890-894. 2001.
[27]  Walstra, P., Wouters, J.T.M., Geurts, T.J., Dairy Science and technology, 2nd ed. Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 2006.
[28]  Zoeren-Grobben, D.V.,Schrijver, J., Van Den Berg, H. and Berger, H.M., “Human milk vitamin content after pasteurisation, storage, or tube feding”, Archives of Disease in Childhood, 62. 161-165. 1987.
[29]  Güneşer, O. and Karagul-Yuceer, Y., “Effect of ultraviolet light on water- and fat-soluble vitamins in cow and goat milk”, Journal of Dairy Science, 11(95). 6230-6241. 2012.
[30]  Morales, F.J. and Jiménez-Pérez, S., “HMF formation during heat treatment of milk-type products as related to milkfat content”, Journal of Food Science, 64(5). 855-859. 1999.
[31]  Schamberger, G.P. and Labuza, T.P., “Evaluation of front‐face fluorescence for assessing thermal processing of milk”, Journal of Food Science, 71(2). C69-C74. 2006.
[32]  Metin, M., Süt ve mamülleri analiz yöntemleri. Ege Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Yayınları, İzmir, 2008.
[33]  Katsiari, M.S., Voutsinas, L.P. and Kondyli, E., “Manufacture of yoghurt from stored frozen sheep’s milk” Food Chemistry, 77(4). 413-420. 2002.
[34]  Guingamp, M.F., Humbert, G., Midon, P., Nicolas, M. and Linden, G. “Screening procedure for evaluating beat load in commercial milks”, Elsevier, 79. 457-463. 1999.
[35]  Sanchez-Machado, D.I., Lopez-Hernandez, J. and Paseiro-Losada, P., “High performance liquid chromatographic determination of α-tocopherol in macroalgae”, J. Chromatogr,. 976. 277-284. 2002.
[36]  Albala-Hurtado, S., Veciana-Nogues, M.T., Izquierdo-Pulido, M. and Vidal-Carou, M.C., “Determination of free and total furfural compounds in infant milk formulas by high-performance liquid chromatography”, J. Agric. Food Chem., 45. 2121-2133. 1997.
[37]  Tumerman, L., Fram, H. and Cornely, K.W., “The effect of lactose crystallization on protein stability in frozen concentrated milk”, Journal of Dairy Science, 37(7). 830-839. 1954.
[38]  Yaman, H. and Coşkun, H., “Optimization of production technology of kes for pasta”, Indian J Dairy Sci., 70 (2). 167-177. 2017.
[39]  El-Hatmi, H., Jrad, Z., Salhi, I., Aguibi, A., Nadri, A. and Khorchani, T., “Comparison of composition and whey protein fractions of human, camel, donkey, goat and cow milk” Mljekarstvo, 65(3). 159-167. 2015.
[40]  Walstra, P., Geurts, T.J., Noomen, A., Jellema, A., Van Boekel, M.A.J.S., Dairy technology, Marcel Dekkel, New York, ABD, 1999.
[41]  Güler, Z. and Park, Y.W., “Evaluation of chemical and color index characteristics of goat milk, ıts yoghurt and salted yoghurt”, Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 11. 37 - 39. 2009.
[42]  Popov-Raljić, J.V., Lakić, N.S., Laličić-Petronijević, J.G., Barać, M.B. and Sikimić, V.M., “Color changes of uht milk during storage”, Sensors, 8(9). 5961-5974. 2008.
[43]  Muehlhoff, E., Bennet, A., McMahon, D., Milk and dairy products in human nutrition. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, 2013.
[44]  Li, D. and Wu, D., “Effect of storage temperature on the quality of glass bottled pasteurized whole milk”, Agricultural Science & Technology, 18(5). 948-951. 2017.
[45]  Fonseca, C.R., Bordin, K., Fernandes, A.M., Rodrigues, C.E.C., Corassin, C.H., Cruz, A.G. and Oliveira, C.A.F., “Storage of refrigerated raw goat milk affecting the quality of whole milk powder”, J. Dairy Sci., 96. 4716-4724. 2013.
[46]  Kilshaw, P.J., Heppell, L.M.J. and Ford, J.E., “Effects of heat treatment of cows' milk and whey on the nutritional quality and antigenic properties”, Archives of Disease in Childhood, 57. 842-847. 1982.
[47]  Gürsel, A. and Bozbay, E., “Keçi sütünün farklı yöntemlerle muhafazası”, Gıda, 26(3). 209-220. 2001.
[48]  Vidal-Valverde, C., Ruiz, R. and Medrano, A., “Effects of frozen and other storage conditions on α tocopherol content of cow milk”, Journal of Dairy Science, 76(6). 1520-1525. 1993.
[49]  Ramsey, J.A. and Swartzel, K.R., “Effect of ultra high temperature processing and storage conditions on rates of sedimentation and fat separation of aseptically packaged milk”, Journal of Food Science, 49. 257-262. 1984.
[50]  Winder, W.C., “Physical-chemical stability of frozen whole and concentrated milks”, Journal of Dairy Science, 45(8). 1024-1027. 1962.
[51]  Doan, F.J. and Baldwin, F.B., “Observations on the freezing of milk and cream II. the destruction of the fat emulsion in frozen cream”, Journal of Dairy Science, 19(4). 225-233. 1936.
[52]  Akbulut Pınar, B., UHT sütün yağ içeriği ve depolama sıcaklığının maillard tepkime kinetiği üzerine etkisi, Ankara Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Gıda Mühendisliği Anabilim Dalı Doktora Tezi, Ankara, Türkiye, 2009.
[53]  Brands, C.M.J. and Van Boekel, M.A.J.S., “Reactions of monosaccharides during heating of sugar−casein systems:  building of a reaction network model”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49 (10). 4667-4675. 2001.
[54]  Engin, B., Güneşer, O. and Karagül Yüceer, Y., “Ultraviyole ışınlarının sütün mikrobiyal özellikleri üzerine etkisi”, Gıda, 34 (5). 303-308. 2009.
[55]  Keeney, M. and Bassette, R., “Detection of ıntermediate compounds in the early stages of browning reaction in milk products”, Journal of Dairy Science, 42(6). 945-960. 1959.
[56]  Saffert, A., Pieper, G. and Jetten, J., “Effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of pasteurized whole milk”, Packaging Technology and Science, 19(4). 211-218. 2006.
[57]  Tremonte, P., Tipaldi, L., Succi, M., Pannella, G., Falasca, L., Capilongo, V., Coppola, R. and Sorrentino, E., “Raw milk from vending machines: effects of boiling, microwave treatment, and refrigeration on microbiological quality”, J Dairy Sci., 97(6). 3314-20. 2014.
[58]  Turgut, T., Çakmakçı, S., “Pastörize sütlerde B2 vitamininin tahrip olması üzerine ışık kaynağı, ışık şiddeti ve muhafaza süresinin etkisi”, Gıda, 28(5). 461-465. 2003.