Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013, 1(6), 132-137
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-4
Open AccessArticle

Changes in Antioxidant Activity and Antioxidative Compounds of Brown Rice after Pre-germination

Sittidet Yodpitak1, Phumon Sookwong1, Pakinee Akkaravessapong2 and Sugunya Wongpornchai1,

1Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

2Bureau of Rice Research and Development, Rice Department, Bangkok, Thailand

Pub. Date: November 24, 2013

Cite this paper:
Sittidet Yodpitak, Phumon Sookwong, Pakinee Akkaravessapong and Sugunya Wongpornchai. Changes in Antioxidant Activity and Antioxidative Compounds of Brown Rice after Pre-germination. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2013; 1(6):132-137. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-1-6-4

Abstract

Effect of pre-germination on antioxidant activity and quantity of some antioxidative compounds of a set of different types of brown rice was investigated. Quantification of these antioxidative compounds by GC-MS and LC-ESI-MS revealed that the contents of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanols, as well as some simple phenolic and heterocyclic compounds increased in all rice samples in the same range after the pre-germination process. Differences in variety, growing location, and amylose content of the rice samples had little effect on these chemical alterations. The findings in this work indicate that the pre-germination process is an effective economical procedure to improve nutritional benefits of rice grain as being a functional food product.

Keywords:
pre-germinated brown rice antioxidant activity tocopherols tocotrienols γ-oryzanols phenolics

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 4

References:

[1]  Deepa, G., Singh, V. and Naidu, K. A., “Nutrient composition and physicochemical properties of Indian medicinal rice – Njavara,”Food Chemistry, 106(1). 165-171. Jan. 2008.
 
[2]  Imsanguan, P., Roaysubtawee, A., Borirak, R., Pongamphai, S., Douglas, S. and Douglas, P. L. “Extraction of α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol from rice bran,”LWT Food Science and Technology, 41(8). 1417-1424.Nov. 2008.
 
[3]  Arab, F., Alemzadeh, I. and Maghsoudi, V.“Determination of antioxidant component and activity of rice bran extract,” ScientiaIranica, Transactions C, 18(6). 1402-1406. Aug. 2011.
 
[4]  Meydani, S. N.“vitamin E enhancement of T cell-mediated function in healthy elderly: mechanisms of action,”Nutrition Reviews, 53(4). 52-58. Apr. 2009.
 
[5]  McIntyre, B. S., Briski, K. P., Tirmenstein, M. A., Fariss, M. W., Gapor, A. and Sylvester, P. W.“Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols on normal mouse mammary epithelial cells,” Lipids, 35(2). 171-180. Feb. 2000.
 
[6]  Dowd, P. and Zheng, Z. B.“On the mechanism of the anticlotting action of vitamin E quinone,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92(18). 8171-8175. Aug. 1995.
 
[7]  Hodis, H. N., Mack, W. J.,LaBree, L., Cashin-Hemphill, L., Sevanian, A., Johnson, R. andAzen, S. P.“Serial coronary angiographic evidence that antioxidant vitamin intake reduces progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, 273(23). 1849-1854. Jun. 1995.
 
[8]  Jialal, I. and Grundy, S. M. “Effect of dietary supplementation with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein,”Journal of Lipid Research, 33(6). 899-906.Jun. 1992.
 
[9]  Gerhardt, A. L. and Gallo, N. B.“Full-fat rice bran and oat bran similarly reduce hypercholesterolemia in humans,”Journal of Nutrition, 128(5). 865-869. May. 1998.
 
[10]  Seetharamaiah, G., Krishnakantha, T. and Chandrasekhara, N.“Influence of oryzanol on platelet aggregation in rats,”Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology,36(3). 291-297. Jun. 1990.
 
[11]  Nakayama, S., Manabe, A., Suzuki, J., Sakamoto, K. and Inagaki, T.“Comparative effects of two forms of gamma-oryzanol in different sterol compositions on hyperlipidemia induced by cholesterol diet in rats,”Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 44(2). 135-143. Jun. 1987.
 
[12]  Murase, Y.andIishima, H.“Clinical studies of oral administration of gamma-oryzanol on climacteric complaints and its syndrome,”Obstetrics and Gynecology, 12.147-149. 1963.
 
[13]  Bonner, B., Warren, B. and Bucci, L.“Influence of ferulate supplementation on post exercise stress hormone levels after repeated exercise stress,”Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 4(10). 1990.
 
[14]  Leardkamolkarn, V., Thongthep, W., Suttiarporn, P., Kongkachuichai, P., Wongpornchai, S. and Wanavijitr, A. “Chemopreventive properties of the bran extracted from newly-developed Thai rice: The Riceberry,”Food Chemistry, 125(3). 978-985. Apr. 2010.
 
[15]  Sakamoto, S., Hayashi, T., Hayashi, K., Murai, F., Hori, M., Kimoto, K. and Murakami, K.“Pre-germinated brown rice could enhance maternal mental health and immunity during lactation,”European Journal of Nutrition, 46(7). 391-396. Oct. 2007.
 
[16]  Patil, S. B. and Khan, M. K.“Germinated brown rice as a value added rice product,”Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(6). 661-667. Dec. 2011.
 
[17]  Moongngarm, A. and Saetung, N.“Comparison of chemical compositions and bioactive compounds of germinated rough rice and brown rice,” Food Chemistry, 122(3). 782-788. Oct. 2010.
 
[18]  Kayahara, H., Tsukahara, K. and Tatai, T.“Flavor health and nutritional quality of pre-germinated brown rice,”In 10th international flavor conference, Paros, Greece, 546-551. Jul. 2000.
 
[19]  Amarowicz, R., Pegg, R. B., Rahimi-Moghaddam, P.,Barl, B. and Weil, J. A.“Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of selected plant species from the Canadian prairies,”Food Chemistry, 84(4). 511-562. Mar. 2004.
 
[20]  Ghavidel, R. A. and Jamuna, P. “The impact of germination and dehulling on nutrients, antinutrients, in vitro iron and calcium bioavailability and in vitro starch and protein digestibility of some legume seeds,” LWT-Food Science and Technology, 40(7). 1292-1299. Set. 2007
 
[21]  Nakornriab, M., Sriseadka, T. and Wongpornchai, S. “Quantification of carotenoid and flavonoid components in brans of some thai rice cultivars using supercritical fluid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry,” Journal of Food Lipids, 15(4).488-503. Nov. 2008.
 
[22]  Pitija, K., Nakornriab, M., Sriseadka, T., Vanavichit, A. and Wongpornchai, S.“Anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity in bran extracts of some Thai black rice varieties,” International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(2). 300-308. Feb. 2013.
 
[23]  Xia, M., Ling, W. H., Ma, J., Kitts, D. D. and Zawistowski, J.“Supplementation of diets with the black rice pigment fraction attenuates atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E deficient mice,” Journal of Nutrition, 133(3). 744-751. Mar. 2003.
 
[24]  Yawadio, R., Tanimori, S. and Morita, N.“Identification of phenolic compounds isolated from pigmented rices and their aldose reductase inhibitory activities,”Food Chemistry, 101(4). 1616-1625. Apr. 2007.
 
[25]  Choi, S. P., Kang, M. Y., Koh, H. J., Nam, S. H. and Friedman, M.“Antiallergic activities of pigmented rice bran extracts in cell assays,”Journal of Food Science, 72(9). 719-726. Nov. 2007.
 
[26]  Topinka, J., Binkova, B., Sram, R. and Erin, A. “The influence of alpha-tocopherol and pyritinol on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in human lymphocytes,” Mutation research, 225(3). 131-136. Mar. 1989.
 
[27]  Xu, Z., Hua, N. and Godber, J. “Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and gamma-oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(4). 2077-2081. Apr. 2001.
 
[28]  Collakova, E. and DellaPenna, D. “Isolation and functional analysis of homogentisatephytyltransferase from Synechocystissp. PCC 6803 and Arabidopsis,” Plant Physiology, 127(3). 1113-1124. Nov. 2001.
 
[29]  Pyo, M. K., Jin, J. L., Koo, Y. K. and Yun-Choi, H. S.“Phenolic and Furan Type compounds isolated from gastrodiaelata and their anti-platelet effects,”Archives of Pharmacal Research, 27(4). 381-385. Apr. 2004.
 
[30]  Jeong, J. B. and Jeong, H. J.“2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol can induce cell cycle arrest by blocking the hyper-phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in benzo[a]pyrene-treated NIH3T3 cells,”Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 400(4).752-757. Sep. 2010.
 
[31]  Murakami, Y., Hirata, A., Ito, S., Shoji, M., Tanaka, S., Yasui, T., Machino, M. and Fujisawa, S.“Re-evaluation of cyclooxygenase-2-inhibiting activity of vanillin and guaiacol in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide,” Anticancer Research, 27(2). 801-807. Apr. 2007.
 
[32]  Hiramoto, K., Nasuhara, A., Michikoshi, K., Kato, T., and Kikugawa, K. “DNA strand-breaking activity and mutagenicity of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran- 4-one (DDMP) , a Maillard reaction product of glucose and glycine”, Mutation Research, 395 (1). 47-56. July 1997.