Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(12), 874-881
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-12-1
Open AccessArticle

Nutritional Evaluation of an Outstanding Apple Cultivar, 'Göbek' (Malus communis L.)

Nesrin Colak1, Yakup Kolcuoglu2, Petr Tarkowski3, 4, Sandra Benická4, Ahmet Colak2, Sema Hayirlioglu-Ayaz1 and Faik Ahmet Ayaz1,

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey

3Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Central Laboratories and Research Support, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Šlechtitelů 27, 78371 Olomouc, Czechia

4Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Department of Genetic Resources for Vegetables, Medicinal and Special Plants, Crop Research Institute, Slechtitelu 29, 78371 Olomouc, Czechia

Pub. Date: November 27, 2017

Cite this paper:
Nesrin Colak, Yakup Kolcuoglu, Petr Tarkowski, Sandra Benická, Ahmet Colak, Sema Hayirlioglu-Ayaz and Faik Ahmet Ayaz. Nutritional Evaluation of an Outstanding Apple Cultivar, 'Göbek' (Malus communis L.). Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(12):874-881. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-12-1

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate physicochemical parameters and nutritional changes in the whole fruit, the peel and the flesh parts in fruit of 'Göbek' apple during three ripening stages over a 20-day period (188 to 208 DAFBs) on the tree. A significant (P < 0.01 or 0.05) increasing trend for pH, total soluble solids, dry matter, sweetnes index, total sweetnes index and a decreasing trend for total soluble solids:titratable acidity, titratable acidity, fruit firmness and moisture content were observed through ripening. The nutrient analysis representing the major components in the peel and flesh (respectively) indicates fructose in the range of (ave. 2260.1 and 3486.1mg/100 g fw), malic acid (ave. 1052.8 - 278.6 mg/100 g fw), palmitic acid (ave. 33.1 - 26.8%) and linoleic acid (ave. 21.1 - 18.23%), potassium (ave. 186.3 and 105.6 mg/100 g fw) and asparagin (ave. 149.3 - 59.8 mg/100 g fw). Among the polyamines analyzed, spermidin was the most abundant polyamine in the peel and flesh in the following range (ave. 281.6 and 124.7 nmol g-1 fw). The ripening process affected nutrient concentrations in the fruit as the maturity progressed on the tree. 'Göbek' fruit could be an excellent potential source for specific nutrients if it is harvested at different ripening stages.

Keywords:
Malus communis apple sugar polyamine mineral fatty acid amino acid

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Hyson, D.A. (2011). “A Comprehensive review of apples and apple components and their relationship to human health”. Adv. Nutr. 2: 408-420.
 
[2]  Ferretti, G., Turco, I., Bacchetti, T. (2014). “Apple as a source of dietary phytonutrients: bioavailability and evidence of protective effects against human cardiovascular disease”. Food Nutr. Sci. 5: 1234-1246.
 
[3]  Kurt, A., Torun, H., Colak, N., Seiler, G., Hayırlıoglu-Ayaz, S., Ayaz, F.A. (2017). “Nutrient profiles of the hybrid grape cultivar 'Isabel' during berry maturation and ripening”. J. Sci. Food Agric. 97: 2468-2479.
 
[4]  Şenyurt, M., Kalkışım, Ö., Karadeniz, T. (2015). “Gümüşhane yöresinde yetiştirilen bazı standart ve mahalli elma (Malus communis L.) çeşitlerinin pomolojik özellikleri”. Acad J. Agric. 4: 59-64.
 
[5]  AOAC. Official methods of analysis of the Association of official Analytical Chemists 10th Edition, Vol. II Washington, DC, U.S.A. 1995.
 
[6]  AOAC INTERNATIONAL. AOAC Official Methods Program Manual, [www.aoac.org/vmeth/omamanual/omamanual.htm]. 2003.
 
[7]  Ayaz, F.A., Colak, N., Topuz, M., Tarkowski, P., Jaworek, P., Seiler, G., Inceer, H. (2015). “Comparison of nutrient content in fruit of commercial cultivars of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)”. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 65: 251-259.
 
[8]  Hwang, D.F., Chang, S.H., Shiua, C.Y., Chai, T.J. (1979). “High performance liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in fish implicated in food poisoning”. J. Chromatogr B 693: 23-30.
 
[9]  Petřivalský, M., Brauner, F., Luhová, L., Gagneul, D., Šebela, M. (2007). “Aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase activity during wound healing of mechanically injured pea seedlings”. J. Plant Physiol. 164: 1410-1418.
 
[10]  Glew, R.H., Glew, R.S., Chuang, L.T., Huang, Y.S., Millson, M., Constans, D., Vanderjagt, D.J. (2006). “Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp.) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger”. Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 61: 51-56.
 
[11]  AOAC, 999.10: Official Methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th Edition. Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
 
[12]  Hirs, C.W.H. (1964). “Performic acid oxidation”. Method Enzymol. 1: 197-199.
 
[13]  Hugli, T.E., Moore, S. (1972). “Determination of the tryptophan content of proteins by ion exchange chromatography of alkaline hydrolysates”. J. Biol. Chem. 247: 2828-2834.
 
[14]  Nour, V., Trandafir, I., Ionica, M.E. (2010). “Compositional charactersitics of fruits of several apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars”. Not. Bot. Horti. Agrobo. 38: 228-233.
 
[15]  Ackermann, J., Fischer, M., Amadò, R. (1992). “Changes in sugars, acids, and amino acids during ripening and storage of apples (cv. Glockenapfel)”. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40: 1131-1134.
 
[16]  Wu, J., Gao, H., Zhao, L., Liao, X., Chen, F., Wang, Z., Hu, X. (2007) “Chemical compositional characterization of some apple cultivars”. Food Chem. 103(1): 88-93.
 
[17]  Veberic, R., Stampar, F. (2005). “Quality of apple fruits (Malus domestica) from organic versus integrated production”. FRUTIC 5: 12-16.
 
[18]  Hecke, K., Herbinger, K., Veberic, R., Trobec, M., Toplak, H., Stampar, F., Keppel, H., Grill, D. (2006). “Sugar-, acid- and phenol contents in apple cultivars from organic and integrated fruit cultivation”. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 60: 1136 - 1140.
 
[19]  Duroňová, K., Márová, I., Ćertik, M., Obruča, S. (2012). “Changes in lipid composition of apple surface layer during long-term storage in controlled atmosphere”. Chem. Pap. 10: 940-948.
 
[20]  Markowski, J., Baron, A., Mieszcakowska, M., Plocharski, W. (2009). “Cehmical composition of French and Polish cloudy apple juice”. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotech. 84(6): 68-74.
 
[21]  Henríquez, C., Almonacid, S., Chiffelle, I., Valenzuela, T., Araya, M., Cabezas, L., Simpson, R., Speisky, H.C. (2010). “Determination of antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral composition of different fruit tissue of five apple cultivars grown In Chile”. Chil. J. Agric. Res. 70: 523-536.
 
[22]  Manzoor, M., Anwar, F., Saari, N., Ashraf, M. (2012). “Variation of antioxidant characteristics and contents in pulp and peel of different apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)”. Molecules, 17: 390-407.
 
[23]  Magzawa, L.S., Opara, U. L. (2015). “Analytical methods for determination of sugars and sweetness of horticultural products-A review”. Sci. Hortic. 184: 179-192.