Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jfnr Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(11), 859-866
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-11-10
Open AccessArticle

Preventive Effects of Ophiocordyceps sinensis Mycelium on High-Fat Diet Induced Lipid Dysregulation and Hepatic Inflammation of Mice

Chung-Hsi Chou1, 2, Hui-Wen Lin3, 4, Yi-Hsieng Samuel Wu5, Yi-Ling Lin5, Chia-Chun Chiang6, Shih-Guei Fu7, and Yi-Chen Chen5,

1School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

2Zoonoses Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan

3Department of Optometry, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan

4Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

5Department of Animal Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

6Department of Nursing, Chung-Jen Junior College of Nursing, Health Sciences and Management, Chia-Yi County, Taiwan

7Department of Applied Life Science and Health, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy & Science, Tainan, Taiwan

Pub. Date: November 18, 2017

Cite this paper:
Chung-Hsi Chou, Hui-Wen Lin, Yi-Hsieng Samuel Wu, Yi-Ling Lin, Chia-Chun Chiang, Shih-Guei Fu and Yi-Chen Chen. Preventive Effects of Ophiocordyceps sinensis Mycelium on High-Fat Diet Induced Lipid Dysregulation and Hepatic Inflammation of Mice. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(11):859-866. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-11-10

Abstract

Dyslipidemia is regarded as one of risk factors related to cardiovascular disease and hepatosteatosis widely. Due to westernized diet habits and lifestyle changes, there is a high prevalence of those lipid-dysregulated diseases, i.e. fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, diabetes etc. However, the liver holds the lipid homeostasis so hepatoprotective nutraceuticals against high-fat diet (HFD) induced dyslipidemia may be potential for a public demand. This study demonstrated that OSM containing 10% polysaccharides and 0.25% adenosine can decrease (p<0.05) serum and liver triglyceride (TG) contents, and meanwhile, increased (p<0.05) fecal cholesterol (TC) levels in HFD fed mice. Moreover, Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium (OSM) also decreased (p<0.05) serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels and the atherosclerosis index (LDLC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC)) in HFD fed mice. Regarding the liver damage, OSM supplementation attenuated serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values, and liver tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in HFD fed mice. Taken together, OSM showed an ameliorative effect of the hepatosteatosis development and lipid-dysregulated-related diseases in a HFD habit.

Keywords:
anti-inflammation high-fat diet lipid-lowering effect liver Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 3

References:

[1]  World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. 2016. Available: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/. [Accessed August 18, 2016].
 
[2]  Hwang, L. C., Bai, C. H. and Chen, C. J., “Prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in Taiwan,” Journal of Formosan Medicinal Association, 105(8). 626-635. Aug. 2006.
 
[3]  Sheng, L., Chen, J. P., Li, J. and Zhang, W. Y., “An exopolysaccharide from cultivated Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on cytokine expressions of immunocytes,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 163(5). 669-678. Mar. 2011.
 
[4]  Chiou, Y. L. and Lin, C. Y., “The extract of Cordyceps sinensis inhibited airway inflammation by blocking NF-κB activity,” Inflammation, 35(3). 985-993. Jun. 2012.
 
[5]  Kubo, E., Yoshikawa, N., Kunitomo, M., Kagota, S., Shinozuka, K. and Nakamura, K., “Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis on experimental hepatic metastasis of melanoma by suppressing tumor cell invasion,” Anticancer Research, 30(9). 3429-3433. Sep. 2010.
 
[6]  Yan, X. F., Zhang, Z. M., Yao, H. Y., Guan, Y., Zhu, J. P., Zhang, L. H., Jia, Y. L. and Wang, R.W., “Cardiovascular protection and antioxidant activity of the extracts from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis act partially via adenosine receptors. Phytotherapy Research, 27(11). 1597-1604. Nov. 2013.
 
[7]  Peng, J. H., Li, X. M., Feng, Q., Chen, L. L., Xu, L. and Hu, Y. Y., “Anti-fibrotic effect of Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide: inhibiting HSC activation, TGF-β1/Smad signaling, MMPs and TIMPs,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, 238(6). 668-677. Jun. 2013.
 
[8]  Chen, Y. C., Chen, Y. H., Pan, B. S., Chang, M. M. and Huang B. M., “Functional study of Cordyceps sinesis and cordycepin in male reproduction: A review,” Journal of Food and Drug Analalysis, 25(1). 197-205. Jan. 2017.
 
[9]  Kumar, R., Negi, P. S., Singh, B., Ilavazhagan, G., Bhargava, K. and Sethy, N. K. “Cordyceps sinensis promotes exercise endurance capacity of rats by activating skeletal muscle metabolic regulators,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 136(1). 260-266. Jun. 2011.
 
[10]  Wu, C., Guo, Y., Su, Y., Zhang, X., Luan, H., Zhang, X. l., Zhu, H., He, H., Wang, X., Sun, G., Sun, X., Guo, P. and Zhu, P., “Cordycepin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via interaction with the γ1 subunit,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 18(2). 293-304. Feb. 2014.
 
[11]  Clapper, J. R., Hendricks, M. D., Gu, G., Wittmer, C., Dolman, C. S., Herich, J., Athanacio, J., Villescaz, C., Ghosh, S. S., Heilig, J. S., Lowe, C. and Roth, J. D., “Diet-induced mouse model of fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis reflecting clinical disease progression and methods of assessment,” American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 305 (7), G483-G495. Oct. 2013.
 
[12]  Lin, Y. L., Tai, S. Y., Chen, J. W., Chou, C. H., Fu, S. G. and Chen, Y. C., “Ameliorative effects of pepsin-digested chicken liver hydrolysates on development of alcoholic fatty livers in mice”. Food & Function, 8(5). 1763-1774. May 2017.
 
[13]  Mehlem, A., Hagberg, C. E., Muhl, L., Eriksson, U. and Falkevall, A., “Imaging of neutral lipids by oil red O for analyzing the metabolic status in health and disease,” Nature Protoccols, 8(6). 1149-1154. Oct. 2013.
 
[14]  Deutsch, M. J., Schriever, S. C., Roscher, A. A. and Ensenauer, R., “Digital image analysis approach for lipid droplet size quantitation of Oil Red O-stained cultured cells,” Analytical Biochemistry, 445. 87-89. Jan. 2014.
 
[15]  Hebbard, L. and George, J., “Animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 8(1). 35-44. Jan. 2011.
 
[16]  Choi, Y., Abdelmegeed, M. A. and Song, B. J., “Preventive effects of dietary walnuts on high-fat-induced hepatic fat accumulation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in mice,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemisty, 38. 70-80. Dec. 2016.
 
[17]  Jeong, H. S., Kim, K. H., Lee, I. S., Park, J. Y., Kim, Y., Kim, K. S. and Jang, H. S., “Ginkgolide A ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases on high fat diet mice,” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 88. 625-634. Apr. 2017.
 
[18]  Zámbó, V., Simon-Szabó, L., Szelényi, P., Kereszturi, E., Bánhegyi, G. and Csala, M., “Lipotoxicity in the liver,” World Journal of Hepatology, 5(10). 550-557. Oct. 2013.
 
[19]  Trauner, M., Arrese, M. and Wagner, M., “Fatty liver and lipotoxicity,” Biochimica et Biophysica Aacta, 1801(3). 299-310. Mar. 2010.
 
[20]  Ribeiro, P. S., Cortez-Pinto, H., Solá, S., Castro, R. E., Ramalho, R. M., Baptista, A., Moura, M. C., Camilo, M. E. and Rodrigues, C. M., “Hepatocyte apoptosis, expression of death receptors, and activation of NF-kappaB in the liver of nonalcoholic and alcoholic steatohepatitis patients,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, 9(9), 1708-1717. Sep. 2004.
 
[21]  Parola, M. and Novo, E., “Nrf1 gene expression in the liver: a single gene linking oxidative stress to NAFLD, NASH and hepatic tumours,” Journal of Hepatology, 43(6). 1096-1097. Dec. 2005.
 
[22]  Chang, Y. Y., Yang, D. J., Chiu, C. H., Lin, Y. L., Chen, J. W. and Chen, Y. C., “Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenol-rich litchi (Litchi Chinensis Sonn.)-flower-water extract on livers of high-fat-diet fed hamsters,” Journal of Functional Foods, 5. 44 -52. Jan. 2013.
 
[23]  Chang, W. T., Shiau, D. K., Cheng, M. C., Tseng, C. Y., Chen, C. S., Wu, M. F. and Hsu, C. L., “Black garlic ameliorates obesity induced by a high-fat diet in rats,” Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 5(10). 736-741. Oct. 2017.
 
[24]  Seki, E. and Brenner, D. A., “Toll-like receptors and adaptor molecules in liver disease: update,” Hepatology 48(1). 322-335. Jul. 2008.
 
[25]  Miura, K., Kodama, Y., Inokuchi, S., Schnabl, B., Aoyama, T., Ohnishi, H., Olefsky, J. M., Brenner, D. A. and Seki, E., “Toll-like receptor 9 promotes steatohepatitis by induction of interleukin-1beta in mice,” Gastroenterology 139(1). 323-334. Jul. 2010.
 
[26]  Brunt, E. M. “Grading and staging the histopathological lesions of chronic hepatitis: the Knodell histology activity index and beyond,” Hepatology 31(1). 241-246. Jan. 2000.
 
[27]  Su, C. H., Chang, C. S., Chou, C. H., Wu, E. H. S., Yang, K. T., Tseng, J. K., Chang, Y. Y. and Chen, Y.C., “L-carnitine ameliorates dyslipidemic and hepatic disorders induced by a high-fat diet via regulating lipid metabolism, self-antioxidant capacity, and inflammatory response,” Journal of Functional Foods 15. 497-508. May 2015.
 
[28]  Chien, M. Y., Ku, Y. H., Chang, J. M., Yang, C. M. and Chen, C. H., “Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet,” Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 24(3). 594-601. Jul. 2016.
 
[29]  Ko, W. S., Hsu, S. L, Chyau, C. C., Chen, K. C. and Peng, R. Y., “Compound Cordyceps TCM-700C exhibits potent hepatoprotective capability in animal model,” Fitoterapia 81(1), 1-7. Jan. 2010.
 
[30]  Huang, F., Zhang, R., Dong, L., Guo, J., Deng, Y., Yi, Y. and Zhang, M., “Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of polysaccharide fractions from litchi pulp,” Food & Function 6(8). 2598-2606. Aug. 2015.
 
[31]  Zhu, Z. Y., Meng, M., Sun, H., Li, Y., Yu, N. and Zhang, Y. M., “Structural analysis and immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis,” Food & Function 7(3), 1593-1600. Mar. 2016.
 
[32]  Yan, W.., Li, T. and Zhong, Z., “Anti-inflammatory effect of a novel food Cordyceps guangdongensis on experimental rats with chronic bronchitis induced by tobacco smoking,” Food & Function 5(10). 2552-2557. Oct. 2014.
 
[33]  Zhu, Z. Y., Meng, M., Sun, H., Li, Y., Ren, Y. Y. and Zhang, Y., “Immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis under normal and cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressive conditions in mice models,” Food & Function 7(8). 3566-3576. Aug. 2016.
 
[34]  Kulkarni, N. M., Jaji, M. S., Shetty, P., Kurhe, Y. V., Chaudhary, S., Vijaykant, G., Raghul, J., Vishwakarma, S. L., Rajesh, B. N., Mookkan, J., Krishnan, U. M. and Narayanan, S. “ A novel animal model of metabolic syndrome with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and skin inflammation,” Pharmaceutical Biology 53(8). 1110-1117. Aug. 2015.
 
[35]  Lottenberg, A. M., Afonso Mda, S., Lavrador, M. S. F., Machado, R. M. and Nakandakare, E. R., “The role of dietary fatty acids in the pathology of metabolic syndrome,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 23(9). 1027-1040. Sep. 2012.
 
[36]  Wang, H., Tang, X., Cheserek, M. J., Shi, Y. and Le, G., “Obesity prevention of synthetic polysaccharides in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice” Journal of Functioanl Foods 17. 563-574. Aug. 2015.
 
[37]  Wu, Y. H. S., Chiu, C. H., Yang, D. J., Lin, Y. L., Tseng, J. K. and Chen, Y. C., “Inhibitory effects of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) flower-water extracts on lipase activity and diet-induced obesity,” Journal of Functional Foods 5(2). 923-929. Apr. 2013.
 
[38]  Liu, H. C., Chang, C. J., Yang, T. H. and Chiang, M. T., “Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii) ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model,” Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 25(3). 543-549. Jul. 2017.
 
[39]  Kim, S. B., Ahn, B., Kim, M., Ji, H. J., Shin, S. K., Hong, I. P., Kim, C. Y., Hwang, B. Y. and Lee, M. K. Effect of Cordyceps militaris extract and active constituents on metabolic parameters of obesity induced by high-fat diet in C58BL/6J mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151(1). 478-484. Nov. 2014.
 
[40]  Manabe, N., Ahn, B., Kim, M., Ji, H. J., Shin, S. K., Hong, I. P., Kim, C. Y., Hwang, B. Y. and Lee, M. K., “ Effects of the mycelial extract of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on in vivo hepatic energy metabolism in the mouse,” Japanes Journal of Pharmacology 70(1). 85-88. Jan. 1999.
 
[41]  Manabe, N., Azuma, Y., Sugimoto, M., Uchio, K., Miyamoto, M., Taketomo, N., Tsuchita, H. and Miyamoto, H., “Effects of the mycelial extract of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on in vivo hepatic energy metabolism and blood flow in dietary hypoferric anaemic mice,” British Journal of Nutrition 83(2). 197-204. Feb. 2000.
 
[42]  Dai, D. L., Shen, W., Yu, H. F., Guan, X. Q. and Yi, Y. F., “Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on uncoupling protein 2 in experimental rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver,” Journal of Health Science 52. 390-396. Aug. 2006.
 
[43]  Jin, X., Xiang, Z., Chen, Y. P., Ma, K. F., Ye, Y. F. and Li, Y. M., “Uncoupling protein and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Chinese Medical Journal 126(16). 3151-3155. Aug. 2013.
 
[44]  Yang, K. T., Lin, C., Liu, C. W. and Chen, Y. C., “Effects of chicken-liver hydrolysates on lipid metabolism in a high-fat dietary habit,” Food Chemistry 160. 148-156. Oct. 2016.