Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(11), 824-831
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-11-5
Open AccessArticle

Association between Maternal Dietary Patterns and Anthropometric Parameters of Polish Pregnant Women and Infants: A Cross-sectional Study

Katarzyna Mirosława Boradyn1, , Katarzyna Eufemia Przybyłowicz1 and Jakub Morze1

1Department of Human Nutrition, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland

Pub. Date: November 02, 2017

Cite this paper:
Katarzyna Mirosława Boradyn, Katarzyna Eufemia Przybyłowicz and Jakub Morze. Association between Maternal Dietary Patterns and Anthropometric Parameters of Polish Pregnant Women and Infants: A Cross-sectional Study. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(11):824-831. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-11-5


The role of maternal diet on anthropometry of pregnant women and birth outcomes is ambiguous. The aim of this study was to describe maternal dietary patterns according to individual characteristics and examined associations between them and the anthropometric parameters of mother and infant. Pregnant women enrolled from 2010-2012 of hospitals in the province of Warmia and Mazury. Dietary patterns were identified from a food frequency questionnaire using Principal Components Analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the potential association of each dietary pattern and anthropometry of mother: prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain; and infant: birth weight, length, Ponderal Index. Three dietary patterns were identified: “Varied”, “Traditional Polish” and “Vegetable-fruit”. In the Varied dietary pattern the third tertile was associated with higher risk of excessive gestational weight gain and the second tertile was associated with higher risk of to low birth weight. In tertiles of the Traditional Polish dietary pattern the risk of too high BMI was higher among women in the higher tertiles. The risk of too high Ponderal Index in newborns was lower among women in the higher tertiles of the Vegetable- fruit dietary pattern. Moreover, the risk of too low Ponderal Index in newborns was higher among women in the higher tertiles of this dietary pattern. More research is needed to confirm this finding and the direction of changes induced by maternal diet.

dietary patterns pregnancy gestational weight gain birth weight birth length

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Roseboom, T.J., Watson, E.D., “The next generation of disease risk: Are the effects of prenatal nutrition transmitted across generations? Evidence from animal and human studies” Placenta, 33 Suppl 2:40-4. November 2012.
[2]  Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, A., Barlik, M., Drews, K., "Fetal programming as a cause of chronic diseases in adult life” Ginekol Pol, 85: 43-48. January 2014.
[3]  Murphy, M.M., Stettler, N., Smith, K.M., Reiss, R., “Associations of consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or small for gestational age births: a systematic review of the literature.” Int J Womens Health, 6: 899-912. October 2014.
[4]  Ross, M.G., Desai, M., “Developmental programming of offspring obesity, adipogenesis, and appetite” Clin Obstet Gynecol, 56(3):529-36. September 2013.
[5]  Sewell, D.A., Hammersley, V.S., Devereux, G., Robertson, A., Stoddart, A., Weir, C., Worth, A., Sheikh, A., “Investigating the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in pregnant women for the primary prevention of asthma and allergy in high-risk infants: protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial”, Trials, 14:173. June 2013.
[6]  Wilkinson, A.L., Pedersen, S.H., Urassa, M., Michael, D., Todd, J., Kinung’hi, S., Changalucha, J., McDermid, J.M., “Associations between gestational anthropometry, maternal HIV, and fetal and early infancy growth in a prospective rural/ semi-rural Tanzanian cohort, 2012-13”, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15:277. October 2015.
[7]  Torjusen, H., Lieblein, G., Næs, T., Haugen, M., Meltzer, H.M., Brantsæter, A.L., “Food patterns and dietary quality associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway” BMC Public Health, 12:612. August 2012.
[8]  Da Mota Santana, J., Alves de Oliveira Queiroz, V., Monteiro Brito, S., Barbosa Dos Santos, D., Marlucia Oliveira Assis, A., “Food consumption patterns during pregnancy: a longitudinal study in a region of the north east of Brazil”, Nutr Hosp, 32(1):130-8. July 2015.
[9]  Poon, A.K., Yeung, E., Boghossian, N., Albert, P.S., Zhang, C., “Maternal Dietary Patterns during Third Trimester in Association with Birthweight Characteristics and Early Infant Growth”, Scientifica (Cairo), 2013:786409. December 2013.
[10]  Andersen, L.B., Mølgaard, C., Michaelsen, K.F., Carlsen, E.M., Bro, R., Pipper, C.B., “Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age”, Food Nutr Res, 59:27665. June 2015.
[11]  Ax, E., Warensjö Lemming, E., Becker, W., Andersson, A., Lindroos, A.K., Cederholm, T., Sjögren, P., Fung, T.T., “Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey”, Br J Nutr, 115(1):95-104. January 2016.
[12]  Grieger, J.A., Clifton, V.L., “A review of the impact of dietary intakes in human pregnancy on infant birthweight”, Nutrients, 29; 7(1):153-78. December 2014.
[13]  Timmermans, S., Steegers-Theunissen, R.P., Vujkovic, M., Bakker, R., den Breeijen, H., Raat, H., Russcher, H., Lindemans, J., Hofman, A., Jaddoe, V.W., Steegers, E.A., “Major dietary patterns and blood pressure patterns during pregnancy: the Generation R Study”, Am J Obstet Gynecol, 205(4): 337: 1-12. October 2011.
[14]  Shin, D., Lee, K.W., Song, W.O., “Dietary Patterns During Pregnancy are Associated with Gestational Weight Gain”, Matern Child Health J, 20(12):2527-2538. December 2016.
[15]  Chen, X., Zhao, D., Mao, X., Xia, Y., Baker, P.N., Zhang, H., “Maternal Dietary Patterns and Pregnancy Outcome”, Nutrients, 7; 8(6). June 2016.
[16]  Wądołowska, L., “Validation of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Reproducibility assessment” Bromat. Chem. Toksykol, 38(1): 27-33. 2005.
[17]  Szponar, L., Wolnicka, K., Rychlik, E., Album of photographs of food products and dishes. National Food and Nutrition Institute, Warsaw, 2000.
[18]  World Health Organization: WHO (accessed on 15 August 2016).
[19]  Rasmussen, K.M., Catalano, P.M., Yaktine, A.L., “New guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy: what obstetrician/ gynecologists should know”, Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol, 21(6): 521-526. December 2009.
[20]  Coelho Nde, L., Cunha, D.B., Esteves, A.P., Lacerda, E.M., Theme Filha, M.M., “Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight”, Rev Saude Publica, 49:62. September 2015.
[21]  Wadolowska, L., Kowalkowska, J., Lonnie, M., Czarnocinska, J., Jezewska-Zychowicz, M., Babicz-Zielinska, E., “Associations between physical activity patterns and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls aged 13-21 years: a cross-sectional study (GEBaHealth Project)”. BMC Public Health, 16: 698. August 2016.
[22]  Melnik, B.C., John, S.M., Schmitz, G., “Milk consumption during pregnancy increases birth weight, a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization”, J Transl Med. 13: 13. January 2015.
[23]  Colón-Ramos, U., Racette, S.B., Ganiban, J., Nguyen, T.G., Kocak, M., Carroll, K.N., Völgyi, E., Tylavsky, F.A., “Association between Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Birth Size Measures in a Diverse Population in Southern US”, Nutrients, 7(2). February 2015.
[24]  Rozenberg, S., Body, J.J., Bruyère, O., Bergmann, P., Brandi, M.L., Cooper, C., Devogelaer, J.P., Gielen, E., Goemaere, S., Kaufman, J.M., Rizzoli, R., Reginster, J.Y., “Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs-A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases” Calcif Tissue Int, 98(1): 1-17. January 2016.
[25]  Dik, V.K., Murphy, N., Siersema, P.D., Fedirko, V., Jenab, M., Kong, S.Y., Hansen, C.P., Overvad, K., Tjønneland, A., Olsen, A., Dossus, L., Racine, A., Bastide, N., Li, K., Kühn, T., Boeing, H., Aleksandrova, K., Trichopoulou, A., Trichopoulos, D., Barbitsioti, A., Palli, D., Contiero, P., Vineis, P., Tumino, R., Panico, S., Peeters, P.H., Weiderpass, E., Skeie, G., Hjartåker, A., Amiano, P., Sánchez, M.J., Fonseca-Nunes, A., Barricarte, A., Chirlaque, M.D., Redondo, M.L., Jirström, K., Manjer, J., Nilsson, L.M., Wennberg, M., Bradbury, K.E., Khaw, K.T., Wareham, N., Cross, A.J., Riboli, E., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. “Prediagnostic intake of dairy products and dietary calcium and colorectal cancer survival-results from the EPIC cohort study”, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 23(9): 1813-23. September 2014.
[26]  Pem, D., Jeewon, R., “Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Benefits and Progress of Nutrition Education Interventions- Narrative Review Article”, Iran J Public Health, 44(10): 1309-21. October 2015.
[27]  Maehre, H.K., Jensen, I.J., Elvevoll, E.O., Eilertsen, K.E., “ω-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects, Mechanisms and Dietary Relevance”, Int J Mol Sci, 16(9): 22636-61. September 2015.
[28]  Akbari, Z., Mansourian, M., Kelishadi, R., “Relationship of the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers with the birth weight and gestational age: Need for public and individual educational programs”, J Educ Health Promot, 4: 23. March 2015.
[29]  Piccoli, G.B., Clari, R., Vigotti, F.N., Leone, F., Attini, R., Cabiddu, G., Mauro, G., Castelluccia, N., Colombi, N., Capizzi, I., Pani, A., Todros, T., Avagnina, P., “Vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy: danger or panacea? A systematic narrative review”, BJOG, 122(5): 623-33. April 2015.
[30]  Alizadeh, M., Didarloo, A., Esmaillzadeh, A., “Dietary Patterns of Young Females and Their Association With Waist Circumference as a Health Index in Northwest of Iran”, Iran Red Crescent Med J, 31; 17(5). May 2015.
[31]  Fraser, G., Katuli, S., Anousheh, R., Knutsen, S., Herring, P., Fan, J., “Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular risk factors in black members of the Adventist Health Study-2”, Public Health Nutr, 18(3): 537–545. February 2015.
[32]  Pilis, W., Stec, K., Zych, M., Pilis, A., “Health benefits and risk associated with adopting a vegetarian diet”, Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig, 65(1): 9-14. 2014.
[33]  Tielemans, M.J., Erler, N.S., Leermakers, E.T.M., Marion van den Broek, Jaddoe, V.W.V., Steegers, E.A.P., Kiefte-de Jong, J.C., Franco, O.H., “A Priori and a Posteriori Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Gestational Weight Gain: The Generation R Study. Nutrients”, 7(11): 9383-9399. November 2015.
[34]  Hung, T.H., Chen, S.F., Hsu, J.J., Hsieh, T.T., “Gestational weight gain and risks for adverse perinatal outcomes: A retrospective cohort study based on the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines”, Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol, 54(4):421-5. August 2015.
[35]  Knudsen, V.K., Orozova-Bekkevold, I.M., Mikkelsen, T.B., Wolff, S., Olsen, S.F., “Major dietary patterns in pregnancy and fetal growth”, Eur J Clin Nutr, 62(4): 463-70. April 2008.
[36]  Gibson, K.S., Waters, T.P., Gunzler, D.D., Catalano, P.M., “A retrospective cohort study of factors relating to the longitudinal change in birth weight”, BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 15:334, December 2015.
[37]  Howe, L.D., Tilling, K., Benfield, L., Logue, J., Sattar, N., Ness, A.R., Smith, G.D., Lawlor, D.A., Changes in Ponderal Index and Body Mass Index across Childhood and Their Associations with Fat Mass and Cardiovascular Risk Factors at Age 15. PloS One, 5(12): e15186. December 2010.