Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(10), 789-793
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-10-10
Open AccessArticle

Coffee Consumption Might Reduce the Risk of Osteopenia/Osteoporosis in Premenopausal Taiwanese Women

Huan-Cheng Chang1, 2, Chuan-Fa Hsieh3, 4, Yi-Chin Lin5, Disline Manli Tantoh6, Ya-Yu Kung7, Mei-Chi Lin7, Yi-Ching Liaw8 and Yung-Po Liaw6, 9,

1Division of Family Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Landseed Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan

2Department of Health Care Management, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

3Department of Medical Education and Research, Landseed Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan

4Center for General Education, Hsin Sheng College of Medical Care and Management, Taoyuan, Taiwan

5Institute of Nutritional Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

6Department of Public Health and Institute of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

7Division of Health Management, Landseed Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan

8Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

9Department of Family and Community Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

Pub. Date: October 20, 2017

Cite this paper:
Huan-Cheng Chang, Chuan-Fa Hsieh, Yi-Chin Lin, Disline Manli Tantoh, Ya-Yu Kung, Mei-Chi Lin, Yi-Ching Liaw and Yung-Po Liaw. Coffee Consumption Might Reduce the Risk of Osteopenia/Osteoporosis in Premenopausal Taiwanese Women. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(10):789-793. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-10-10


The health impact of osteoporosis on individuals and the population at large is huge and its effect on national economies is negative. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and osteopenia/osteoporosis in premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Taiwan. Data of 2929 women who completed a questionnaire about their weekly coffee consumption and bone health were retrieved from the Li-Shin Hospital (2006-2011). Coffee consumption was classified into 0, 1-4 and 5-7 cups per week (1 cup was equivalent to 400 mL). Osteoporosis and osteopenia were defined using bone mineral densities measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between coffee drinking and osteopenia/osteoporosis. After exclusions were made, a total of 2533 participants were included in the final analysis. Adjusted confounders included age, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-Hepatitis C virus (HCV), waist-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol, tea, exercise, vegetarian diet, supplements, yogurt, education, and blood type. There were 1336 premenopausal and 1593 postmenopausal women at baseline. Among the premenopausal women, an increase in the weekly coffee consumption significantly decreased the odds for osteoporosis (P-trend = 0.0179). The consumption of 1-4 and 5-7 cups of coffee per week significantly reduced the risk of osteoporosis/osteopenia (OR = 0.677; 95% C.I. = 0.469-0.978) and (OR = 0.607; 95% C.I. = 0.400-0.923), respectively. Among postmenopausal women, however, there was no significant relationship between weekly coffee consumption and osteoporosis/osteopenia. It was concluded that coffee drinking might likely minimize the risk of osteoporosis/osteopenia in premenopausal Taiwanese women.

menopause osteoporosis osteopenia coffee Taiwan

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Abrahamsen B, Brask-Lindemann D, Rubin KH, Schwarz P. A review of lifestyle, smoking and other modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. Bonekey reports. 2014;3.
[2]  Snelling AM, Crespo CJ, Schaeffer M, Smith S, Walbourn L. Modifiable and nonmodifiable factors associated with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Journal of women's health & gender-based medicine. 2001; 10(1): 57-65.
[3]  Compston JE, Papapoulos S, Blanchard F. Report on osteoporosis in the European community: current status and recommendations for the future. Osteoporosis international. 1998; 8(6): 531-4.
[4]  Guggenbuhl P. Osteoporosis in males and females: Is there really a difference? Joint Bone Spine. 2009; 76(6): 595-601.
[5]  Woolf AD, Pfleger B. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003; 81(9): 646-56.
[6]  MacLaughlin EJ, Sleeper RB, McNatty D, Raehl CL. Management of age-related osteoporosis and prevention of associated fractures. Therapeutics and clinical risk management. 2006; 2(3): 281.
[7]  Cawthon PM. Gender differences in osteoporosis and fractures. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®. 2011; 469(7): 1900-5.
[8]  Melton LJ, Chrischilles EA, Cooper C, Lane AW, Riggs BL. How many women have osteoporosis? Journal of bone and mineral research. 2005; 20(5): 886-92.
[9]  Pietschmann P, Rauner M, Sipos W, Kerschan-Schindl K. Osteoporosis: an age-related and gender-specific disease–a mini-review. Gerontology. 2009; 55(1): 3-12.
[10]  Aggarwal N, Raveendran A, Khandelwal N, Sen RK, Thakur J, Dhaliwal LK, et al. Prevalence and related risk factors of osteoporosis in peri-and postmenopausal Indian women. Journal of mid-life health. 2011; 2(2): 81.
[11]  Asomaning K, Bertone-Johnson ER, Nasca PC, Hooven F, Pekow PS. The association between body mass index and osteoporosis in patients referred for a bone mineral density examination. Journal of Women's Health. 2006; 15(9): 1028-34.
[12]  De Laet C, Kanis J, Odén A, Johanson H, Johnell O, Delmas P, et al. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis international. 2005; 16(11): 1330-8.
[13]  Jain V, Agrawal B, Varshney A, Biswas S. Prediction of bone mineral density by age, body mass index and menopausal status in middle socioeconomic status women of urban Kolar region of Bhopal. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2013; 12(3): 17-21.
[14]  Oldroyd A, Mitchell K, Bukhari M. The prevalence of osteoporosis in an older population with very high body mass index: evidence for an association. International journal of clinical practice. 2014; 68(6): 771-4.
[15]  Chapuy M, Schott A, Garnero P, Hans D, Delmas P, Meunier P. Healthy elderly French women living at home have secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turnover in winter. EPIDOS Study Group. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1996; 81(3):1129-33.
[16]  Kim SY. Coffee consumption and risk of osteoporosis. Korean journal of family medicine. 2014; 35(1): 1.
[17]  Choi E-J, Kim K-H, Koh Y-J, Lee J-S, Lee D-R, Park SM. Coffee consumption and bone mineral density in Korean premenopausal women. Korean journal of family medicine. 2014; 35(1): 11-8.
[18]  Hallström H, Byberg L, Glynn A, Lemming EW, Wolk A, Michaëlsson K. Long-term coffee consumption in relation to fracture risk and bone mineral density in women. American journal of epidemiology. 2013:kwt062.
[19]  Hallström H, Wolk A, Glynn A, Michaëlsson K. Coffee, tea and caffeine consumption in relation to osteoporotic fracture risk in a cohort of Swedish women. Osteoporosis international. 2006; 17(7): 1055-64.
[20]  Lacerda SA, Matuoka RI, Macedo RM, Petenusci SO, Campos AA, Brentegani LG. Bone quality associated with daily intake of coffee: a biochemical, radiographic and histometric study. Brazilian dental journal. 2010; 21(3):199-204.
[21]  Choi E, Choi K-H, Park SM, Shin D, Joh H-K, Cho E. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. PloS one. 2016; 11(1): e0147762.
[22]  Cheng ML, Gupta V. Premenopausal osteoporosis. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2013; 17(2): 240.
[23]  Kapetanovic A, Avdic D. Influence of coffee consumption on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency in menstrual history. Journal of Health Sciences. 2014; 4(2).
[24]  Demirbag D, Ozdemir F, Ture M. Effects of coffee consumption and smoking habit on bone mineral density. Rheumatology international. 2006; 26(6): 530-5.
[25]  Akkus Z, Camdeviren H, Celik F, Gur A, Nas K. Determination of osteoporosis risk factors using a multiple logistic regression model in postmenopausal Turkish women. Saudi medical journal. 2005; 26(9): 1351-9.
[26]  Bener A, Hammoudeh M, Zirie M. Prevalence and predictors of osteoporosis and the impact of life style factors on bone mineral density. APLAR Journal of Rheumatology. 2007; 10(3): 227-33.
[27]  Ho SC, Chen Y-m, Woo JL. Educational level and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal Chinese women. American journal of epidemiology. 2005; 161(7): 680-90.
[28]  Varenna M, Binelli L, Zucchi F, Ghiringhelli D, Gallazzi M, Sinigaglia L. Prevalence of osteoporosis by educational level in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International. 1999; 9(3): 236-41.
[29]  Hie M, Tsukamoto I. Vitamin C-deficiency stimulates osteoclastogenesis with an increase in RANK expression. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 2011; 22(2): 164-71.
[30]  Park JK, Lee EM, Kim AY, Lee EJ, Min CW, Kang KK, et al. Vitamin C deficiency accelerates bone loss inducing an increase in PPAR-γ expression in SMP30 knockout mice. International journal of experimental pathology. 2012; 93(5): 332-40.
[31]  Pradel W, Mai R, Gedrange T, Lauer G. Cell passage and composition of culture medium effects proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells from facial bone. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008; 59(Suppl 5): 47-58.
[32]  Urban K, Höhling HJ, Lüttenberg B, Szuwart T, Plate U. An in vitro study of osteoblast vitality influenced by the vitamins C and E. Head Face Med. 2012; 8(25): 10.1186.
[33]  Pasco JA, Henry MJ, Wilkinson LK, Nicholson GC, Schneider HG, Kotowicz MA. Antioxidant vitamin supplements and markers of bone turnover in a community sample of nonsmoking women. Journal of women's health. 2006; 15(3): 295-300.
[34]  Prynne CJ, Mishra GD, O'Connell MA, Muniz G, Laskey MA, Yan L, et al. Fruit and vegetable intakes and bone mineral status: a cross-sectional study in 5 age and sex cohorts. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2006; 83(6): 1420-8.
[35]  Sahni S, Hannan MT, Gagnon D, Blumberg J, Cupples LA, Kiel DP, et al. High vitamin C intake is associated with lower 4-year bone loss in elderly men. The Journal of nutrition. 2008; 138(10): 1931-8.
[36]  Sowers M, Wallace RB, Lemke JH. Correlates of mid-radius bone density among postmenopausal women: a community study. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1985; 41(5): 1045-53.
[37]  Hammad LF. Measurements of bone mineral density and stiffness index in young Saudi females. Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2016; 32(2): 399.
[38]  Kang C, Speller R. Comparison of ultrasound and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements in the calcaneus. The British journal of radiology. 1998; 71(848): 861-7.
[39]  Chin K-Y, Ima-Nirwana S. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound as a determinant of bone health status: what properties of bone does it reflect. Int J Med Sci. 2013; 10(12): 1778-83.
[40]  Hough S, Ascott-Evans BH, Brown SL, Cassim B, De Villiers TJ, Lipschitz S, et al. NOFSA guideline for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. 2010; 15(3): 107-8.