Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(10), 736-741
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-10-3
Open AccessArticle

Black Garlic Ameliorates Obesity Induced by a High-fat Diet in Rats

Wei-Tang Chang1, Duen-Kai Shiau2, Ming-Ching Cheng2, Chin-Yin Tseng2, Cheng-Shih Chen2, Mei-Fang Wu2 and Chin-Lin Hsu1,

1Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

25Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

Pub. Date: September 21, 2017

Cite this paper:
Wei-Tang Chang, Duen-Kai Shiau, Ming-Ching Cheng, Chin-Yin Tseng, Cheng-Shih Chen, Mei-Fang Wu and Chin-Lin Hsu. Black Garlic Ameliorates Obesity Induced by a High-fat Diet in Rats. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(10):736-741. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-10-3


Black garlic (also called aged garlic) is a type of fermented garlic product from fresh garlic that is often used as a food ingredient and a functional food in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether black garlic ameliorates obesity induced by a high-fat diet in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) (30% lard, w/w) combined with 0, 0.2, 0.6, or 1.2% black garlic (BG) (w/w) for a period of six weeks. The results demonstrated that body weight, tissue weights of liver, peritoneal fat, and epididymal fat, serum triglycerides, and hepatic lipid profiles (total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol) in the HFD+BG groups were significantly decreased compared with those in the HFD group. BG also reduced hepatic oxidative stress (reduced GSSG and enhanced TEAC, GSH, GRd, and GPx) in HFD-induced obese rats. These results suggest that black garlic may be useful for the treatment of obesity.

black garlic high-fat diet Wistar rat obesity

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 2


[1]  Kopelman, P.G, “Obesity as a medical problem,” Nature, 404 (6778). 635-643. Apr. 2000.
[2]  Medrikova, D., Jilkova, Z.M., Bardova, K., Janovska, P., Rossmeisl, M. and Kopecky, J, “Sex differences during the course of diet-induced obesity in mice: adipose tissue expandability and glycemic control,” International Journal of Obesity, 36 (2). 262-272. Feb. 2012.
[3]  Poirier, P., Giles, T.D., Bray, G.A., Hong, Y., Stern, J.S., Pi-Sunyer, F.X., Eckel, R.H., American Heart Association., Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition., Physical Activity and Metabolism “Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss: an update of the 1997 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Obesity and Heart Disease from the Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. American Heart Association; Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism,” Circulation, 113 (6). 898-918. Feb. 2006.
[4]  Hofbauer, K.G., Nicholson, J.R. and Boss, O, “The obesity epidemic: current and future pharmacological treatments,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 47. 565-592. 2007.
[5]  Dietrich, M.O. and Horvath, T.L, “Limitations in anti-obesity drug development: the critical role of hunger-promoting neurons,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 11 (9). 675-691. Sep. 2012.
[6]  Hsu, C.L. and Yen, G.C, “Effect of gallic acid on high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia, hepatosteatosis, and oxidative stress in rats,” British Journal of Nutrition, 98 (4). 727-735. Oct. 2007.
[7]  Bose, M., Lambert, J.D., Ju, J., Reuhl, K.R., Shapses, S.A. and Yang, C.S, “The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice,” The Journal of Nutrition, 138 (9). 1667-1683. Oct. 2008.
[8]  Hsu, C.L., Wu, C.H., Huang, S.L. and Yen, G.C, “Phenolic compounds rutin and o-coumaric acid ameliorate obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57 (2). 425-431. Feb. 2009.
[9]  Joo, H., Kim, C.T., Kim, I.H. and Kim, Y, “Anti-obesity effects of hot water extract and high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic in rats fed a high-fat diet,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, 55. 100-105. May. 2013.
[10]  Agarwal, K.C. “Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents,” Medicinal Research Reviews, 16 (1). 111-124. Jan. 1996.
[11]  Rahman, K, “Historical perspective on garlic and cardiovascular disease,” The Journal of Nutrition, 313 (3s). 977S-979S. Mar. 2001.
[12]  Gorinstein, S., Jastrzebasi, Z., Namiesnik, J., Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M. and Trakhtenberg, S, “The atherosclerotic heart disease and protecting properties of garlic: contemporary data,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 51 (11). 1365-1381. Oct. 2007.
[13]  Morihara, N., Nishihama, T., Ushijima, M., Ide, N., Takeda, H. and Hayama, M, “Garlic as an anti-fatigue agent,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 51 (11). 1329-1334. Nov. 2007.
[14]  Rahman, K, “Effects of garlic on platelet biochemistry and physiology,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 51 (11). 1335-1344. Nov. 2007.
[15]  Sheen, L.Y., Chen, H.W., Kung, Y.L., Liu, C.T. and Lii, C.K, “Effects of garlic oil and its organosulfur compounds on the activities of hepatic drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in rats fed high- and low-fat diets,” Nutrition and Cancer, 35 (2). 160-166. 1999.
[16]  Kang, M.J., Lee, S.J., Shin, J.H., Kang, S.K., Kim, J.G. and Sung, N.J, “Effect of garlic with different processing on lipid metabolism in 1% cholesterol fed rats,” Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 37 (2). 162-169. Feb. 2008.
[17]  Seo, D.Y., Lee, S., Figueroa, A., Kwak, Y.S., Kim, N., Rhee, B.D., Ko, K.S., Banq, H.S., Baek, Y.H. and Han, J, “Aged garlic extract enhances exercise-mediated improvement of metabolic parameters in high fat diet-induced obese rats,” Nutrition Research and Practice, 6 (6). 513-519. Dec. 2012.
[18]  Ried, K., Frank, O.R. and Stocks, N.P, “Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose–response trial,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67 (1). 64-70. Jan. 2013.
[19]  Jung, Y.M., Lee, S.H., Lee, D.S., You, M.J., Chung, I.K., Cheon, W.H., Kwon, Y.S., Lee, Y, S. and Ku, S.K, “Fermented garlic protects diabetic, obese mice when fed a high-fat diet by antioxidant effects,” Nutrition Research, 31 (5). 387-396. May. 2011.
[20]  Tzang, B.S., Yang, S.F., Fu, S.G., Yang, H.C., Sun, H.L. and Chen, Y.C, “Effects of dietary flaxseed oil on cholesterol metabolism of hamsters,” Food Chemistry, 114 (4). 1450-1455. Jun. 2009.
[21]  Arnao, M.B., Cano, A., Hernandez-Ruiz, J., Garcia-Canovas, F. and Acosta, M, “Inhibition by L-ascorbic acid and other antioxidants of the 2,2′-azino-bis (3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) oxidation catalyzed by peroxidase: a new approach for determining total antioxidant status of foods,” Analytical Biochemistry, 236 (2). 255-261. May. 1996.
[22]  Lawerence, R.A. and Burk, R.F, “Glutathione peroxidase activity in selenium-deficient rat’s liver,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 71 (4). 952-958. Aug. 1976.
[23]  Bellomo, G., Mirabelli, F., Dimonte, D., Richelmi, P., Thor, H. and Orrenius, C, “Formation and reduction of glutathione-mixed disulfides during oxidative stress,” Biochemical Pharmacology, 36 (8). 1313-1320. Apr. 1987.
[24]  Tsuda, T., Horio, F., Uchida, K., Aoki, H., and Osawa, T, “Dietary cyaniding 3-O-beta-D-glucoside-rich purple corn color prevents obesity and ameliorates hyperglycemia in mice,” The Journal of Nutrition, 133 (7). 2125-2130. Jul. 2003.
[25]  Park, Y.S., Yoon, Y. and Ahn, H.S, “Platycodon grandiflorum extract represses up-regulated adipocyte fatty acid binding protein triggered by a high fat feeding in obese rats,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, 13 (25). 3493-3499. Jul. 2007.
[26]  Zhang, S., Zheng, L., Dong, D., Xu, L., Yin, L., Qi, Y, “Effects of flavonoids from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats,” Food Chemistry, 141 (3). 2108-2116. Dec. 2013.
[27]  Pettinelli, P., Obregón, A.M. and Videla, L.A, “Molecular mechanisms of steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Nutrición Hospitalaria, 26 (3). 441-450. May. 2011.
[28]  Ramesh, E., Elanchezhian, R., Sakthivel, M., Jayakumar, T., Senthil Kumar, R.S., Geraldine, P. and Thomas, P.A, “Epigallocatechin gallate improves serum lipid profile and erythrocyte and cardiac tissue antioxidant parameters in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet,” Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, 22 (3). 275-284. Jun. 2008.
[29]  Mohammadi, A., Sahebkar, A., Iranshahi, M., Amini, M., Khojasteh, R., Ghayour-Mobarhan, M. and Ferns, G.A, “Effects of supplementation with curcuminoids on dyslipidemia in obese patients: a randomized crossover trial,” Phytotherapy Research, 27 (3). 374-379. Mar. 2013.
[30]  Lavie, C.J. and Milani, R.V, “Obesity and cardiovascular disease: the Hippocrates paradox?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 42 (4). 677-679. Aug. 2003.
[31]  Olusi, S.O, “Obesity is an independent risk factor for plasma lipid peroxidation and depletion of erythrocyte cytoprotectic enzymes in humans,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26 (9). 1159-1164. Sep. 2002.
[32]  Ozata, M., Mergen, M., Oktenli, C., Aydin, A., Sanisoglu, S.Y., Bolu, E., Yilmaz, M.I., Sayal, A., Isimer, A. and Ozdemir, I.C, “Increased oxidative stress and hypozincemia in male obesity,” Clinical Biochemistry, 35 (8). 627-631. Nov. 2002.
[33]  Young, I. S. and McEneny, J, “Lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerosis,” Biochemical Society Transactions, 29 (Pt2). 358-362. May. 2001.
[34]  Husain, K., Mejia, J., Lalla, J. and Kazin, S, “Dose response of alcoholinduced changes in BP, nitric oxide and antioxidants in rat plasma,” Pharmacology Research, 51 (4). 337-343. Apr. 2005.