Journal of Food and Nutrition Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1119 ISSN (Online): 2333-1240 Website: Editor-in-chief: Prabhat Kumar Mandal
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017, 5(7), 458-466
DOI: 10.12691/jfnr-5-7-2
Open AccessArticle

Use of Nonanal-wax as Postharvest Fungicide of Tomato against Botrytis cinerea

Jihong ZHANG1, , Li ZENG1, Helong SUN1, Shaoyang CHEN1, Taotao WANG2 and Shuang MA1

1School of chemical engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, China

2School of Horticulture Forestry & Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China

Pub. Date: June 10, 2017

Cite this paper:
Jihong ZHANG, Li ZENG, Helong SUN, Shaoyang CHEN, Taotao WANG and Shuang MA. Use of Nonanal-wax as Postharvest Fungicide of Tomato against Botrytis cinerea. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2017; 5(7):458-466. doi: 10.12691/jfnr-5-7-2


The antifungal activity of nonanal against Botrytis cinerea, one of the most important postharvest diseases of tomato gray mold, was tested by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results of in vivo tests demonstrated that wax + nonanal treatment significantly decreased the incidence of gray mold during the entire storage period. After 8 d of storage, the disease incidences in Wax + nonanal (1×, 4× or 10× MFC)-treated fruits were 46.7%, 56.7%, 73.3%, respectively, in contrast to 100% of the control fruits. Loss of membrane integrity was examined and quantified under 10×MFC nonanal condition by the method of propidium iodide fluorescent staining. Wax + nonanal (10×MFC) treatment remarkably increased antioxidant enzyme activities, such as catalase (CAT), superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Meanwhile, this treatment (10×MFC) evidently exhibited a delayed decline in antioxidant enzyme activities. Furthermore, nonanal treatment retained the fruit quality of tomatoes because it reduced the coloration index and weight loss and retained fruit firmness. No significant differences were found between the pH, Firmness and total soluble solid (TSS) content for all treatment under the same storage time. Our results suggest that nonanal can be considered as a good alternative to conventional fungicides in controlling the decay of tomato fruits.

nonanal tomato fruit quality enzymes activity postharvest

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Schuch, W, “Improving tomato quality through biotechnology,” Food Technology, 48(11). 78-83. Nov. 1994.
[2]  Krinsky, N.I., Johnson, E, “Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 26(6): 459-516. Nov. 2005.
[3]  Marquenie, D., Geeraerd, A.H., Lammertyn, J., Soontjens, C., Van Impe, J.F., Michiels, C.W., Nicolai, B.M, “Combinations of pulsed white light and UV-C or mild heat treatment to inactivate conidia of Botrytis cinerea and Monilia fructigena,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, 85(1-2):185-196. Aug. 2003.
[4]  Spadaro, D., Garibaldi, A., Martines, G.F, “Control of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea on apple combining a biocontrol agent with hot water dipping and acibenzolar-S- methyl, baking soda, or ethanol application,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 33(2):141-151. Aug. 2004.
[5]  Cantu, D., Blanco-Ulate, B., Yang, L., Labavitch, J.M., Bennett, A.B., Powell, A.L, “Ripening- regulated susceptibility of tomato fruit to Botrytis cinerea requires NOR but not RIN or ethylene,” Plant Physiology, 150(3):1434-1449. May. 2009.
[6]  Choquer, M., Fournier, E., Kunz, C., Levis, C., Pradier, J.M., Simon, A., Viaud, M, “Botrytis cinerea virulence factors: new insights into a necrotrophic and polyphageous pathogen,” Fems Microbiology Letters, 277(1):1-10. Dec. 2007.
[7]  Fang, X.L., Li, Z.Z., Wang, Y.H., Zhang, X, “In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of Xenorhabdus bovienii YL002 against Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, 111(1):145-154. Jul. 2011.
[8]  Blacharski, R.W., Bartz, J.A., Xiao, C.L., Legard, D.E, “Control of post-harvest Botrytis fruit rot with pre-harvest fungicide applications in annual strawberry,” Plant Disease, 85(6): 597-602. Jun. 2001.
[9]  Mertely, J.C., MacKenzie, S.J., Legard, D.E, “Timing of fungicide applications for Botrytis cinerea based on development stage of strawberry flowers and fruit,” Plant Disease, 86(9): 1019-1024. Sep. 2002.
[10]  Karabulut, O.A., Romanazzi, G., Smilanick, J.L., Lichter, A, “Postharvest ethanol and hot water treatments of table grapes to control gray mold,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 37(2): 129-134. Aug. 2005.
[11]  Navarro, D., Díaz-Mula, H.M., Guillén, F., Zapata, P.J., Castillo, S., Serrano, M., Valero, D., Martínez- Romero, D, “Reduction of nectarine decay caused by Rhizopus stolonifer, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum with Aloe vera gel alone or with the addition of thymol,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, 151(2): 241-246. Sep. 2011.
[12]  Xu, W., Huang, K., Guo, F., Qu, W., Yang, J., Liang, Z., Luo, Y, “Postharvest grapefruit seed extract and chitosan treatments of table grapes to control Botrytis cinerea,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 46(1): 86-94. Oct. 2007.
[13]  Neria, F., Cappellin, L., Spadoni, A., Cameldi, I., Algarra Alarcon, A., Aprea, E., Romano, A., Gasperi, F. and Biasioli, F, “Role of strawberry volatile organic compounds in the development of Botrytis cinerea infection,” Plant Pathology, 64(3): 709-717. Sep. 2015.
[14]  Rattanapitigorn, P., Arakawa, M. & Tsuro, M, “Vanillin enhances the antifungal effect of plant essential oils against Botrytis cinerea,” International Journal of Aromatherapy, 16(3-4):193-198. Nov. 2006.
[15]  Peretto, G., Du, W.X., Avena-Bustillos, R.J., Sarreal, S.B.L., Hua, S.S.T. & Sambo, P, “Increasing Strawberry shelf-life with carvacrol and methyl cinnamate antimicrobial vapors released from edible films,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 89: 11-18. Mar. 2014.
[16]  Fallik, E., Archbold, D.D., Hamilton-Kemp, T.R., Clements, A.M., Collins, R.W., Barth, M.M, “(E)-2-hexenal can stimulate Botrytis cinerea growth in vitro and on strawberries in vivo during storage,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science American Society for Horticultural Science, 123(5): 875-881. Sep. 1998.
[17]  Myung, K., Hamilton-Kemp, T.R., Archbold, D.D, “Interaction with and effects on the profile of proteins of Botrytis cinerea by C6 aldehydes,” Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 55(6): 2182-2188. Mar. 2007.
[18]  Neri, F., Mari, M., Menniti, A.M., Brigati, S, “Activity of trans-2-hexenal against Penicillium expansum in ‘Conference’ pears,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, 100(6):1186-1193. Jun. 2006.
[19]  Guo, M.R., Feng, J.Z., Zhang, P.Y., Jia, L.Y., Chen, K.S, “Postharvest treatment with trans-2-hexenal induced resistance against Botrytis cinerea in tomato fruit,” Australasian Plant Pathology, 44(1):121-128. Jan. 2015.
[20]  Corbo, M.R., Lanciotti, R., Gardini, F., Sinigaglia, M., Guerzoni, M.E, “Effects of hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, and storage temperature on shelf life of fresh sliced apples,” Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 48(6):2401-2408. Jun. 2000.
[21]  Muroi, H., Kubo, A., Kubo, I, “Antimicrobial activity of cashew apple flavor compounds,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41 (7):1106-1109. Jul. 1993.
[22]  Tao, N.G., Jia, L., Zhou, H.E, “Anti-fungal activity of Citrus reticulata Blanco essential oil against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum,” Food Chemistry, 153(24): 265-271. Jun. 2014.
[23]  Inouye, S., Takizawa, T., Yamaguchi, H, “Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 47(5): 565-573. May. 2001.
[24]  Yahyazadeh, M., Omidbaigi, R., Zare, R., Taheri, H, “Effect of some essential oilson mycelial growth of Penicillium digitatum Sacc,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24(8): 1445-1450. Aug. 2008.
[25]  Talibi, I., Askarne, L., Boubaker, H., Boudyach, E.H., Msanda, F., Saadi, B., Ait Ben Aoumar, A, “Antifungal activity of some Moroccan plants against Geotrichum candidum, the causal agent of post-harvest citrus sour rot,” Crop Protection, 35(3):41-46. May. 2012.
[26]  Helal, G.A., Sarhan, M.M., Abu Shahla, A.N.K. & Abou El-Khair, E.K, “Effects of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on the growth, lipid content and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger ML2-strain,” Journal of Basic Microbiology, 46(6):456-469. Jan. 2006.
[27]  Liu, J., Tian, S.P., Meng, X.H., Xu, Y, “Effects of chitosan on control of postharvest diseases and physiological responses of tomato fruit,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 44(3): 300-306. Jun. 2007.
[28]  Qin, G., Liu, J., Cao, B., Li, B., Tian, S, “Hydrogen peroxide acts on sensitive mitochondrial proteins to induce death of a fungal pathogen revealed by proteomic analysis,” PLoS One, 6(7): e21945. Jul. 2011.
[29]  Tao, N.G., Fan, F., Jia, L. & Zhang, M.L, “Octanal incorporated in postharvest wax of Satsuma mandarin fruit as a botanical fungicide against Penicillium digitatum,” Food Control, 45(3):56-61. Nov. 2014.
[30]  Castillo, S., Navarro, D., Zapata, P.J., Guillen, F., Valero, D., Serrano, M., Martinez-Romero, D, “Antifungal efficacy of Aloe vera in vitro and its use as a preharvest treatment to maintain postharvest table grape quality,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 57(3):183-188. Sep. 2010.
[31]  Fan, F., Tao, N.G., Jia, L., He, X.L, “Use of citral incorporated in postharvest wax of citrus fruit as a botanical fungicide against Penicillium digitatum,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 90(3):52-55. Apr. 2014.
[32]  Lemoine, M.L., Chaves, A.R., Martínez, G.A, “Influence of combined hot airand UV-C treatment on the antioxidant system of minimally processed broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica),” LWT-Food Science and Technology, 43(9):1313-1319. Nov. 2010.
[33]  Sellamuthu, P.S., Sivakumar, D., Soundy, P., Korsten, L, “Essential oil vapours suppress the development of anthracnose and enhance defense related and antioxidant enzyme activities in avocado fruit,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 81(3): 66-72. Jul. 2013.
[34]  Zhang, J.H., Sun, H.L., Chen, S.Y., Zeng, L. and Wang, T.T, “Anti-fungal activity, mechanism studies on α-Phellandrene and Nonanal against Penicillium cyclopium,” Botanical Studies, 58(13): 1-9. Mar. 2017.
[35]  Suzuki, T., Fujikura, K., Higashiyama, T., Takata, K, “DNA staining for fluorescence and laser confocal microscopy,” Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, 45(1): 49-53. Jan. 1997.
[36]  Combrink, S., Regnier, T., Kamatou, G.P.P, “In vitro activity of eighteen essentialoils and some major components against common postharvest fungal pathogensof fruit,” Industrial Crops & Products, 33(2): 344-349. Mar. 2011.
[37]  Wood, E.M., Miles, T.D., Wharton, P.S, “The use of natural plant volatile com-pounds for the control of potato postharvest diseases, black dot, silver scurf andsoft rot,” Biological Control, 64(2): 152-159. Feb. 2013.
[38]  Kishimoto, K., Matsui, K., Ozawa, R., Takabayashi, J, “Volatile C6-aldehydes and allo-ocimene activate defense genes and induce resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana,” Plant & Cell Physiology, 46(7):1093-1102. Jul. 2005.
[39]  Yi, H.S., Heil, M., Adame-Ȧlvarez, R.M., Ballhorn, D.J., Ryu, C.M, “Airborne Induction and Priming of Plant Defenses against a Bacterial Pathogen,” Plant physiology, 151(4): 2152- 2161. Dec. 2009.
[40]  Eduardo, I., Chietera, G., Bassi, D., Rossini, L., Vecchietti, A, “Identification of key odor volatile compounds in essential oil of nine peach accessions,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90(7): 1146-54. May. 2010.
[41]  Cebolla-Cornejo, J., Rosello, S., Valcarcel, M., Serrano, E., Beltran, J., Nuez, F, “Evaluation of genotype and environment effects on taste and aroma flavor components of Spanish fresh tomato varieties,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(6): 2440-50. Feb. 2011.
[42]  Scala, A., Allmann, S., Mirabella, R., Haring, M.A., Scuurink, R.C, “Green leaf volatiles: a plant’s multifunctional weapon against herbivores and pathogens,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14(9): 17781-811. Sep. 2013.
[43]  Sampathkumar, B., Khachatourians, G.G., Korber, D.R, “High pH during trisodium phosphate treatment causes membrane damage and destruction of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis,” Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 691(1):122-129. Jan. 2003.
[44]  Pinto, E., Vale-Silva, L., Cavaleiro, C., Salgueiro, L, “Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, 58: 1454-1462. Nov. 2009.
[45]  Smilanick, J.L., Mansour, M.F., Gabler, F.M. & Sorenson, D, “Control of citrus postharvest green mold and sour rot by potassium sorbate combined with heat and fungicides,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 47(2): 226-238. Feb. 2008.
[46]  Pérez-Alfonso, C.O., Martínez-Romero, D., Zapata, P.J., Serrano, M., Valero, D, & Castillo, S, “The effects of essential oils carvacrol and thymol on growth of Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum involved in lemon decay,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, 158(2): 101-106. Aug. 2012.
[47]  Castillo, S., Pérez-Alfonso, C.O., Martínez-Romero, D., Guillén, F., Serrano, M. & Valero, D, “The essential oils thymol and carvacrol applied in the packing lines avoid lemon spoilage and maintain quality during storage,” Food Control, 35(1):132-136. Jan. 2014.
[48]  Lu, Y.J., Joerger, R. & Wu, C.Q, “Similar reduction of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium on grape tomatoes and its cross-contamination in wash water by washing with natural antimicrobials as compared with chlorine treatment,” Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7(3): 661- 670. Mar. 2014.
[49]  [Serrano, M., Martínez-Romero, D., Castillo, S., Guillen, F. & Valero, D, “The use of antifungal compounds improves the beneficial effect of map in sweet cherry storage,” Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 6(1):115-123. Mar. 2005.
[50]  Shao, X., Wang, H., Xu, F. & Cheng, S, “Effects and possible mechanisms of tea tree oil vapor treatment on the main disease in postharvest strawberry fruit,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 77(3): 94-101. Mar. 2013.
[51]  Valero, A., Farré, J.R., Sanchis, V., Ramos, A.J., Marín, S, “Kinetics and spatial distribution of OTA in Aspergillus carbonarius cultures,” Food Microbiology, 23(8): 753-756. Dec. 2006.
[52]  Zhao, Y., Tu, K., Su, J., Hou, Y., Liu, F., Zou, X, “Heat treatment in combination with antagonistic yeast reduces diseases and elicits the active defense responses in harvested cherry tomato fruit,” Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 57(16): 7565-7570. Jul. 2009.
[53]  Chan, Z.L., Tian, S.P, “Induction of H2O2-metabolizing enzymes and total protein synthesis by antagonistic yeast and salicylic acid in harvested sweet cherry fruit,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 39(3):314-320. Mar. 2006.
[54]  Ballester, A.R., Izquierdo, A., Lafuente, M.T., Gonzalez-Candelas, L, “Biochemical and molecular characterization of induced resistance against Penicillium digitatum in citrus fruit,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 56(1):31-38. Apr. 2010.
[55]  Yao, H.J., Tian, S.P, “Effects of pre- and post-harvest application of salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate on inducing disease resistance of sweet cherry fruit in storage,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 35(3): 253-262. Mar. 2005.
[56]  Qin, G.Z., Tian, S.P., Xu, Y., Wan, Y.L, “Enhancement of biocontrol efficacy of antagonistic yeasts by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruit,” Physiological & Molecular Plant Pathology, 62(3): 147-154. Mar. 2003.
[57]  Shadle, G.L., Wesley, S.V., Korth, K.L., Chen, F., Lamb, C., Dixon, R.A, “Phenyl- propanoid compounds and disease resistance in transgenic tobacco with altered expression of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase,” Phytochemistry, 64(1): 153-161. Sep. 2003.
[58]  Ippolito, A., El Ghaouth, A., Wilson, C.L., Wisniewski, M, “Control of postharvest decay of apple fruit by Aureobasidium pullulans and induction of defense responses,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 19(3): 265-272. Jul. 2000.
[59]  Zeng, K.F., Cao, J.K., Jiang, W.B, “Enhancing disease resistance in harvested mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Matisu’) fruit by salicylic acid,” Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture, 86(5): 694-698. Mar. 2006.
[60]  Cao, S., Zheng, Y., Yang, Z., Tang, S., Jin, P., Wang, K., Wang, X, “Effect of methyl jasmonate on the inhibition of Colletotrichum acutatum infection in loquat fruit and the possible mechanisms,” Postharvest Biology & Technology, 49(2):301-307. Aug. 2008.